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Principle of Infectious Diseases

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Title: Principle of Infectious Diseases


1
Principle of Infectious Diseases
  • By Xavia Hutchinson Bri Smith

2
Objective
  • Students will learn the infectious disease
    causing agents.
  • Students will know how to treat infectious
    diseases.
  • Students will learn Kochs postulates.

3
Starter Question
  • What type of infectious diseases do you know that
    animals can get?

4
Vocab
  • Anthrax a bacterial infection within the skin,
    intestines, and respiratory system.
  • Vector organism that transmits disease.
  • Prokaryotic cells without membrane bound
    organelles.
  • Anemia low in red blood cells.
  • Systemic affecting entire body.

5
Vocab cont.
  • Lyme Disease bacterial infection that is in
    humans and animals that can cause symptoms such
    as fatigue and joint pains.
  • Antimicrobial agent that hinders the growth or
    kills microorganism.
  • Bacteriostatic agent that slows the rate of
    growth in bacteria.
  • Antiseptic germicides that can be used on the
    skin of animals.
  • Disinfectants germicides that are too harsh to
    be used on skin but can be used on inanimate
    objects or surfaces.

6
Background info of Kochs postulates
  • Why was Kochs postulates made?
  • Anthrax outbreak in 2001 caused German physician
    Robert Koch to investigate why certain diseases
    were occurring.
  • What did Koch study?
  • Anthrax in cattle.

7
Foundation of Kochs Postulate
  • The infectious agent should be detectable in sick
    animals but not healthy animals.
  • It should be possible to isolate and culture the
    organism.
  • Organisms taken from the culture and introduced
    into a healthy animal should cause the same
    disease.
  • The same organism should be isolated from the
    second animal.

8
What did Kochs postulate do
  • Helped establish germ theory
  • Understanding infectious diseases

9
Causes of Infectious Diseases
  • Microorganisms (An organism of microscopic or
    submicroscopic size)
  • May be a single cell or multicellular organism
  • Microorganisms are very diverse
  • Microorganism live in all types of environments,
    all around the world

10
Disease Agents
  • Traditionally, infectious diseases are divided
    into four classes of agents
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Parasites

11
Bacteria
  • One celled prokaryotic organisms
  • They are affected by the environment
  • There is good bacteria and bad bacteria
    (pathogens)
  • Pathogens (signs of disease)
  • when a deadly bacteria invades a host it
    multiplies, during this incubation stage pathogen
    numbers increase rapidly.

12
Bacteria cont.
  • Endo/Exo toxins (These toxins help in the result
    of the signs of diseases.)
  • Exotoxins are proteins produced and released by
    secretion.
  • Endotoxins is the cell wall of the bacteria that
    is only released after the bacteria dies.
  • Prodomal phase
  • stage in disease when first signs of illness
    occurs, in this short period of time symptoms are
    physically present, then quickly progress into a
    more severe stage.
  • Classifying bacteria is an ongoing process
  • gram-positive gram-negative etc.

13
Bacterial Infections
  • Strangles
  • Commonly found in Horses
  • Bacteria (streptococcus equi)
  • Symptoms (anorexia, fever, nasal discharge)
  • Wooden tongue
  • Commonly found in Cow and Sheep
  • Bacteria (actinobacillus lignieresi)
  • Symptoms (inflammation of tongue or lymph nodes)
  • Kennel Cough
  • Commonly found in Canines
  • Bacteria (bordetella bronchiseptica)
  • Symptoms ( dry cough anorexia)

14
Viruses
  • A virus is an infective agent that typically
    consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein
    coat, and is able to multiply only within the
    living cells of a host.
  • Process of infection
  • Virus locates host cell and attaches itself to it
  • Viruses can be specific in the host/host cells it
    infects
  • Virus penetrates
  • Virus uses either DNA or RNA to multiply inside
    the host.

15
Viruses cont.
  • Virus then releases lysosomes that will destroy
    the host cells
  • The assembled viruses are then released out the
    host and wait for their next host.
  • Some viruses require a vector (an organism, such
    as a mosquito or tick, that carries
    disease-causing microorganisms) to transmit
    themselves from one host to another

16
Viral Infections
  • Equine Influenza
  • Commonly found in Horses
  • Virus (Equine influenza virus)
  • Symptoms (fever, cough, nasal discharge)
  • Shipping fever
  • Commonly found in Cows
  • Virus (IBR)
  • Symptoms (high fever, ocular discharge, severe
    pneumonia)
  • Feline Leukemia
  • Commonly found in Cats
  • Virus (retrovirus)
  • Symptoms (weight loss, anemia, tumors)

17
Fungi
  • Fungi are eukaryotic cells with cell walls
  • Fungi gain nutrients by absorbing nutrients from
    their surroundings
  • Fungi are spore producers (spores provide the
    ability to spread the organism to other areas)
  • Fungi can affect animals in several ways

18
Fungi cont.
  • Infects outer layer of the body (skin, hair/fur,
    nails/claws)
  • Infects the internal organs then spreads to other
    regions of the body (systemic)
  • Infects food sources (indirectly infecting
    animals)

19
Fungal Infections
  • Valley Fever
  • Commonly found in Cats Dogs
  • Fungus (coccidiodes immitis)
  • Symptoms (lumps abscesses)
  • Ringworm
  • Affects all species
  • Fungus (microsporum sp.)
  • Symptoms (hair loss, crusting, flaking)
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Commonly found in Cats Dogs
  • Fungus (histoplasma capsulatum)
  • Symptoms (respiratory infection, weight loss,
    diarrhea)

20
Parasites
  • Single celled organisms or Large arthropods
  • Parasites can be internal or external
  • Parasites use their host as a source of nutrients
    and protection
  • Parasites have complex life cycles allowing them
    to survive and infect others

21
Parasites cont.
  • Full life cycles require more than one host
  • Animal that carries the adult parasite is called
    the definitive host
  • Animal that carries immature stage of parasite,
    such as larvae, is called the intermediate host
  • External parasites are called arthropods
  • mites
  • ticks
  • fleas

22
Parasitic Infections
  • Hookworms
  • Commonly in Cats Dogs
  • Parasite (anclyostoma sp.)
  • Symptoms (diarrhea, anemia, anorexia)
  • Strongylosis
  • Commonly found in Horses
  • Parasite (strongylus sp.)
  • Symptoms (colic, diarrhea, weight loss)
  • Heart worm
  • Commonly found in Dogs
  • Parasite (dirofilaria immitis)
  • Symptoms (coughing, fluid in abdomen, cardiac
    failure)

23
Treatments
  • Many chemicals exist to hinder growth or kill
    these infectious disease agents
  • Antimicrobial Antibiotic
  • Antibiotics are capable of killing bacteria NOT
    viruses
  • Antimicrobials
  • Bacteriostatic (an antibiotic that only slows the
    rate of growth of bacteria)
  • Antiseptics (used on animals skin)
  • Disinfectants (used only on inanimate objects)

24
Clinical Practice
  • Culturing is a technique used to isolate and
    identify microorganism
  • Proper sampling and handling
  • Sample added to medium for growth
  • Incubation in proper temperatures
  • Specific time period
  • Antibiotic sensitivity tests performed
  • Analysis of results

25
Treatments
  • Anthelmintic is a process used to identify the
    animals who need to be treated for parasitic
    infections
  • Anthelmintic process
  • Animals are evaluated by the color of its mucous
    membrane
  • Color chart compares mucous membrane with the
    color conjunctiva of the eyes
  • Animals with the palest mucous membranes are then
    treated

26
Treatments Clinical Practice
  • Supportive Treatment (supplementing vital
    nutrients and care to lame animals)
  • Fluids given to animals lacking in water
  • Tubes connected to the stomach to pump food into
    the body
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