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Bio 211 Lecture 12

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Marieb s Human Anatomy and Physiology Ninth Edition Marieb w Hoehn Chapter 5 Integumentary System Lecture 12 * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bio 211 Lecture 12


1
Mariebs Human Anatomy and Physiology Marieb w
Hoehn
Chapter 5 Integumentary System Lecture 12
2
Suggested Study Method
1. Look at the items on your Study Guide that
pertain to the topic for the upcoming
lecture.   2.  Read the lecture material (see my
suggestions below) BEFORE coming to class. TAKE
NOTES from the material you are reading IN YOUR
OWN WORDS.  While youre reading, if you see
something that was in the Study Guide, highlight
it in your textbook.   3.  Take some notes in
class during lecture if you need to, and then as
soon as possible after class COMBINE your reading
notes for that topic with your class notes - AND
COMPLETE THE STUDY GUIDE FOR THAT
SECTION.     4.   Once youve geared up to start
studying for a test, try and CONDENSE your notes
a little more without sacrificing.  REMEMBER,
when studying for an exam, you are now using ONLY
your notes, not your textbook (unless you need
clarification about something).  Make sure youve
gone over your notes and memorized them AT LEAST
three times before the exam. 5.  Finally, get a
BLANK Study Guide, put your notes aside then
answer the questions on the study guide and
compare your answers to your notes.  If you cant
answer the questions correctly or address the
points on your Study Guide without looking at
your notes, youre not yet ready for the exam. 
Review/re-memorize those things you are still not
solid on.    A suggested method for reading your
text prior to coming to lecture is the
following a.       Skim the chapter section
HEADINGS first to get an overview of the chapter
contents b.       Look at all the figures in the
text and read the legends for the figures/tables
before you actually read.  Ask yourself what you
know about the figures as youre looking at
them. c.       Read over the Study Guide for the
material (that I give you for each exam) before
you read to focus your thoughts on the most
important 20 of what  you will have to
know. d.       Read the Chapter summary (yes,
BEFORE you read the Chapter) and while youre
reading through it keep asking yourself what you
already know and what you dont know, and focus
on the things that are mentioned in your Study
Guide. e.       Read the chapter material and,
using the Study Guide and the Expert Questions,
make notes on what youre reading.  Dont COPY
sentences in your textbook word-for-word, but put
a summary sentence for each paragraph you read IN
YOUR OWN WORDS.
3
Lecture Overview
  • Functions of the Integumentary System
  • Overview of the skin
  • The epidermis
  • The dermis
  • The hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
  • Accessory structures of the integumentary system
  • Injury and Repair
  • Aging and the integumentary system

4
Where are We in Our Organizational Scheme?
5
Some Questions
Skin is composed of an epithelial layer and a
connective tissue layer. Is skin a membrane?
Yes. The cutaneous membrane
What is a membrane?
Combination of ET and CT tissues combine to
protect/cover other tissues
Is there a difference between the skin
(integument) and the integumentary system?
Yes. Skin is the cutaneous membrane consisting
of an epithelium (epidermis) and a dermis (CT).
The integumentary system (IS) includes the skin,
hair, nails, and glands (accessory structures).
How does the structure of the the integument,
enable it to perform its functions of protection,
temperature regulation, etc.? That is
the subject of this lecture
6
Introduction to the Integumentary System
  • The integument constitutes 7 of our body weight
    and has a surface area of about 1.5 2.0 m2 (15
    20 ft2)
  • Functions of the integument
  • Protection (from mechanical/chemical/bacterial
    damage, UV radiation)
  • Temperature regulation (extreme heat, extreme
    cold) and Fluid conservation
  • Excretion
  • Vitamin D production
  • Sensation (touch, pressure)

7
Overview of the Integument
SKIN
Accessory Structures
Epidermis protection Dermis nourishment of
epidermis SubQ insulation
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
8
Layers of the Epidermis - Overview
9
Cells of the Epidermis
  • Epidermis of the skin is classified as a
    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  • Cells of the epidermis include
  • Keratinocytes (90)
  • Keratin a tough, fibrous intracellular protein
    (protection)
  • Lamellar granules (waterproofing, extracellular)
  • Melanocytes (8)
  • Produce melanin (protection from UV radiation)
  • Langerhans cells (1-2)
  • Migrate to skin from bone marrow
  • Participate in skins immune response (dendritic
    cells)
  • Merkel cells (lt 1)
  • Least numerous specialized epithelial cells
  • Function in sensation of touch

10
Thick and Thin Skin
Thin (0.07-0.12 mm) (epidermal thickness)
Thick (0.8-1.4 mm) (epidermal thickness)
Thick skin - palms of hands, soles of feet five
epidermal layers
Thin skin - everywhere else four epidermal
layers (no s. lucidum)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
11
Layers of the Epidermis
basale
Bare Skin Gets Lots of Cuts
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
12
Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum basale (Bottom) (germinativum) - lowest
layer - single layer of dividing cells that
continually replace more superficial epithelial
cells - contains Merkel cells (touch) and
melanocytes (pigment) - attached by
hemidesmosomes to underlying basal lamina -
epidermal ridges contours of skin follow ridges
fingerprints
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
13
Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum spinosum (spiny) - 8-10 layers of
rounded cells with large nuclei - held together
by desmosomes - cells continue to divide -
Langerhans (immune) cells found here

Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
14
Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum granulosum (granular) - 3-5 layers of
keratinocytes - most no longer divide - begin
making lots of keratin and keratohyalin (KH)
cells flatten and harden cell membranes
thicken KH promotes dehydration and
cross-linking of keratin fibers nuclei
begin to disintegrate and cells die

Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
15
Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum lucidum (clear) - ONLY in THICK SKIN
- flattened, densely packed, and filled with
keratin (eleidin) - separates the s. corneum
from the s. granulosum - Water resistant boundary
layer of keratinized skin
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
16
Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum corneum (horny) - 15-30 layers of dead
keratinized cells (dander) - exposed to outside
- tightly connected by desmosomes - remain for
about 2 weeks - water-resistant
interstitial fluids slowly permeate and evaporate
(insensible perspiration) damage to
epidermis greatly increases this water loss
fluid collection between cells creates blisters

Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
17
Whats hiding in your bed?
Mmmmdander GOOOOD!
Figure from Saladin, Anatomy Physiology,
McGraw Hill, 2007
Dermatophagoides, The House Dust Mite
18
Skin Color
  • Genetic Factors
  • varying amounts and type of melanin
  • varying size/number of melanin granules
  • albinos lack melanin (but not melanocytes!)
  • Physiological Factors
  • dilation of dermal blood vessels (erythema)
  • constriction of dermal blood vessels (less pink,
    pale pallor)
  • level of oxygenation of blood normal pink
    (fair-skinned) low bluish (cyanosis)
  • carotene -gt Vit A (yellow)
  • jaundice (yellow)
  • Environmental Factors
  • sunlight
  • UV light from sunlamps
  • X rays

19
Skin Color
From phototune.com/images/SkinTune1.jpg
From http//maggiesfarm.anotherdotcom.com/uploads
/benetton-children.jpg
20
Skin Color and Melanin
Dark-skinned
Fair-skinned
Melanocytes and melanin facts - tyrosine (aa) ?
melanin - UV radiation up-regulates production
of melanin - Caucasian vs. dark-skinned
number vs. activity layer of epidermis
Figure from Martini, Fundamentals of Anatomy
Physiology, Pearson Education, 2004
21
Other Epidermal Facts
  • Vitamin D3 (sunshine vitamin)
  • After UV irradiation epidermal cells in s.
    spinosum and s. basale convert a
    cholesterol-related steroid to Vit D3
    (cholecalciferol)
  • Vit D3 ? absorption of calcium and phosphorus
    by small intestine
  • Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
  • Produced in salivary glands and duodenum
  • Widespread effects on epithelia
  • ? cell division in s. basale and s. spinosum
  • ? production of keratin
  • ? epidermal development and repair
  • ? synthetic activity and secretion by epithelial
    glands

22
Dermis
Papillary layer (contains papillae) - areolar
connective tissue (CT) - capillaries and sensory
neurons - dermal papillae - fingerprints (with
epi. ridges) Reticular layer (contains fibers) -
dense, irregular CT - collagen fiber bundles
extend upward and downward - also contains
elastic fibers and cells of CT proper -
accessory organs of integumentary system (from
epi.) - cleavage or tension lines - flexure
lines
Figure adapted from Martini, Anatomy
Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001
23
Dermis
Circulation - cutaneous plexus (CP) - branches
of CP supply hair follicles, glands, other
structures - form papillary plexus Nerves -
control blood flow - regulate gland secretion -
monitor sensory reception - light touch
(Meissners) - deep touch/pressure (Pacinian or
lamellated corpuscles) - naked nerve endings to
epithelium (pain, temperature)
Figure adapted from Martini, Anatomy
Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001
24
Subcutaneous Layer
- Stabilization of dermis
Also called hypodermis. This is the superficial
fascia.
- INSULATION
- Areolar and adipose tissue
- Effect of hormones
- Reservoir of blood
25
Removal of Subcutaneous Fat - Liposuction
Figures from www.fda.gov/cdrh/liposuction/illustr
ation2.jpg and http//health.howstuffworks.com/lip
osuction1.htm
26
Hair (pilo-)
  • epidermal cells
  • tube-like depression
  • extends into dermis
  • hair root (in dermis)
  • hair shaft (outer 1/3)
  • hair papilla
  • dead epidermal cells

(from epidermis)
  • melanin
  • arrector pili muscle

Nerves in root hair plexus
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
A hair in the scalp grows for 2-5 years, about
0.33mm/day
27
Hair Follicles
Hair color
Types of hair 1. Lanugo long, blond, fine
(fetal, anorexia nervosa) 2. Vellus short,
blond (children, adult females) 3. Terminal
coarse, pigmented (adults)
Some hair color
Figure adapted from Martini, Anatomy
Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001
28
Lanugo
(Anorexic)
Hypertrichosis Lanuginosa Acquisita (Malignant
Down)
All Figures from Google (Images) Search Lanugo
29
Hairs Emerging from Follicles
Photo from Saladin, Anatomy Physiology, McGraw
Hill, 2007
30
Hair Color and Texture
Figure from Saladin, Anatomy Physiology,
McGraw Hill, 2007
31
Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
  • usually associated with hair follicles
  • holocrine glands
  • secrete sebum, a waxy, oily material
  • absent on palms and soles

Sebaceous follicles not associated with hair.
Discharge directly on to skin. On face, back,
chest, nipples and male sex organs.
  • inhibits growth of bacteria
  • lubricates and protects keratin of hair shaft,
    and conditions skin

32
Sweat Glands
Sweating (usu excessive) with visible wetness
diaphoresis
  • also called sudoriferous glands
  • apocrine (merocrine secr.) glands - associated
    with hair follicles - thick, odorous secretion
  • eccrine (merocrine secr.) glands - most
    numerous - palms, soles, forehead, neck,
    back - directly on to surface - watery
    secretion - for thermoregulation

Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
  • ceruminous glands

Specialized (apocrine secretion)
  • mammary glands

33
Nails
(Perionychium)
Figure from Saladin, Anatomy Physiology,
McGraw Hill, 2007
Know these terms be able to label a diagram of
the nail
Hyponychium
34
Nails Sagittal Section Through Finger
Figure from Anatomy Physiology Revealed,
McGraw Hill, 2007
35
Regulation of Body Temperature
Hyperthermia Abnormally high body
temperature May be caused by - environment
(heat, humidity) - illness (fever gt37.20C,
pyrexia) - anesthesia (malignant h.) Corrected
by loss of heat by radiation, convection,
conduction, evaporation Heat exhaustion
(prostration) - Fatigue - Dizziness -
Headache - Muscle cramps - Nausea - May
lead to heat stroke
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
36
Regulation of Body Temperature
Hypothermia Abnormally low body temperature (at
least 20C below normal body temp) May be caused
by - exposure to cold (primary) - illness
(secondary) - surgical induction
(clinical) Cardiac arrest is likely if
temperature falls below 28oC (82oF) Corrected by
mechanisms to retain body heat (see left)
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
37
Healing of Cuts
Figure From Marieb Hoehn, Human Anatomy
Physiology, 9th ed., Pearson
3. Epidermal cell migration and collagen
production
4. Shedding of scab covering of wound with
epithelium
1. Bleeding/clotting
2. Scab formation
Tissue repair can occur by either 1)
regeneration healing with tissue that was
originally present 2) fibrosis healing with
scar tissue
38
Burns
First degree burn - superficial
partial-thickness - sunburn, momentary contact
with hot object - injures only the epidermis -
healing is rapid (2-3 days), usually with no
scarring
Second degree burn - deep partial-thickness -
longer contact with hot objects, hot liquids,
flames - injures epidermis and part of dermis
- blisters may form as fluid accumulates -
degree of healing is dependent upon survival of
accessory structures, i.e., hair follicles,
sweat glands, and sebaceous glands source
of epithelial cells - healing occurs in 3-4
weeks - usually no scarring unless infection
present
39
Burns
  • Third degree burn - full-thickness - destroys
    epidermis, dermis, and accessory structures -
    immersion in hot liquids, prolonged exposure to
    hot objects, flames, corrosive chemicals -
    healing involves epithelial cells at margin of
    injury
  • - usually extensive scarring
  • - repair may involve
  • autograft
  • homograft
  • various skin substitutes

40
Types of Burns
Figure from Saladin, Anatomy Physiology,
McGraw Hill, 2007
41
Rule of Nines
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
42
Life Span Changes
  • Melanin production slows
  • Hair thins
  • Number of hair follicles decrease
  • Impaired nail growth
  • Sensory receptors decline
  • Inability to control body temperature
  • Less vitamin D production
  • Scaly skin as sebaceous glands secrete less oil
  • Age spots
  • Dermis becomes reduced
  • Loss of fat
  • Wrinkles
  • Sagging

43
Review
  • The Integumentary System has numerous functions
    that are related to its composition and structure
  • Protection
  • Temperature regulation (sweat, blood vessels)
  • Excretion
  • Vitamin D production
  • Sensation (touch, pressure)
  • The epidermis the outer, protective layer
  • S. basale, s. spinosum, s. granulosum, s. lucidum
    (thick skin only), s. corneum

44
Review
  • The dermis the lower, nutritive layer
  • Papillary dermis
  • Reticular dermis
  • Dermis contains accessory organs of skin
  • The hypodermis (subcutaneous) insulates
  • The superficial fascia
  • baby fat
  • reservoir of blood
  • NOT part of the skin

45
Review
  • Accessory structures of the integumentary system
  • Hair
  • Nails (parts of nails)
  • Sweat glands
  • Apocrine (merocrine)
  • Eccrine (merocrine)
  • Modified (mammary, ceruminous)
  • Sebaceous glands and sebaceous follicles
  • These structures are vital for skin repair since
    they act as a source of epithelial cells

46
Review
  • Skin color is due to many factors
  • Genetic (melanin)
  • Environmental (UV irradiation)
  • Physiologic
  • Dilation of dermal blood vessels erythema
  • Poor oxygenation of blood cyanosis
  • Constriction of dermal blood vessels pale skin
  • Carotene, jaundice (yellow skin)

47
Review
  • Temperature regulation is an important function
    of the integumentary system
  • Body can lose heat by
  • Radiation
  • Evaporation
  • Convection
  • Conduction
  • Hyperthermia (ABOVE normal core temperature)
  • Dilation of dermal blood vessels
  • Increased sweat gland secretion
  • Hypothermia (BELOW normal core temperature)
  • Constriction of dermal blood vessels
  • Decrease in sweat gland secretion

48
Review
  • Stem cells in the epithelium and dermis are
    crucial to repair after injury
  • Wound healing and regeneration
  • Burns
  • Numerous changes occur in the integumentary
    system with age (Ugh!)
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