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The Science of Psychology


The Science of Psychology ... Analyze data Construct theory Retest Ethical Considerations With humans APA Guidelines ... forming theories, testing predictions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Science of Psychology

The Science of Psychology
  • Unit 1
  • Lesson 4

  • Students will define psychology.
  • Students will identify the goals of psychology.
  • Students will explain why psychology is
    considered a science.
  • Students will analyze the scientific method.

Warm Up
  • Which school of psych is the best descriptor of
    human behavior? Why?

  • Psychoanalysis?
  • Freud
  • Unconscious
  • Behavioral?
  • Watson
  • Consequences Connections, Observations
  • Cognitive?
  • Piaget
  • Input Process - Output
  • Humanistic?
  • Maslow Rogers
  • Hierarchy of Needs, Free Will
  • Neurobiological?
  • Genes, hormones, chemicals
  • Medication
  • Sociocultural?
  • Influences of group society
  • Cultural expectations
  • Evolutionary?
  • Eclectic draw from multiple perspectives
  • Biopsychosocial-
  • Biological elements
  • Psychological elements
  • Social elements

  • Definition of psychology?
  • Scientific Study
  • Behavior
  • Mental Processes
  • Psyche soul
  • Logos study
  • Goals?
  • Describe
  • Explain
  • Predict
  • Control

Making Research Scientific
  • All research must be
  • Replicable
  • Falsifiable
  • Parsimonious
  • Apply Scientific Method
  • Identify specific problem or question
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Conduct a study (research)
  • Analyze data
  • Construct theory
  • Retest

Ethical Considerations
  • With humans
  • APA Guidelines
  • IRB
  • Informed consent
  • Safety
  • Confidentiality
  • Debriefing
  • When is deception ethical?

Ethical Considerations
  • With animals
  • APA Federal Guidelines
  • Clear benefit
  • Humane conditions
  • Least invasive procedures

Descriptive Research observe Record
  • Case Study in-depth info about one subject
  • Observation naturalistic/directed (lab)
  • Survey questionnaires interviews
  • Test standardized, reliable, valid

Correlational Research
  • Statistical relationship between 2 variables
  • Positive Correlation- When 2 variables increase
    or decrease together
  • Negative Correlation- When 1 variable increases
    as the other decreases
  • Correlational Coefficient between 1.0 and
    -1.0. Zero no relation.

  • Correlation is NOT causation!
  • Ex Scary movie nightmares

Experimental Research
  • Experimental Method
  • Seeks to establish a cause and effect
  • Handout

Experimental Research
  • Identify hypothesis If A, the IV is presented or
    changed, then B, the DV will occur or change.
  • Identify Population, Randomly Select Sample,
    Randomly Assign to Group
  • Manipulate the IV Placebo
  • Compare the results Measure the DV

Experimental Method Vocab
  • Subject Expectancy- subjects beliefs can
    influence his/her perception/behavior
  • Blinds- subjects are unaware of the treatment
  • Double-Blind Study- neither the subjects nor the
    experimenters know who has received the treatment

Activity 1 Apply Experimental Method
  • A psychologist studying memory wants to test the
    hypothesis that an herbal supplement aids memory.
    The research involves having 80 people complete
    a memory test. Half of these individuals first
    consumed the herbal supplement the other half
    consumed a placebo pill.
  • Independent Variable?
  • Herbal supplement
  • Dependent Variable?
  • Memory Retention
  • Control Group?
  • Took placebo
  • Experimental Group?
  • Took herbal supplement

Activity 1 Apply Experimental Method
  • An educational psychologist wants to explore
    whether a new math program, which uses textbooks
    with special colored pictures, will help high
    school students in learning geometry. Half of
    the students are randomly assigned to traditional
    textbooks, while the other half are assigned to
    the special textbooks. Scores on a standardized
    geometry test are measured at the end of the
  • Independent Variable?
  • New math book
  • Dependent Variable?
  • Performance on geometry test
  • Control Group?
  • Traditional book
  • Experimental Group?
  • New textbook

Activity 2
  • In your groups, select two of the situations and
    decide which method of research would be best
    used to achieve the goal/objective of the
    situation. Explain.
  • Also, decide which of the methods would be the
    least effective for each of your situations.

Methods of Research
  • You are interested in the honesty of people in
    America, especially with regards to stealing or
    taking objects which arent theirs. How could
    you determine how honest people are, including
    what of the population can be trusted at any
    given time?
  • Youre interested in finding out what effects the
    moderate use (3-5 xs per week) of marijuana has
    on high school students, including effects on
    academic performance, social relationships,
    motivation and accomplishments.
  • You wish to ascertain the effects of high Vitamin
    C on older (65) peoples health.
  • You are ready to develop a romantic relationship
    with someone and you want to find the best person
    to meet your needs. How would you go about this?
  • You think your partner is cheating on you and you
    want to find out if this is true and, if so, with
  • You want to find out who the smartest person is
    in the senior class.
  • Youve been hired to determine the effects of
    caffeine on the mental alertness of truck drivers
    for a large cross-country shipping firm.

  • Do you think it is ethical to use animals in
    psychological research? Why or why not?