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Title: Poetry%203:%20%20Society%20


1
Poetry 3 Society Mortality
  • Metaphor, Imagery Symbolism
  • Rhyme Rhythm
  • Analysis Comparison

2
Outline
  • Review, General Questions Discussion Question
  • Blake, William The Sick Rose (p. 818)
  • Hughes, Langston Harlem (p. 1019) Dickinson,
    Emily Because I could not stop for Death--- (p.
    807)
  • Thomas, Dylan Do Not Go Gentle into That
    Goodnight (p. 878) 
  • Auden Stop all the clocks, cut off the
    telephone (p. 775)
  • About Poetry 4

3
So far so good?
  • Poetry I Identity and Daily Life
  • Q I How is identity constructed, and daily
    (family) life presented?

4
Poetry I Identity, Lyric Tone Q.1-2 With what
tone, sound and images?
5
Poetry II Nature and Love Q 2 How is
nature/love presented, and for what purposes?
6
Poetry II Diction Figurative Language  Q 2-2.
With what poetic language?
7
You Be the Critics
  • 1) G3 Hughes, Langston Harlem 2) G5/G7
    Dickinson, Emily Because I could not stop for
    Death---
  • 3) G4/G2 Thomas, Dylan Do Not Go Gentle into
    That Goodnight  
  • 4) G9 Auden Stop all the clocks, cut off the
    telephone
  • 5) G 8/G10 How is death viewed differently by
    Dickinson and Thomas? And why?
  • 6) G 6/G12 Unit 1 Question
  • 7) G 1/G11 Unit 2 Question
  • To Analyze and Compare

8
Poetry and its Contexts
  • Human (Universal) Context with themes of life
    and death, love and family relations
  • Social and Historic Contexts
  • Artistic Contexts --

Next time
9
General Questions
  • Society How does poetry offer its social
    criticism?
  • How do you divide life into different stages?
    Are we always losing or gaining?
  • Death What do you think/feel about death? What
    do you think you will feel when you die? Why do
    poets write about death?

10
The Sick Rose
Image source
Its symbolic meanings? Conveyed through line
and sound arrangement?
11
The Sick Rose symbolic meanings
  • O Rose thou art sick.
  • The invisible worm,
  • That flies in the night
  • In the howling storm
  • Has found out thy bed
  • Of crimson joy
  • And his dark secret love
  • Does thy life destroy.

Rose as a symbol not of love, but of violated
beauty Worm in the howling storm from Nature,
or a sinister lover? Bed of crimson joy
welcoming? Love destructive
12
The Sick Rose sound sense
Iambic (?/) -- suggest Trochaic (/ ?) --
double Dactylic (/ ??) -- credible Anapaestic
(??/) at recess spondee, spondaic
  • O Rose thou art sick.
  • The invisible worm,
  • That flies in the night
  • In the howling storm
  • Has found out thy bed
  • Of crimson joy
  • And his dark secret love
  • Does thy life destroy.

O Rose thou art sick. The invisible worm, That
flies in the night In the howling storm Has
found out thy bed Of crimson joy And his dark
secret love Does thy life destroy.
13
Harlem
Image and info. source
14
Langston Hughes Harlem
  • What words and images promote the theme
    frustration with self-fulfillment in this poem?
  • How do the sound patterns and format contribute
    to the dream state of this poem?
  • American Dream This poem is about the speaker's
    individual dream and about the American dream.
    What is the American Dream? What is the dream
    that is deferred? (note Harlem)
  • Why do you think the poem consists mostly of
    questions? What is the effect of the many
    questions?

15
"Harlem" 1951
  • What happens to a dream deferred?
  • Does it dry up
  • like a raisin in the sun?
  • Or fester like a sore
  • And then run?
  • Does it stink like rotten meat?
  • Or crust and sugar over
  • like a syrupy sweet?
  • Maybe it just sags
  • like a heavy load.
  • Or does it explode?

(video clip a lecture)
Image source
16
Harlem Renaissance
  • During the 1920s-1930s, the flourishing of
    African-American literature, art, music, dance,
    and social commentary. Langston Hughes was part
    of this movement. (video clip)
  • http//www.nku.edu/diesmanj/harlem_intro.html
  • http//www.fatherryan.org/harlemrenaissance/

17
"Harlem" 1951
  • American Dream Afro-Americans did not go to the
    U.S. with an American dream, as did some other
    immigrants. However, especially since Harlem
    Renaissance, they do have their dreams for
    equality (educational, economic and social
    equality) if not of success. The dream, however,
    has been deferred, at the time when Hughes wrote
    the poem, and probably even till now.
  • (For your reference) Moments of hope
    Emancipation and Reconstruction, the Great
    Migration, integration and voter registration (?
    ghettos and New Orleans), Black Studies (?
    reduced) and Equal Opportunity (Affirmative
    Action? backlash).
  • Rhetoric questions call for a yes response
  • development of the similes
  • 1) inedible food (grape meat) vs. the
    apparently edible (work) vs. physical wound
    mental/physical burden.
  • 2) the round from food, to candy, balloon, to
    bomb.

18
Emily Dickinson
Because I Could not Stop for Death
19
Because I could not stop for Death
Personified as a gentleman
  • Because I could not stop for Death--
  • He kindly stopped for me--
  • The carriage held but just ourselves--
  • And Immortality.
  • We slowly drove--he knew no haste,
  • And I had put away
  • My labor, and my leisure too,
  • For His Civility
  • We passed the school, where children strove  
  • At Recess--in the Ring--
  • We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain--
  • We passed the Setting Sun--
  •  
  • Symbolic of
  • Learning
  • Harvesting
  • 3. aging

20
Because I could not stop for Death
personified
  • Or rather--he passed Us--
  • The Dews grew quivering and chill--
  • For only Gossamer my Gown--
  • My Tippet--only Tulle (??)--
  •  
  • We paused before a House that seemed
  • A Swelling of the Ground--
  • The Roof was scarcely visible
  • The Cornice(??)--in the Ground--
  •  
  • Since then-- 'tis Centuries--and yet each
  • Feels shorter than the day
  • I first surmised the Horses' Heads
  • Were toward Eternity--

Extended metaphor
Extended metaphor life after death as a journey
gossamer very light, thin cloth ? tulle a
thin, fine netting used for veils, scarfs,??
tippet covering for the shoulders ??
21
Discussion Questions
  • 1. Death How is the personified Death
    characterized? Why is he associated with
    gentle and Civility? Is this the way we
    envision death?
  • 2. I How does the speaker look at this trip to
    death? Is she willing to go on this trip? Is
    she ready? What does she look at? Are these
    elements you find easy to say good-bye to?
  • 3. The Objects in Life What tone does the
    speaker use to describe this journey? Is there
    any change in her tone? Is the poem read very
    slowly or swiftly? Softly or with force and
    energy? Is there irony in the contrast between
    her passivity and inactivity in the coach and the
    energetic activities of human lives and nature?
  • 4. Destination A House? Meaning? Eternity?

22
Scanning Because I could not stop for Death
  • Because I could not stop for Death--
  • He kindly stopped for me--
  • The carriage held but just ourselves--
  • And Immortality.
  • We slowly drove--he knew no haste,
  • And I had put away
  • My labor, and my leisure too,
  • For His Civility
  • We passed the school, where children strove  
  • At Recess--in the Ring--
  • We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain--
  • We passed the Setting Sun--
  •  

Tetrameter Trimeter The others pentameter,
bimeter
Iambic (?/) -- suggest Trochaic (/ ?) --
double Dactylic (/ ??) -- credible Anapaestic
(??/) at recess
23
Because I could not stop for Death
  • Or rather--he passed Us--
  • The Dews grew quivering and chill--
  • For only Gossamer my Gown--
  • My Tippet--only Tulle (??)--
  •  
  • We paused before a House that seemed
  • A Swelling of the Ground--
  • The Roof was scarcely visible--
  • The Cornice--in the Ground--
  •  
  • Since then-- 'tis Centuries--and yet each
  • Feels shorter than the day
  • I first surmised the Horses' Heads
  • Were toward Eternity--

24
More Questions for you
  • Where do you find the rhythm irregular? Why so?
  • There are two switches in the speakers ideas
  • 1) from passing different objects in life to
    being passed over by the Sun,
  • 2) from her use of the past tense, to the present
    tense (Since then 'tis centuries, and yet
    each/Feels shorter than the day). What do these
    two switches suggest about the journey to/of
    death?
  • There are different versions to this poem. In
    another version, all the dashes (--) are replaced
    by either comma or period. Which version do you
    prefer? What could the dashes mean?

25
Because I could not stop for Death
  • Reluctance about death Death (or what comes
    after death) is hard to know.
  • Main Ideas
  • The speaker is missing the life she has to leave
    behind
  • The world after death is cold, lonely and
    boring.
  • She realizes what eternity is only centuries
    later, but this eternity (the life behind time)
    seems quite bland and uneventful.
  • Sound and Sense
  • The regularity of the poem suggests her apparent
    readiness to go with death, while the pauses
    reflect her uncertainty and hesitation about the
    ideas she is to present.

26

Do not go gentle into that good night
  • Dylan Thomas

27
Do not go gentle into that good night
  • Do not go gentle into that good night,
  • Old age should burn and rave at close of day
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
  • Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
  • Because their words had forked no lightning they
  • Do not go gentle into that good night.
  • Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
  • Their frail deeds might have danced in a green
    bay,
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

sleep/restful death metaphor
Accepting death
Creates no impact
regret
28
Do not go gentle into that good night (2)
Rush thru life wildly
  • Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
  • And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
  • Do not go gentle into that good night.
  • Grave men, near death, who see with blinding
    sight
  • Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
  • And you, my father, there on the sad height,
  • Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I
    pray.
  • Do not go gentle into that good night.
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

29
Do not go gentle into that good night Questions
  • Speaker, Tone and Main Idea -- Who is the
    speaker speaking to? What is his main message?
    How would you describe his tone? -- How does the
    speaker try to explain that there is a need to
    "burn and rave" at old age? What does he say that
    wise men, good men, wild men and grave men do?
  • 2. Language and Metaphor -- If we further
    examine the examples the speaker give, we will
    find that the four kinds of men stay active and
    passionate at their old age for different
    reasons what are they?
  • 3. Pattern and Overall Meaning
  • -- How is the speakers idea developed?
    What is view of life presented?
  • -- Do you find the poem passionate or hiding
    a great sense of futility?

30
Response Patterns

wise men know dark is right Because their words had forked no lightning
good men crying how bright /Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay
wild men learn too late, they grieved itthe sun on its way caught and sang the sun in flight
grave men see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay
31
Wise Men, Good Men, Wild Man and Grave Man
  • Stanzas 2 and 3 deal with men who have failed to
    achieve the ends they "have aimed at.
  • -- "Because their words had forked no lightning"
    (5)
  • -- because their "frail deeds" never "danced"
    (8).
  • Stanzas 4 and 5 deal with men who have achieved
    their aims, but either regret their success or is
    losing it.
  • -- "Wild men," in their hedonist actions, regret
    "they grieved it on its way" (10-11).
  • --"Grave men," who may have spent their lives in
    the gloomy contemplation of life's sorrows, see
    the possibility of gaiety (blaze like meteors
    and be gay) with blinding sight (about to lose
    it).

32
Father and Son use of oxymoron
  • And you, my father, there on the sad height,
  • Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I
    pray.
  • Do not go gentle into that good night. ? power
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light. ?
    futility

33
Dylan Thomas
  • Born in Wales. Wrote several poems on his
    birthdays which are to do with death. E.g. THE
    FORCE THAT THROUGH THE GREEN FUSE DRIVES THE
    FLOWER
  • Thomas under strong influence of his father.
  • "the only person I can't show the little enclosed
    poem to is, of course, my father, who doesn't
    know he's dying" (Letters 359)

34
Dylan Thomass Father
  • David John, known as D. J. According to
    biographer Paul Ferris, D.J. was
  • "an unhappy man... a man with regrets" (27) born
    with brains and literary talent, his ambition was
    to be a man of letters, but he was never able to
    advance beyond being "a sardonic provincial
    schoolmaster" in South Wales, feared for his
    sharp tongue (26-33).
  • After his first serious illness, though--cancer
    in 1933--"A mellowing is said to have been
    noticeable soon after his sarcasm was not so
    sharp he was a changed man" (104). As he grew
    more chronically ill in the 40's, mostly from
    heart disease and with one of the complications
    being trouble with his sight, the mellowing
    intensified As Ferris puts it, "It must have
    been D. J.'s backbone of angry dignity that his
    son grieved to see breaking long after, when he
    wrote 'Do not go gentle into that good night'"
    (27), and the poem is "an exhortation to his
    father, a plea for him to die with anger, not
    humility" (259).
  • (MARC D. CYR, DYLAN THOMAS'S "DO NOT GO GENTLE
    INTO THAT GOOD NIGHT" THROUGH "LAPIS LAZULI" TO
    KING LEAR )

35
Literary Techniques (4) Poetic FormVillanelle
A chiefly French verse form running on two rhymes
and consisting typically of five tercets and a
quatrain in which the first and third lines of
the opening tercet recur alternately at the end
of the other tercets and together as the last two
lines of the quatrain. line 1 6, 12, 18 line
3 line 9, 15, 19. ??????????(??????(tercet)???
???(quatrain)????????????????????????????????????
???????)? two rhyming sounds aba aba aba aba
aba abaa.

36
Literary Techniques (4) Poetic FormVillanelle
The beauty of villanelle ". . . the form of
villanelle has remarkable unity of structure. 
The echoing and reechoing of the refrains give
the villanelle a plaintive, delicate beauty that
some poets find irresistible." Difficulties of
villanelle "Since it has only two rhymed
endings, the poem can easily become monotonous. 
The risks of monotony is increased by the
incessant appearance of the refrains that
constitute eight of the poems' nineteen lines --
nearly half of the poem.  This skilled author of
the villanelle, thus, is careful to achieve the
maximum tonal range and to fit the refrains lines
as naturally as possible into the logic of the
poem" (The Heath Guide to Literature 637)  How do
the two poems we read use the form of villanelle
to enrich their meanings and avoid monotony?

37
Sound Sense -- Do not go gentle into that good
night
spondee
  • Do not go gentle into that good night,
  • Old age should burn and rave at close of day
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
  • Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
  • Because their words had forked no lightning they
  • Do not go gentle into that good night.
  • Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
  • Their frail deeds might have danced in a green
    bay,
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

command
action
38
Scanning -- Do not go gentle into that good
night (2)
  • Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
  • And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
  • Do not go gentle into that good night.
  • Grave men, near death, who see with blinding
    sight
  • Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
  • And you, my father, there on the sad height,
  • Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I
    pray.
  • Do not go gentle into that good night.
  • Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

39
Questions for you
  • What would you say to an aging elderly (relative
    or parent) if they are fading into the sunset?
  • Would you be able to categorize yourself as a
    wise man, good man, wild man and grave man? Or
    which would you aspire to be?
  • After reading two poems about death, which
    attitude would you possibly take if you were to
    face death? Or with the awareness of its
    inevitability, would you cherish life more and in
    what ways?

40
Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone
Image source
41
Questions for Discussion
  • To whom or what do you imagine the speaker of
    this poem is speaking? What's the significance
    or effect of the poet's use of the language of
    command or entreaty (Do this do that.)?
  • What's the significance or effect of the way the
    poet mixes references to telephones, airplanes,
    and traffic policemen with references to stars,
    the moon, and the ocean? Of the way the poet
    moves from more concrete images from everyday
    life to more abstract and traditionally poetic
    ones?
  • What's the significance or effect of the regular
    rhyme scheme?

Norton
42
Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone
W. H. Auden
  • Stop all the clocks, cut off the
    telephone, Prevent the dog from barking with a
    juicy bone, Silence the pianos and with muffled
    drum Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come.
    Let aeroplanes circle moaning
    overhead Scribbling on the sky the message He Is
    Dead, Put crepe bows round the white necks of the
    public doves, Let the traffic policemen wear
    black cotton gloves.

Four Weddings and a Funeral - "Funeral Blues"
43
Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone
(contd)
  • He was my North, my South, my East and
    West, My working week and my Sunday rest, My
    noon, my midnight, my talk, my song I thought
    that love would last for ever I was wrong. The
    stars are not wanted now put out every one Pack
    up the moon and dismantle the sun Pour away the
    ocean and sweep up the wood. For nothing now can
    ever come to any good.

44
Moment of Sadness
  • One can be totally immersed in sadness, so that
    s/he commands all to stop and to mourn for
    his/her dead lover.
  • On the other hand, there are ways to put death in
    its context of life, and for us to survive this
    overwhelming moment of sadness.

45
Alanis Morissette Ironic
  • ironies of life and deathwon the lottery and
    died the next day a death row pardon two minutes
    too late Mr. Play It Safe
  • Twists and turns in life you think everything's
    okay and everything's going right/ (the other way
    around)
  • ? the unfortunate?
  • the unlucky a black fly in your Chardonnay rain
    on your wedding day A traffic jam when you're
    already late
  • the funny coincidence free ride already paid
  • Which do you think matters for you?
  • Lyrics
  • A comedians comment she just mourns over some
    unfortunate things.

46
Your Responses?
  1. A good laugh.
  2. The comedian gives a literal definition of
    irony, while Morissette describes the
    situations which one does not expect and can not
    helpsituational irony, or the irony of fate.

47
Literary Techniques (5) Irony
  • Irony involves a contradiction.  "In general,
    irony is the perception of a clash between
    appearance and reality, between seems and is, or
    between ought and is" (Harper Handbook).  
  • Verbal irony --"Saying something contrary to
    what it means"
  • "Oh, how lucky we are to have SO MANY online
    materials offered by the Introduction to
    Literature class!" you said.
  • Dramatic irony "saying or doing something while
    being unaware of its ironic contrast with the
    whole truth. 
  • Situational irony "events turning to the
    opposite of what is expected or what should be. 

48
Review Conclusion
Form Content
Free Verse
Villanelle Life and its constraints Do Not Go Gentle
One Sentence poem The Sick Rose
Death Do Not Go Gentle Because I could not Stop all the Clocks
Society The Sick Rose

49
Poetry 4 Arts and Modern Society
Creative Adaptations Example (1) Do Not Go
Gentle, (2) American Icons Because I Could Not
Stop for Death
  • Williams, William Carlos The Dance (p. 1106)
  • Auden W. H. Musee des Beaux Arts (p. 1075)
  • Stevens, Wallace Anecdote of the Jar (p. 1102)
  • Pound, Ezra.  In the Station of a Metro (p.
    1102)

50
W. H. Auden (19071973)
Norton
51
Musée des Beaux Arts
Norton
52
Recommended
  • Analysis
  • Literary Analysis Writing an Essay
  • English Matters  the SPIDER approach to poetry
    (Scenario/Surface-Purpose-Imagery (language
    picture)-Diction-Economy-Rhythm and Rhyme)
  • Lit. Analysis of Poetry - Because I Could Not
    Stop For Death by Dickinson
  • Creative Adaptations
  • (1) Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
  • (2) American Icons Because I Could Not Stop for
    Death
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