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Life Span Development School Years: Psychosocial Dev.


Life Span Development School Years: Psychosocial Dev. Ch. 13 Adolescence: Psychosocial Dev. Ch. 16 Early Adulthood: Cognitive Dev. Ch. 18 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life Span Development School Years: Psychosocial Dev.

Life Span Development School Years
Psychosocial Dev. Ch. 13 Adolescence
Psychosocial Dev. Ch. 16 Early Adulthood
Cognitive Dev. Ch. 18
  • July 20, 2004
  • Class 12

The Peer Group
  • Peers become increasingly important
  • Developmentalists believe that getting along with
    peers is crucial during middle childhood
  • Being rejected is a precursor for other problems
  • Children depend on each other for companionship,
    advice, self-validation
  • Peer partners must learn to negotiate, share,
    compromise, and defend each other and themselves
  • Certain amount of aggression, counter-aggression,
    and reconciliation expected

The Peer Group
  • Developmentalists are troubled if children have
    no free time to spend with each other
  • Child may have to come straight home from school
  • Child may be in after-school programs due to
    parents work
  • Children prefer to choose their own activities
    with their own friends

Ingroup vs. Outgroup
  • Us vs. Them
  • Peer Group Subculture
  • Special vocabulary, rules of behavior, dress
  • Such group identifications can promote an ingroup
    bias (a favoring of ones own group over another)

  • Friendships become more important
  • Forum for self disclosure ? Mutual dependency
  • Become more choosy in picking friends
  • Best friends likely to be same in sex, age,
    ethnicity, and socioeconomic status
  • More intense, intimate, and demanding

  • Unpopular Children
  • neglected children
  • receive little attention, but not necessarily
    disliked by peers
  • aggressive-rejectedrejected by peers because of
    confrontational behavior
  • withdrawn-rejectedrejected by peers because they
    are timid and anxious
  • for rejected, situation can worsen over time

Bullies and Their Victims
  • Bullying is universal
  • Bullies are not necessarily rejected, and victims
    are not always odd in appearance or background,
    although they are always rejected

Types of Bullying
  • Bullyingrepeated, systematic effort to inflict
  • physical attack, taunting, teasing, name calling
  • Bullying once thought to be a normal part of
    childrens play with few long-term consequences

Types of Bullying
  • Bully-victimsbullies who are or have been
    victims of bullying also called provocative
    victims, they are minority of victims
  • can be aggressive-rejected children
  • Bullies and victims usually of same gender

  • Various reports and studies have established that
    approximately 15 of students are either bullied
    regularly or are initiators of bullying behavior
    (Olweus, 1993)
  • Direct bullying seems to increase through the
    elementary years, peak in the middle
    school/junior high school years, and decline
    during the high school years
  • However, while direct physical assault seems to
    decrease with age, verbal abuse appears to remain
  • School size, racial composition, and school
    setting (rural, suburban, or urban) do not seem
    to be distinguishing factors in predicting the
    occurrence of bullying
  • Boys engage in bullying behavior and are victims
    of bullies more frequently than girls (Batsche
    Knoff, 1994 Nolin, Davies, Chandler, 1995
    Olweus, 1993 Whitney Smith, 1993)

Types of Bullying
  • Boys vs. Girls
  • male bullies
  • above average in size
  • female bullies
  • above average in assertiveness
  • victims tend to be less assertive and physically
    weaker (boys) or shyer (girls)

  • Students who engage in bullying behaviors seem to
    have a need to feel powerful and in control
  • They appear to derive satisfaction from
    inflicting injury and suffering on others, seem
    to have little empathy for their victims, and
    often defend their actions by saying that their
    victims provoked them in some way
  • Studies indicate that bullies often come from
    homes where physical punishment is used, where
    the children are taught to strike back physically
    as a way to handle problems, and where parental
    involvement and warmth are frequently lacking
  • Students who regularly display bullying behaviors
    are generally defiant or oppositional toward
    adults, antisocial, and apt to break school rules
  • In contrast to prevailing myths, bullies appear
    to have little anxiety and to possess strong

  • Students who are victims of bullying are
    typically anxious, insecure, cautious, and suffer
    from low self-esteem, rarely defending themselves
    or retaliating when confronted by students who
    bully them
  • They may lack social skills and friends, and they
    are often socially isolated
  • Victims tend to be close to their parents and may
    have parents who can be described as
  • The major defining physical characteristic of
    victims is that they tend to be physically weaker
    than their peers--other physical characteristics
    such as weight, dress, or wearing eyeglasses do
    not appear to be significant factors that can be
    correlated with victimization (Batsche Knoff,
    1994 Olweus, 1993).

  • Olweus (1993)
  • Found a strong correlation appearing to exist
    between bullying other students during the school
    years and experiencing legal or criminal troubles
    as adults
  • 60 of those characterized as bullies in grades
    6-9 had at least one criminal conviction by age
  • Being bullied leads to depression and low
    self-esteem, problems that can carry into
  • Oliver, Hoover, Hazler (1994)
  • Chronic bullies seem to maintain their behaviors
    into adulthood, negatively influencing their
    ability to develop and maintain positive
  • Victims often fear school and consider school to
    be an unsafe and unhappy place
  • As many as 7 of America's eighth-graders stay
    home at least once a month because of bullies
  • The act of being bullied tends to increase some
    students' isolation because their peers do not
    want to lose status by associating with them or
    because they do not want to increase the risks of
    being bullied themselves

  • Oliver, Hoover, and Hazler (1994) surveyed
    students in the Midwest and found that a clear
    majority felt that victims were at least
    partially responsible for bringing the bullying
    on themselves
  • Students surveyed tended to agree that bullying
    toughened a weak person, and some felt that
    bullying "taught" victims appropriate behavior
  • Charach, Pepler, and Ziegler (1995) found that
    students considered victims to be "weak,"
    "nerds," and "afraid to fight back."
  • However, 43 of the students in this study said
    that they try to help the victims, 33 said that
    they should help but do not, and only 24 said
    that bullying was none of their business
  • Parents are often unaware of the bullying problem
    and talk about it with their children only to a
    limited extent (Olweus, 1993)
  • Student surveys reveal that a low percentage of
    students seem to believe that adults will help
  • Students feel that adult intervention is
    infrequent and ineffective, and that telling
    adults will only bring more harassment from
  • Students report that teachers seldom or never
    talk to their classes about bullying (Charach,
    Pepler, Ziegler, 1995).
  • School personnel may view bullying as a harmless
    right of passage that is best ignored unless
    verbal and psychological intimidation crosses the
    line into physical assault or theft

  • Effective interventions must involve the entire
    school community rather than focus on the
    perpetrators and victims alone
  • There appears the need to develop whole-school
    bullying policies, implement curricular measures,
    improve the schoolground environment, and empower
    students through conflict resolution, peer
    counseling, and assertiveness training
  • See handout East Providence, RI school policy

  • Bullying is a serious problem that can
    dramatically affect the ability of students to
    progress academically and socially
  • A comprehensive intervention plan that involves
    all students, parents, and school staff is
    required to ensure that all students can learn in
    a safe and fear-free environment

Adolescence Chapter 16
  • The Self and Identity
  • Consistent definition of ones self as a unique
    individual in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs.
    and aspirations
  • Who am I?

Multiple Selves
  • Possible selvesvarious ideas of who one might be
    or become, each of which is typically acted out
    and considered as a possible identity
  • False selfset of behaviors that is adopted by a
    person to combat rejection, please others, or try
    out as a possible self

Three Types of False Selves
  • Acceptable false self
  • Adopted to be accepted arises from feelings of
    worthlessness, depression low self-understanding
  • Pleasing false self
  • Arises from wish to impress or please others
    medium self-understanding
  • Experimental false self
  • Adolescent tries out a self to see how it feels
    high self-understanding

Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Adolescents come to see themselves as unique and
    integrated persons with an ideology
  • Or they become confused about what they want out
    of life

Identity Status
  • Identity Foreclosure
  • adopts values and goals of parents and culture
    without questioning
  • closes out process before it begins
  • Identity Diffusion
  • has few commitments to goals or values, and
    apathetic about taking on any role
  • Identity Moratorium
  • experiments with alternative identities in order
    to try them out not ready to make commitment to
    particular future goal

Status Versus Process
  • Developmentalists asked a series of questions to
    measure identity status
  • can a person achieve identity in one domain but
    still be searching in another domain?
  • answer yes
  • is identity formed from within or from without?
  • answer both

Gender Identity
  • Identification of self as either male or female
    with acceptance of all roles and behaviors that
    society assigns to that sex
  • adolescents make a multitude of decisions about
    sexual behavior and select from many gender roles

Ethnic Identity
  • Gender identity is often connected to ethnic
  • Ethnic Identity
  • often questioning of ethnic identity and dominant
    American identity
  • As teens grow older, the need to be proud of
    general heritage grows greater

Sadness and Anger
  • Adolescents can feel despondent and depressed,
    overwhelmed by the world and their own
    inadequacies, as well as on top of the world,
    destined for great accomplishment

Sadness and Anger
  • Emotional problems are categorized in two ways
  • internalizing problems problems are manifested
    inward to inflict harm on self
  • externalizing problems problems are acted out
    by injuring others, destroying property, or
    defying authority

The Usual Dip
  • General trend in mood is more downward than
  • In U.S., both boys and girls feel less and less
    confident in math, language arts, and sports
  • self-esteem drops at around age 12
  • adolescents without support from family, friends,
    or school more vulnerable to self-esteem dip
  • loss of self-esteem may push toward depression

  • Rate of clinical depression more than doubles in
    puberty (15)
  • Gender difference
  • teenage girls (20)
  • teenage boys (10)
  • hormonal changes may explain this, coupled with
    psychic stress of school, friends, sexual drives,
    and identity crises

Adolescent Suicide
  • Suicidal Ideation
  • thinking about suicide is common among adolescents

Adolescent Suicide
  • Five reasons for erroneous belief that suicide is
    an adolescent problem
  • rate is triple the rate of 40 years ago
  • adolescents lumped together with young adults as
    one statistical category
  • adolescent suicide is shocking and grabs
  • social prejudice considers teenagers as problems
  • suicide attempts are more common in adolescence

  • The deliberate act of self-destruction that does
    not end in death
  • Parasuicide and suicide depend on five factors
  • availability of lethal means, especially guns
  • lack of parental supervision
  • alcohol and other drugs
  • gender
  • cultural attitudes

Adolescent Rebellion
  • Many psychologists believe that rebellion for
    adolescent boys may be normal

Breaking the Law
  • Breaking the law is the most dramatic example of
  • Worldwide, arrests rise rapidly at about age 12
    and peak at about age 16
  • 44 of all U.S. arrests for serious crimes
    involve persons aged 10 to 20

Breaking the Law
  • Adolescent males are 3 times more likely to be
    arrested than females
  • African-Americans are 3 times more likely to be
    arrested than are European-Americans, who are 3
    times more likely as Asian-Americans to be

Romantic Attraction
  • Sequence of Heterosexual Attraction
  • friendships of one sex or the other
  • loose association of girls group and boys group
  • smaller mixed-sex group formed from larger group
  • true intimacy peeling off from group into
    couples, with private intimacies

Homosexual Youth
  • Complications of this life style usually slow
    down romantic attachments
  • many reluctant to admit homosexuality
  • may mask feelings
  • depression and suicide higher for these youth

  • No other period is full of such multifactoral and
    compelling biological changes
  • Fascinating and confusing social and intellectual
  • Most adolescents and their families survive
    fairly well

Ch. 18 Early Adulthood
  • Postformal Thought
  • Adult thinking and adolescent thinking differ in
    3 ways, with adult thinking more
  • practical
  • flexible
  • dialectical

A Fifth Stage of Cognitive Development?
  • Postformal thought often viewed as fifth stage of
    Piagets theory
  • In it, adults consider every aspect of a
  • use intellectual skills for real lifework and
  • understand that conclusions and consequences

The Practical and the Personal
  • During adulthood focus on skill application, not
    skill acquisition

Subjectivity and Objectivity
  • Arise from individuals personal experiences and
  • Traditional models devalued subjective thought
  • Objective thoughtabstract impersonal logic
  • For adults combination of the two works best

Emotions and Logic
  • Trying to combine both logic and emotions in
    dealing with an emotional issue is challenging
  • but at each stage of adulthood, adults can
    achieve this balance in contrast to adolescents
    who believe in subjective or objective reasoning

Cognitive Flexibility
  • Awareness that your perspective is not the only
  • Awareness that each problem has many potential
    solutions and knowledge is dynamic

Flexible Problem Solving
  • Adult thought requires flexible adaptation, which
    allows adults to
  • cope with unanticipated events
  • come up with more than one solution to problem

Stereotype Threat
  • The possibility that ones appearance or behavior
    will be misused to confirm another persons
    oversimplified, prejudiced attitude. For example,
  • 3 ways young minority people cope with prejudice
  • identification, or identifying with their own
  • disidentification, or deliberately refusing to
    identify with their own group
  • counteridentification, or identifying with
    majority and believing stereotype to be accurate

Stereotypes and Prejudices
  • Stereotypes
  • The generalized perceptions, beliefs, and
    expectations a person has about members in some
  • Schemas about entire groups of people
  • Effects of stereotypes on behavior can be
    automatic and unconscious
  • Prejudice
  • A negative attitude toward an individual based
    solely on the persons membership is some group
  • In one wordprejudgment

Its getting better, but
  • Attitudes towards both women and people of color
    have improved since the 1940s
  • Most people agree that women and men doing the
    same job should get equal pay
  • Most agree that white and black children should
    attend the same school
  • Will we have a women President in the near

Can race can influence how a given behavior is
  • Bottom-up processing
  • Perceptions influenced by the visual field itself
  • Can be referred to as true object perceptions
    making sense from our sensations
  • Top-down processing
  • These perceptions are influenced by what the
    person expects or has experienced before
  • Our experiences memories, and expectations are
    what's important here
  • Can lead to biases and misperceptions
  • Duncan (1976)
  • See next slide

The ambiguous shove
  • Duncan (1976)
  • White undergraduates viewed two nearly identical
  • Participants were divided and placed randomly in
    on of two groups
  • Group 1
  • A black person is seen shoving a white person
  • Group 2
  • A white person is seen shoving a black person

Duncan (1976)
  • What do you predict as the results ?
  • Why?

Other examples (flaws) of top-down processing
  • Allport (1954)
  • Found evidence for the stereotype that fat
    people are jolly
  • Dion et al. (1972)
  • Attractive people are perceived as being more
    honest than unattractive people
  • Karr (1978)
  • Found that participants felt that homosexuals
    were shallow, yielding, tense

Scapegoat Theory
  • Scapegoating begins with frustration which, in
    turn, causes aggression
  • This aggression is then displaced and
    rationalized by blaming a minority group
  • Obviously, not all people who become frustrated
    are prejudice, but research has shown that those
    who are high in prejudice are more likely to
    become frustrated than those low in prejudice
  • Apparently, since prejudice people cannot deal
    with their inner frustrations, they stereotype,
    blame, and attack less powerful groups

If there were no Jews, we would have to invent
  • A Nazi leader was quoted as saying the above
  • Cialdini Richardson (1980)
  • Despised outgroups can boost an ingroups
  • Students experiencing failure or made to feel
    insecure will often restore their self-esteem by
    disparaging a rival school or another person

Motivational Theories of Prejudice and
  • Prejudice serves to meet certain needs and
    increases ones sense of security
  • Prejudice especially more likely among those high
    in authoritarianism who have
  • An acceptance of very conventional or traditional
  • A willingness to unquestioningly follow orders of
    authority figures
  • An inclination to act aggressively towards those
    identified by authority figure as a threat to
    ones values or well-being

Cognitive Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping
  • People use schemas and other cognitive shortcuts
    to organize and make sense of their social world
  • Sometimes these processes lead to inaccurate
  • For example
  • We tend to simplify our perceptions by seeing
    group members as similar to one another
  • We also see illusory correlations between an
    individuals behavior and group membership

Learning Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping
  • Like attitudes, prejudices can be learned
  • Explains how one can develop negative attitudes
    towards never encountered groups
  • Prejudice can be the result of observational
  • One can be directly reinforced for expressing

  • The classification of persons into groups on the
    basis of common attributes
  • Can bias our perceptions
  • Stone (1997)
  • Radio broadcast
  • Shown a photograph of the player to be analyzed
  • Participants rated the player better if they
    thought he was black

The biggest thing I don't like about New York
are the foreigners
Realistic group conflict theory
  • Competition for valuable but limited resources
    breeds hostility
  • Loser becomes frustrated
  • Winner becomes threatened
  • Result Much conflict
  • Example Women and immigrants joining the
  • When conflict arises there is a higher tendency
    to rely on stereotypestheyre all the same

Perceived Outgroup Homogeneity
  • Phenomenon of overestimating the extent to which
    members within other groups are similar to each
  • Example They all look the same to me
  • Example All men are sports fans

Need For Structure
  • Some people like their lives to be simple and
  • Can this attitude lead to stereotyping?

Reducing Prejudice
  • Contact Hypothesis
  • Stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will
    diminish as contact with the group increases
  • Getting to know and hopefully to understand a
  • Get two groups to work towards a common goal
  • Cooperation helps competition hurts

Go to college
  • The relationship between college education and
    adult development
  • healthier, wealthier, as well as deeper, more
    flexible thinkers
  • Education powerfully influences cognitive
  • improves verbal and quantitative skills, and
    specific subject knowledge while enhancing
    reasoning, reflection, and flexibility of thought

Change in the Students
  • The sheer numbers have increased greatly,
  • In all nations, increased student diversity
  • more women students
  • more older students
  • more culturally diverse students in United States
  • more low-income students
  • more working students

Changes in the Institutions
  • Structure of higher education changing with
    student population changes
  • Almost twice as many U.S. institutions of higher
    learning today than in 1970
  • community college enrollment up 144 percent
  • more career programs
  • more part-time faculty
  • more women and minority instructors