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Title: College%20Bound%20English:


1
College Bound English
  • Literary Terms and Devices
  • Selected from
  • A Handbook to Literature, 8th Edition
  • by William Harmon and C. Hugh Holman

2
1. acronym
  • A word formed by combining the initial letters or
    syllables of a series of words to for a name, as
    radar, from radio detecting and ranging.

3
1. acronym
4
2. act (as in drama)
  • A major division of DRAMA. In varying degrees
    the fine-act structure corresponded to the fine
    main divisions of dramatic action EXPOSITION,
    COMPLICATION, CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, and
    CATASTROPHE.

5
2. act (as in drama)
Mel Gibson as Hamlet
Kenneth Branagh
Derek Jacobi
6
3. adaptation
  • The rewriting of a work from its original form to
    fit it for another medium also the new form of
    such a rewritten work.

7
3. adaptation
8
4. aesthetics
  • The study or philosophy of the beautiful in
    nature, art and literature. It has both a
    philosophical dimensionWhat is art? What is
    beauty? What is the relationship of the beautiful
    to other values?

9
4. aesthetics(this is a painting by Chuck
Close, entitled Self-Portrait)
10
4. aesthetics
PicassosHouse-garden
11
5. agrarian
  • Literary people living in an agricultural
    society, or espousing the merits of such a
    society, as the Physiocrats did. In literary
    history and criticism, however, the term is
    usually applied to a group of Southern

12
5. agrarian
American writers who published in Nashville,
Tennessee, between 1922 and 1925 The Fugitive, a
LITTLE MAGAZINE of poetry and some criticism
championing agrarian REGIONALISM but attacking
the old high-castle Brahmins of the Old South.
13
5. agrarian
HamlinGarland
14
Literature in its most comprehensive sense is
the autobiography of humanity. -Bernard
Berenson
15
6. allegory
  • A form of extended METAPHOR in which objects,
    persons, and actions in a narrative are equated
    with meanings that lie outside the narrative
    itself. Thus, an allegory is a story in which
    everything is a symbol. RPMrebellion, open
    thinking, manliness Nursehate, control,
    judgment, conformity

16
6. allegory (cont.)
  • Samuel Coleridge the traditional distinction
    between a symbol and allegory is that an
    allegory is but a translation of abstract notions
    into picture-language, whereas a Symbol always
    partakes of the Reality which it makes
    intelligible.

17
6. allegory
Wizard of Oz
Lord of the Flies
George Orwell1984Animal Farm
William GoldingLord of the Flies
18
7. alliteration
  • The repetition of initial identical consonant
    sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or
    closely associated syllables, especially stressed
    syllables.

19
7. alliteration
20
8. allusion
  • A figure of speech that makes brief reference to
    a historical or literary figure, event, or
    object. The effectiveness of allusion depends on
    a body of knowledge shared by writer and reader.
    A good example is T.S. Eliots The Waste Land and
    the authors notes to that poem.

21
8. allusion
  • RPMs shorts refer to Moby Dick, classic book by
    Melville (90).
  • Also, to the Bible and Pontius Pilatea patient
    says, I wash my hands of the whole deal (232).
  • Harding makes reference to the Lone Ranger,
    Batman, or Zorrosaying RPM is a masked man
    superhero (258).

22
8. allusion
Babe the Blue Ox
23
9. anachronism
  • Assignment of something to a time when it was not
    in existence.

24
9. anachronism
Back to the Future
25
10. analogy
  • A comparison of two things, alike in certain
    aspects particularly a method used in EXPOSITION
    an DESCRIPTION by which something unfamiliar is
    explained or described by comparing it to some
    thing more familiar.
  • Will Castle
  • Eliza Dorothy Higgins Wizard

26
10. analogy
  1. find is to lose as construct is tobuild
    demolish misplace materials2. find is to
    locate as feign is topane pretend line mean

27
10. analogy
3. find is to kind as feign is topane pretend l
ine mean 4. pane is to pain as weigh is to
scale pounds weight way 5. bring is
to brought as sing is to sang melody
song record
28
10. analogy
6. dime is to tenth as quarter is totwenty-five
fourth home coin7. plates is to
dishes as arms is toLegs hands farms
weapons rhlschool.com
29
Contemporary literature. Easier to shock than
to convince. -Albert Camus
30
11. anapest
  • A metrical FOOT consisting of three syllables,
    with two unaccented syllables followed by an
    accented one.

31
11. anapest
William Wordsworth
32
12. anecdote
  • A short NARRATIVE detailing particulars of an
    interesting EPISODE or event. The term most
    frequently refers to an incident in the life of
    an important person and should lay claim to an
    element of truth.

33
12. anecdote
  • Though anecdotes are often used as the basis for
    short stories, an anecdote lacks complicated PLOT
    and relates a single EPISODE.

34
12. anecdote
John Falstaff
35
13. annotation
  • The addition of explanatory notes to a text by
    the author or an editor to explain, translate,
    cite sources, give bibliographical data, comment,
    GLOSS, or PARAPHRASE.

36
13. annotation
  • A VARIOUM EDITION represents the ultimate in
    annotation. An annotated BIBLIOGRAPHY, in
    addition to the standard bibliographical data
    includes comments on the works listed.

37
13. annotation
Northrop Frye
38
14. antagonist
  • The character directly opposed to the
    PROTAGONIST. A rival, opponent, or enemy of the
    PROTAGONIST.
  • non-character entities can be antagonistic
    (settings or events)

39
14. antagonist
Nurse Ratched
40
15. anthology
  • Literally a gathering of flowers, the term
    designates a collection of writing, either prose
    or poetry, usually by various authors.

41
15. anthology
42
Literature is the art of writing something that
will be read twice journalism, what will be
grasped at once. -Cyril Connolly
43
16. aside (as in drama)
  • A dramatic convention by which an actor directly
    addresses the audience but is not supposed to be
    heard by the other actors on the stage.

44
16. aside (as in drama)
Roderigo and Iago
45
17. assonance (as in poetry)
  • Same or similar vowel sounds in stressed
    syllables that end with different consonant
    sounds. Assonance differs from RHYME in that
    RHYME is a similarity of vowel and consonant.
    Lake and fake demonstrate RHYME lake and
    fate assonance.

46
17. assonance (as in poetry)
John Donne
47
18. autobiography
  • The story of a persons life as written by that
    person.

48
18. autobiography
Maya Angelou
49
18. autobiography
Charles Bukowski
50
19. avant-garde
  • Applied to new writing that shows striking (and
    usually self-conscious) innovations in style,
    form, and subject matter.

51
19. avant-garde
John Ashbery
Frank OHara
52
20. bard
  • In modern use, simply a POET. Historically the
    term refers to poets who recited verses
    glorifying the deeds of heroes and leaders to the
    accompaniment of musical instrument such as the
    harp.

53
20. bard
Shakespeare
54
Our literature is substitute for religion, and
so is our religion. -T.S. Eliot
55
21. Bildungsroman
  • A NOVEL that deals with the development of a
    young person, usually from adolescence to
    maturity it is frequently autobiographical.

56
21. Bildungsroman
Great Expectations
Pip
57
22. biography
  • A written account of a persons life, a life
    history. LETTERS, MEMOIRS, DIARIES, JOURNALS,
    and AUTOBIOGRAPHIES ought to be distinguished
    from biography proper.

58
22. biography
  • MEMOIRS, DIARIES, JOURNALS, and AUTOBIOGRAPHIES
    are closely related to each other in that each is
    recollection written down by the subject of the
    work.

59
22. biography
Paul Burrell
Princess Diana
60
23. black humorCuckoos Nest
  • The use of the morbid and the ABSURD for darkly
    comic purposes in modern literature. The term
    refers as much to the tone of anger and
    bitterness as it does to the grotesque and morbid
    situations, which often deal with suffering,
    anxiety, and death.

61
23. black humor
Kurt Vonnegut
62
24. canon
  • In a figurative sense, a standard of judgment a
    criterion.
  • In a literal sense, the absolute bestthe hall
    of fameas determined by the qualified
    readership.

63
24. canon
Harold Bloom
64
25. catharsis
  • In the Poetics Aristotle, in defining TRAGEDY.
    Sees it objective as being through pity and fear
    effecting the proper purgation catharsisof
    these emotions,

65
25. catharsis
  • but he does not explain what proper purgation
    means. Whatever Aristotle means thereby,
    catharsis remains one of the great unsettled
    issues.

66
25. catharsis
Irene Jacobin Othello
67
To provoke dreams of terror in the slumber of
prosperity has become the moral duty of
literature. -Ernst Fischer
68
26. character
  • It is a brief descriptive SKETCH of a personage
    who typifies dome definite quality.

69
26. character
Lennie Small
Don Quixote
70
27. cliché
  • From the French word for stereotype plate a
    block for printing. Hence, any expression so
    often used that its freshness and clarity have
    worn off is called a cliché, a stereotyped form.

71
27. cliché
Jerry Seinfeld
George W. Bush
72
28. climax
  • A rhetorical term for a rising order of
    importance in the ideas expressed, Such an
    arrangement is called climatic, and the item of
    greatest importance is called the climax.

73
28. climax
H.G. Wells
74
29. collage
  • In the pictorial arts the technique by which
    materials not usually associated with one
    another, such as newspaper clippings, labels,
    cloth, wood , bottle tops, or theater tickets,
    are assembled and pasted together on a single
    surface.

75
29. collage
Edgar Allan Poe
76
confidant
  • a close friend or associate to whom secrets are
    confided or with whom private matters and
    problems are discussed
  • could be the reader, if narrator offers exclusive
    information

77
30. conflict
  • The struggle that grows out of the interplay of
    two opposing forces. Conflict provides interest
    suspense, and tension.

78
30. conflict
  • 1.) a struggle against nature2.) a struggle
    against another person, usually the
    ANTAGONIST3.) a struggle against society4.) a
    struggle for mastery by two elements within the
    person

79
30. conflict
William Faulkner
80
In an incarcerate society, free literature can
exist only as denunciation and hope. -Eduardo
Galeano
81
31. consonance
  • The relation between words in which the final
    consonants in the stressed syllables agree but
    the vowels that precede them differ, as
    add-read, mill-ball, and torn-burn.

82
31. consonance
T.S. Eliot
John Milton
83
32. couplet
  • Two consecutive lines of VERSE with END RHYMES.

84
32. couplet
T.S. Eliot
Ezra Pound
85
33. denouement
  • Literally, unknotting. The final unraveling of
    a plot the solution of a mystery an explanation
    or outcome.
  • Denouement is sometimes used as a synonym for
    FALLING ACTION.

86
33. denouement
Scooby-Doo Stories
87
34. dialogue
  • Conversation of two or more people. Embodies
    certain values1.)advances the action and is not
    mere ornament2.)consistent with the character of
    the speakers.

88
34. dialogue
  • 3.)gives impression of naturalness without being
    verbatim record4.)presents the interplay of
    ideas and personalities5.)varies according to
    the various speakers6.)serves to give relief
    from passages

89
34. dialogue
Ernest Hemingway
James Thurber
90
35. diction
  • Choice and use of words in speech or writing.

91
35. diction
Shirley Jackson
92
Literature decays only as men become more and
more corrupt. -Goethe
93
36. didactic novel
  • Any novel plainly designed to teach a lesson, it
    is properly used as a synonym for the EDUCATION
    NOVEL.

94
36. didactic novel
Upton Sinclair
The Jungle
95
37. dime novel
  • A cheaply printed, paperbound TALE of adventure
    or detection, or originally selling for a bout
    ten cents an American equivalent of the British
    PENNY DREADFUL.

96
37. dime novel
Malaeska
97
38. discourse
  • Mode or category of expression, in grammar, we
    speak of discourse as direct or indirect.
    Discourse refers to ways of speaking that are
    bound by

98
38. discourse
  • ideological, professional, political, cultural,
    or sociological communities. Way in which the
    use of language in a particular domain helps to
    constitute the objects it refers to.

99
38. discourse
Sandra Looney Augustana
John Dudley USD
100
39. dynamic character
  • A character who develops or changes as a result
    of the actions of the plot.
  • Eliza Doolittle, Pip, Marguerite Johnson, Pi
    Patel, Esperanza Cordero

101
39. dynamic character
Don Quixote
Sandra Cisneros
102
40. dystopia
  • Literally, bad place. the term is applied to
    accounts of imaginary worlds, usually in the
    futre, in which present tendencies are carried ou
    to their intensely unpleasant culminations.
    (George Orwells 1984, Ursula K. Le Guins The
    Dispossessed)

103
40. dystopia
George Orwells 1984
104
It takes a great deal of history to produce a
little literature. -Henry James
105
41. elegy
  • A sustained and formal poem setting forth
    meditations on death or another solemn theme.
    The meditation often is occasioned by the death
    of a particular person, but it may be generalized
    observation or the expression of a solemn mood.

106
41. elegy
Oleg Liubkivsky The Elegy of Far Autumn, 1992
107
42. ellipsis
  • The omission of one or more words that, while
    essential to a grammatic structure, are easily
    supplied.
  • () only three periods!

108
43. epic
  • A long narrative poem in elevated style
    presenting characters of high position in
    adventures forming and organic whole through
    their relation to a central heroic figure and
    through their development of episodes important
    to the history of a nation or race. The epic
    itself is the product of a single genius.

109
43. epic (cont.)
  • (1) The hero is of imposing nature
  • (2) The setting is vast
  • (3) The action consists of deeds of valor or
    superhuman courage
  • (4) The supernatural
  • (5) A style of sustained elevation
  • (6) The poet retains a measure of objectivity

110
43. epic
Odysseus
Trojan Horse
111
44. epiphany
  • Literally a manifestation or showing-forth,
    usually of some divine being. The Christian
    festival of Epiphany commemorates the
    manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles in the
    form of the Magi.

112
45. euphemism
  • A device in which indirectness replaces
    directness of statement, usually in an effort to
    avoid offensiveness.

113
45. euphemism
huskybig-bonedheftyportlyplumpfluffy
114
National literature begins with fables and ends
with novels. -Joseph Joubert
115
46. exposition (as in a storys plot)
  • Its purpose is to explain something.
    Identification, definition, classification,
    illustration, comparison, and analysis.

116
46. exposition (as in a storys plot)
Harry Potter
117
47. Expressionism
  • A movement affecting painting and literature,
    which followed and went beyond IMPRESSIONISM in
    its efforts to objectify inner experience.
    Expressionism was strongest in theater in the
    1920s,

118
47. Expressionism (cont.)
  • and its entry into other literary forms was
    probably though the stage. In the novel the
    presentation of the objective outer world as it
    expresses itself in the impressions or moods of a
    character is widely used device.

119
47. Expressionism (cont.)
  • The ANTIREALISTIC NOVEL is also a genre in the
    expressionistic tradition. More recent
    novelists, such as Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Thomas
    Pynchon, Joseph Heller, and Ken Kesey, ca also be
    included in the expressionistic tradition.

120
47. Expressionism
The Muse Jeff Buckley
Lady and Her CatMillie Shapiro
121
48. falling action
  • The second half or RESOLUTION of a dramatic plot.
    It follows the CLIMAX, beginning often with a
    tragic force, exhibits the failing fortunes of
    the hero (in a tragedy) and the successful
    efforts in the COUNTERPLAYERS, and culminates in
    the CATASTROPHE.

122
48. falling action
123
flat character
  • a literary character whose personality can be
    defined by one or two traits and does not change
    in the course of the story

124
foil
  • A foil character is either one who is opposite to
    the main character or nearly the same as the main
    character. The purpose of the foil character is
    to emphasize the traits of the main character by
    contrast only. A foil is a secondary character
    who contrasts with a major character.

125
49. foot (as in poetry)
  • The unit of rhythm in verse, whether QUANTITATIVE
    or ACCENTUAL-SYLLABIC.

126
49. foot (as in poetry)
William Blake
127
50. foreshadowing
  • The presentation of material in a work in such a
    way that later events are prepared for.
    Foreshadowing can result form the establishment
    of a mood or atmosphere, as in the opening of
    Conrads Heart of Darkness or the first act of
    Hamlet.

128
50. foreshadowing (cont.)
  • It can result from the appearance of physical
    objects or facts, as do the clues do in a
    detective story, or from the revelation of a
    fundamental and decisive character trait. In all
    cases, the purpose of foreshadowing is to prepare
    the reader or viewer for action to come.

129
50. foreshadowing
Ken KeseyOne Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest
Maya Angelous Caged Bird Sings
130
50. foreshadowing
131
Literature is a form of permanent insurrection.
Its mission is to arouse, to disturb, to alarm,
to keep men in a constant state of
dissatisfaction with themselves. -Mario Vargas
Llosa
132
51. history play (as in Shakespeare)
  • Strictly speaking, any drama whose time setting
    is in some period earlier than that in which it
    is written. It is most widely used, however, as
    a synonym for CHRONICLE PLAY.

133
51. history play (as in Shakespeare)
King John
134
52. hubris
  • overweening pride or insolence that results in
    the misfortune of the PROTAGONIST of a tragedy.
    Hubris leads the protagonist to break a moral
    law, attempt vainly to transcend normal
    limitations, or ignore a divine warning with
    calamitous results.

135
52. hubris
Poseidon
136
53. hyperbole
  • Exaggeration. The figure may be used to heighten
    effect or it may be used for humor.

137
53. hyperbole
Kurt Vonnegut
138
54. iamb (as in poetry)
  • A foot consisting of an unaccented syllable and
    an accented ( ? ). The most common rhythm in
    English verse.

139
54. iamb (as in poetry)
Shakespeare
140
55. idiom
  • A use of words peculiar to a given language an
    expression that cannot be translated literally.
    To carry out literally means to carry something
    out (of a room perhaps), but idiomatically it
    means to see that something is done, as to carry
    out a command.

141
55. idiom
James Thurber
142
Literature is mostly about having sex and not
much about having children. Life is the other way
around. -David Lodge
143
56. imagery
  • Imagery in its literal sense means the collection
    of IMAGES in a literary work. In another sense
    it is synonymous with TROPE or FIGURE OF SPEECH.

144
56. imagery
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Ernest Hemingway
145
57. Imagism
  • The objectives of Imagist are
  • 1.) to use the language of common speech but to
    employ always the exact wordnot the nearly exact
    word
  • 2.) to avoid the cliché
  • 3.) to create new rhythms as the expressions of a
    new MOOD

146
57. Imagism (cont.)
  • 4.) to allow absolute freedom in the choice of
    subject
  • 5.) to present an image (that is, to be concrete,
    firm, definite in their picturesharsh in
    outline)
  • 6.) to strive always for concentration
  • 7.) to suggest rather than offer complete
    statements

147
57. Imagism (cont.)
Jack KerouacOn the Road
William Carlos WilliamsSelected Poetry
148
58. Impressionism
  • A highly personal manner of writing in which the
    author presents materials as they appear to an
    individual temperament at a precise moment and
    from a particular vantage point rather than as
    they are presumed to be in actuality.

149
58. Impressionism
Ninfee BiancheClaude Monet 1899
150
59. in medias res
  • A term from Horace, literally meaning in the
    midst of things. it is applied to the literary
    technique of opening a story in the middle of the
    action and then supplying information about the
    beginning of the action through flashbacks and
    other devices for exposition.

151
59. in medias res
152
60. internal rhyme (as in poetry)
  • Rhyme that occurs at some place before the last
    syllables in a line. In the opening line of
    Eliots GerontionHere I am, an old man in a
    dry monththere is internal rhyme between am
    and man and between I and dry.

153
60. internal rhyme (as in poetry)
Li-Young Lee
154
A great literature is chiefly the product of
doubting and inquiring minds in revolt against
the immoveable certainties of the nation.
-H.L. Mencken
155
61. irony
  • A broad term referring to the recognition of
    reality different from appearance. Verbal irony
    is a FIGURE OF SPEECH in which the actually
    intent is expressed in words that carry the
    opposite meaning.

156
61. irony
157
62. Künstlerroman
  • A form of the APPRENCESHIP NOVEL in which the
    protagonist is an artist struggling from
    childhood to maturity toward an understanding of
    his or her creative mission. The most famous
    Künstlerroman in English is James Joyces A
    Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

158
62. Künstlerroman
Chaim Potok
159
63. limerick
  • A form of light verse that follows a definite
    pattern five anapestic lines of which the
    first,second, and fifth, consisting of three
    feet, rhyme and the third and fourth lines,
    consisting of two feet, rhyme.

160
63. limerick
There once was a man from Nantucket,Who kept all
of his cash in a bucket,But his daughter, named
Nan,Ran away with a man,And as for the bucket,
Nantucket.
But he followed the pair to Pawtucket,The man
and the girl with the bucketAnd he said to the
man,He was welcome to Nan,But as for the
bucket, Pawtucket.
161
64. masque
  • In medieval Europe there existed, partly as
    survivals or adaptations of ancient pagan
    seasonal ceremonies, species of games or
    SPECTACLES characterized by a procession of
    masked figures.

162
64. masque
Edgar Allan Poe
Romeo and Juliet
163
65. maxim
  • A concise statement, usually drawn from
    experience and inculcating some practical advice
    an ADAGE. Hoyles When in doubt, win the trick
    is a maxim in bridge.

164
65. maxim
Ask not what your country can do for you ask
what you can do for your country.
John F. Kennedy
165
Literature is doomed if liberty of thought
perishes. -George Orwell
166
66. memoir
  • A form of autobiographical writing dealing
    usually with the recollections of one who has
    been a part of or has witnessed significant
    events. Memoirs differ from AUTOBIOGRAPHY proper
    in that they are usually

167
66. memoir
  • concerned with personalities and actions other
    than those of the writer, whereas autobiography
    stresses the inner and private life of its
    subject.

168
66. memoir
James Frey, A Million Little Pieces
169
67. metaphysical
  • Although sometimes used in the broad sense of
    philosophical poetry, the term is commonly
    applied to the work of the seventeenth-century
    writers called the Metaphysical Poets.

170
67. metaphysical
  • They formed a school in the sense of employing
    similar methods and of revolting against the
    conventions of Elizabethan love poetry, in
    particular the PETRARCHAN CONCEIT.

171
67. metaphysical
John Donne
172
68. meter (as in poetry)
  • The recurrence in poetry of a rhythmic pattern,
    or the RHYTHM established by the regular
    occurrence of similar units of sound. The four
    basic kinds of rhythmic patters are

173
68. meter (as in poetry) (cont.)
  • 1.) QUANTITIVE
  • 2.) accentual
  • 3.) syllabic
  • 4.) accentual-syllabic

174
68. meter (as in poetry)
175
69. motif
  • A simple element that serves as a basis for
    expanded narrative or, less strictly, a
    conventional situation, device, interest, or
    incident. In literature, recurrent images, words,
    objects, phrases, or actions that tend to unify
    the work are called motives.

176
69. motif (cont.)
  • Patterns of day and night, blonde and brunette,
    summer and winter, north and south, white and
    black and the game of chess.
  • In books, recurring themes, images, ideas,
    characters, etc.

177
69. motif
CervantesDon Quixote
178
70. mood
  • In literary work the mood is the
    emotional-intellectual attitude of the author
    toward the subject.

179
70. mood
180
Literature is both my joy and my comfort it can
add to every happiness and there is no sorrow it
cannot console. -Pliny the Younger
181
71. muses
  • Nine goddesses represented as presiding over the
    various departments of art and science. They are
    the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. In
    literature, their traditional significance I that
    of inspiring and helping poets.

182
71. Muses
  • (1)Calliope (epic)
  • (2)Clio (history)
  • (3)Erato (lyrics andlove poetry)
  • (4)Euterpe (music)
  • (5)Melpomene(tragedy)

(6)Polyhymnia (sacred choric
poetry) (7)Terpischore (choral dance and
song) (8)Thalia (comedy) (9)Urania (astronomy)
183
71. Muses
http//shekinah.elysiumgates.com/muse/muses.jpg
184
72. Naturalism
  • A term best reserved for a literary movement in
    the late nineteenth and early twentieth
    centuries. It draws its name from its basic
    assumption that everything real exists in NATURE,
    and

185
72. Naturalism (cont.)
  • conceived as the world of objects, actions, and
    forces that yield their secrets to objective
    scientific inquiry. Naturalism is a response to
    the revolution in thought that science has
    produced. From Freud it gains a vielw of the
    determinism of the iner and subconscious self.

186
72. Naturalism (cont.)
  • Naturalist ic worlks tend to emphasize either a
    biological or socioeconomic determinism.
    Pessimistic about human capabilities life is a
    vicious trap frank in portrayal of humans and
    animals being driven by fundamental urgesfear,
    hunger, and sex.

187
72. Naturalism
Stephen Crane
188
73. Nobel prize
  • The Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Bernhard
    Nobel willed the income from practically his
    entire estate for the establishment of annual in
    the literature and other fields.

189
73. Nobel prize (cont.)
  • Originally, the literature prize was to go to the
    person who had produced during the year the most
    eminent piece of work in the field of idealistic
    literature in practice, however, the prize
    rewards recipients total career, and some of the
    literature is not notably idealistic.

190
73. Nobel prize
Ernest Hemingway 1954
William Golding 1983
T.S. Eliot 1948
191
74. noir
  • An adjective taken over from the phrase FILM NOIR
    to apply to any work, especially one involving
    crime, that is notably dark, brooding cynical,
    complex, and pessimistic.

192
74. noir
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6/irish20noir.jpg
193
75. novel (and nonfiction novel)
  • Novel is used in its broadest sense to designate
    any extended fictional narrative almost always in
    prose.
  • Nonfiction Novel is a classification offered by
    Truman Capote for his in Cold Blood,

194
75. novel (and nonfiction novel)
  • when which a historical event is described in a
    way that exploits some of the devices of fiction,
    including an nonlinear time sequence and access
    to inner states of mind and feeling not commonly
    present in historical writing.

195
75. novel (and nonfiction novel)
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
J.D. Salinger
196
Great literature is simply language charged with
meaning to the utmost possible degree. -Ezra
Pound
197
76. novella
  • A short tale or short story, a book of 50-100
    pages longer than a short story, but not as long
    or involved as a NOVEL.

198
76. novella
199
77. ode
  • A single, unified strain of exalted lyrical
    verse, directed to a single purpose, and dealing
    with one theme.

200
77. ode
John Keats
201
78. Oedipus Complex
  • In psychoanalysis a libidinal feeling that
    develops in a child, especially a male child,
    between the ages of three and six, for the parent
    of the opposite sex. This attachment is generally
    accompanied by hostility to the parent of the
    childs own sex.

202
78. Oedipus Complex (cont.)
Oedipus the Sphinx
203
79. omniscient point of view
  • The POINT OF VIEW in a work of fiction in which
    the narrator is capable of knowing, seeing, and
    telling all. It is characterized by freedom in
    the shifting from the exterior world to the inner
    selves of a number of

204
79. omniscient point of view
  • characters. A freedom in movement in both time
    and place, and freedom of the narrator to comment
    on the meaning of actions.

205
79. omniscient point of view
Joseph Stalin
George Orwells1984
206
79. omniscient point of view
207
79. omniscient point of view
208
79. omniscient point of view
209
To my mind that literature is best and most
enduring which is characterized by a noble
simplicity. -Mark Twain
210
80. onomatopoeia
  • Words that by their sound suggest their meaning
    hiss, buzz, whirr, sizzle.

211
80. onomatopoeia
212
81. oxymoron
  • A self-contradictory combination of worlds or
    smaller verbal units. Oxymoron itself is an
    oxymoron, from the Greek meaning sharp-dull.

213
81. oxymoron
214
82. palindrome
  • Writing that reads the same for left to right and
    from right to left, such as the word civic or
    the statement attributed to Napoleon, Able was I
    ere I saw Elba.

215
82. palindrome
216
82. palindrome
Racecar I did roll--or did I? Hannah Poop
217
83. parallelism
  • Such an arrangement that one element of equal
    importance with another is similarly developed
    and phrased, the principle of parallelism
    dictates that coordinate ideas should have
    coordinate presentation.

218
83. parallelism
219
84. paraphrase
  • A restatement of an idea in such a way as to
    retrain the meaning while changing the diction
    and form. A paraphrase is often an amplification

220
84. paraphrase
  • of the original for the purpose of clarity,
    though the term is also used for any rather
    general restatement of an expression or passage.

221
84. paraphrase
222
85. parody
  • A composition imitating another, usually serious,
    piece. It is designed to ridicule a work or its
    style or author.

223
85. parody
224
Ernest What is the difference between
literature and journalism? Gilbert Oh!
journalism is unreadable, and literature is not
read. -Oscar Wilde
225
86. persona
  • Literally, a mask. The term is widely used to
    refer to a second half created by an author and
    through whom the narrative is told.

226
86. persona
  • The persona can be not a character but an
    implied author that is, a voice not directly
    the authors but created by the author and
    through which the author speaks.

227
86. persona
John Berryman
228
87. personification
  • A figure that endows animals, ideas,
    abstractions, and animate objects with human
    form the representing of imaginary creatures or
    things as having human personalities,
    intelligence and emotions.

229
87. personification
230
88. Petrarchan Sonnet
  • The ITALIAN SONNET A SONNET divided into an
    OCTAVE rhyming abbaabba and a SESTET rhyming
    cdecde.

231
88. Petrarchan Sonnet
Petrarch
232
89. plot
  • Although an indispensable part of all fiction and
    drama, plot is a concept about which there has
    been much disagreement. A plot, Aristotle
    maintained, should have unity

233
89. plot
  • it should imitate one action and that a whole,
    the structural union of the parts being such
    that, if any one of them is displaced or removed,
    the whole will be disjointed and disturbed.

234
89. plot
235
90. pragmatism
  • A term, first used by C.S. Peirce in 1878,
    describing a doctrine that determines value
    through the test of consequences or utility.

236
90. pragmatism
237
Literature always anticipates life. It does not
copy it, but molds it to its purpose. -Oscar
Wilde
238
91. prelude
  • A short poem, introductory in character, prefixed
    to a long poem or to a section of a long poem.
    Rarely, as in the case of Wordsworths famous
    Prelude, a poem so entitled may itself be
    lengthy, although Wordsworths Prelude was
    written as an introduction to a much longer but
    incomplete work.

239
91. prelude
240
92. prologue
  • An introduction most frequently associated with
    drama and especially common in England in the
    plays of Restoration and the eighteenth century.

241
92. prologue
242
93. Prose poem
  • A POEM printed as a PROSE, with both margins
    justified.

243
93. Prose poem
244
94. protagonist
  • The chief character in a work. The word was
    originally applied to the first actor in early
    Greek drama. The actor was added to the CHORUS
    and was its leader

245
94. protagonist
  • hence the continuing meaning of protagonist and
    the first or chief player. In Greek drama
    AGON is contest, the protagonist and the
    ANTAGONIST, the second most important character,
    are contestants.

246
94. protagonist (cont.)
Pip fromGreat Expectations
Batman/Spiderman
247
95. proverb
  • A saying that briefly and memorably expresses
    some recognized truth about life originally
    preserved by oral tradition, though it may be
    transmitted in written literature as well.
    Proverbs may owe their appeal to metaphor,
    antithesis, a play on words, rhyme, or
    alliteration or parallelism.

248
95. proverb
249
One may recollect generally that certain
thoughts or facts are to be found in a certain
book but without a good index such a
recollection may hardly be more available than
that of the cabin boy,who knew where the ships
tea kettle was because he saw it fall
overboard. -Horace Binney
250
96. Pulitzer Prize
  • Annual prizes for journalism, literature, and
    music, awarded annually since 1917 by the School
    of Journalism and the Board of Trustees of
    Columbia University. The prizes are supported by
    a bequest from Joseph Pulitzer.

251
96. Pulitzer Prize
John Steinbeck 1940Grapes of Wrath
Margaret Mitchell 1937Gone with the Wind
252
97. quatrain
  • A stanza of four lines. Robert Frosts In a
    Disused Graveyard consists of four quatrains, in
    iambic tetrameter, each in a different rhyme
    scheme.

253
97. quatrain
254
98. Realism
  • Realism is, in the broadest literary sense,
    fidelity to actuality in its representation a
    term loosely synonymous with VERISIMILITURD and
    in this sense it has been a significant element
    in almost every school of writing.

255
98. Realism
256
99. refrain
  • One or more words repeated at intervals in a
    poem, usually at the end of a stanza. The most
    regular is the use of the same line at the close
    of each stanza (as is common in BALLAD).

257
99. refrain
258
100. Renaissance
  • This word, meaning rebirth, is commonly applied
    to the period of transition from the medieval to
    the modern world in Western Europe.

259
100. Renaissance
  • Commonwealth Interregnum (1649-1660), Early
    Tudor Age (c. 1500-1557),Elizabethan Age
    (1558-1603),Jacobean Age (1603-1625),Caroline
    Age (1625-1642)

260
100. Renaissance
261
The oldest books are only just out to those who
have not read them. -Samuel Butler
262
101. requiem
  • A chant embodying a preayer for the repse of the
    dead a dirge a solemn mass beginning as in
    Requiem aeternam dona eis, Donime. In our time
    the word has been broadened to mean almost
    anything sad.

263
101. requiem
264
107. resolution (as in plot)
  • The events following the CLIMAX. Synonym for
    FALLING ACTION.
  • Shows what is resolved in the end of a work.

265
107. resolution (as in plot)
266
102. rhyme scheme
  • The pattern in which RHYME sounds occur in a
    stanza. Rhyme schemes, for the purpose of
    analysis, are usually presented by the assignment
    of the same letter of the alphabet to each
    similar sound in a stanza.

267
102. rhyme scheme
268
103. rhythm (as in poetry)
  • The passage of regular or approximately
    equivalent time intervals between definite events
    or the recurrence of specific sound or kinds of
    sound.

269
103. rhythm (as in poetry)
270
104. rising action
  • The part of a dramatic PLOT that has to do with
    the COMPLICATION of the action. It begins with
    the EXCITING FORCE, gains the interest and power
    as the opposing groups come into CONFILICT (the
    hero usually being in the ascendancy), and
    proceeds to the CLIMAX.

271
104. rising action (cont.)
272
105. romance
  • The term romance has had special meanings as a
    kind of fiction since the early years of the
    novel.

273
105. romance
274
What one knows best iswhat one has learned not
from books but as a result of books, through the
reflections to which they have given
rise. -Chamfort
275
106. Romanticism
  • The freeing of the artist and writer from
    restraints and rules and suggesting that phase of
    individualism marked by the encouragement of
    revolutionary political ideas. The term
    designates a literary and philosophical theory

276
106. Romanticism
  • that tends to see the individual at the center of
    all life, and it places the individual,
    therefore, at the center of art, making
    literature valuable as an expression of unique
    feelings and particular attitudes.

277
106. RomanticismWilliam Worsdworth
278
round character
  • A round character is a major character in a work
    of fiction who encounters conflict and is changed
    by it. Round characters tend to be more fully
    developed and described than flat, or minor
    characters.

279
round characterChief Bromden
280
108. satire
  • A work or manner that blends a censorious
    attitude with humor and wit for improving human
    institutions or humanity. In America, Eugene
  • the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like,
    in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly,
    etc.

281
108. satire
  • ONeill, Edith Wharton, Sinclair Lewis, George
    Kaufman and Moss Hart, John P. Marquand, and
    Joseph Heller have commented satirically on human
    beings and their institutions. Two major types
    FORMAL SATIRE and INDIRECT SATIRE.

282
108. satire
283
109. scansion
  • A system for describing conventional rhythms by
    dividing lines into FEET, indicating the
    locations of binomial ACCENTS, and counting the
    syllables.

284
109. scansion
285
110. schema
  • The mental connections made in the mindwhat
    controls learning and behavior.
  • Psychologically, that which fascinates and
    compels.

286
110. schema (cont.)
Laurence Fishburnefrom Othello
287
The easiest books are generally the best, for
whatever author is obscure and difficult in his
own language certainly does not think
clearly. -Lord Chesterfield
288
111. science fiction
  • A form of fantasy in which scientific facts,
    assumptions, or hypotheses form the basis, by
    logical extrapolation, of adventures in the
    future, on other planets in other dimensions in
    time or space, or under new variants of
    scientific law.

289
111. science fiction
Alien vs. Predator
290
111. science fiction
Ray Bradbury
291
112. semantics
  • The study of meaning sometimes limited to
    linguistic meaning and sometimes used to
    discriminate between surface and substance.

292
112. semantics
Michel Foucault
293
113. semiotics
  • The study of the rules that enable social
    phenomena, considered as SIGNS, to have meaning.
    When semiotics is used in literary criticism, it
    deals not with the simple relation

294
113. semiotics
  • between sign and significance, but with literary
    conventions, such as those of prosody, genre, or
    received interpretations of literary devices at
    particular times.

295
113. semiotics
Jacques Derrida
296
114. Sentimentalism
  • The term is used in two senses (1) an
    overindulgence in emotion, especially the
    conscious effort to induce emotion in order to
    enjoy it (2) an optimistic overemphasis of the
    goodness of humanity (SENSIBILITY).

297
114. Sentimentalism
298
115. Shakespearean Sonnet
  • The ENGLISH SONNET, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg. It
    is called the Shakespearean sonnet because
    Shakespeare was its most distinguished
    practitioner.

299
115. Shakespearean Sonnet
300
Let us answer a book of ink with a book of flesh
and blood. -Ralph Waldo Emerson
301
116. short story
  • A short story is a relatively brief fictional
    NARATIVE in PROSE, it may range in length from
    the SHORT-SHORT STORY of 500 words up the the
    long-short story of 12,000 to 15,000 words.

302
116. short story
303
117. sonnet
  • A poem almost invariable of fourteen lines and
    following one of several set rhyme schemes. The
    two basic sonnet types are the ITALIAN or
    PETRARCHAN and the ENGLISH or SHAKESPEAREAN.

304
117. sonnet
Petrarch
305
118. stage directions
  • Material that an author, editor, prompter,
    performer, or other person adds to a text to
    indicate movement, attitude, manner, style, or
    quality of a speech, character, or action. Some
    of the simplest and oldest are enter, exit or
    exeunt, and aside.

306
118. stage directions
307
119. static character
  • A character who changes little if at all. Things
    happen to the static characters without modifying
    their interior selves. Opposite of dynamic.

308
119. static character
Henry Higgins
309
120. stanza
  • A recurrent grouping of two or more verse lines
    in terms of length, metrical form, and, often,
    rhyme scheme. However, the division into stanzas
    is sometimes mad according to thought as well as
    form, in which case the stanza is a unit like a
    prose paragraph.

310
120. stanza
311
I dont like to read books they muss up my
mind. -Henry Ford
312
121. stock character
  • Conventional character types. A high-thinking
    vengeance-seeking hero, disguised romantic
    heroine, melancholy man, a court fool, and a
    witty clownish servant are examples.

313
121. stock character
  • Eliot's Gerontion is a gerontionthe world
    itself is the name of a favorite stock character
    of Greek (and later) comedy the geezer, codger,
    little old man.

314
121. stock character
Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird
315
122. Stream of Consciousness
  • The total range of awareness and emotive-mental
    response of an individual, form the lowest
    prespeech level to the highest fully articulated
    level of rational thought.

316
122. Stream of Consciousness
James Joyce
317
123. Surrealism
  • A movement in art emphasizing the expression of
    the imagination as realized in dreams and
    presented without conscious control.

318
123. Surrealism
William Burroughs
319
124. symbolism
  • In its broad sense symbolism is the use of one
    object to represent or suggest another or, in
    literature, the serious and extensive use of
    SYMBOLS. Men people in world Nurse
    oppression Chief oppressed peoples McMurphy
    change, hope, awareness Control panel ???
    Ward society Monopoly mens attempt to
    control something

320
124. symbolism
321
125. symposium
  • A Greek world meaning a drinking together or
    banquet. The world later came to mean discussion
    by different persons of a single topic or a
    collection of speeches or essays on a given
    subject.

322
125. symposium
323
One always tends to overpraise a long book,
because one has got through it. -E.M. Forster
324
126. synopsis
  • A summary of the main points of a composition so
    made as to show the relation of parts to the
    whole an ABSTIACT. A synopsis is usually more
    connected than an outline, because it is likely
    to be given in complete sentences.

325
126. synopsis
326
127. syntax
  • Syntax is the rule-governed arrangement of worlds
    in sentences. Syntax seems to be that level of
    language that most distinguishes poetry from
    prose.

327
127. syntax
328
128. tall tale
  • A kind of humorous tale, common on the American
    frontier, that uses realistic detail a literal
    manner, and common speech to recount
    extravagantly impossible happenings, usually
    resulting form the superhuman abilities of a
    character.

329
128. tall tale
Pecos Bill and Slue-Foot Sue
330
128. tall tale
John Henry
331
129. Theatre of the Absurd
  • A term invented by Martin Esslin for the kind of
    drama that presents a view of the absurdity of
    the human condition by abandoning of usual or
    rational devices and by the used of nonrealistic
    form.

332
129. Theatre of the Absurd
  • It expounds and existential ideology and views
    its task as essentially metaphysical. The most
    widely acclaimed play of the school is Samuel
    Becketts Waiting for Godot (1953).

333
129. Theatre of the Absurd
Samuel Beckett
334
130. theme
  • A central idea. Both theme and thesis imply a
    subject and a predicate of some kindnot just
    vice in general, say, but some such proposition
    as Vice seems more interesting than virtue but
    turns out to be destructive.

335
130. theme
336
All good books are alike in that they are truer
than if they had really happened. -Ernest
Hemingway
337
131. thesis
  • An attitude or position on a problem taken by a
    writer or speaker with the purpose of proving or
    supporting it. The term is also used for the
    paper written to support the thesis.

338
131. thesis
339
132. tone
  • Tome has been used for the attitudes toward the
    subject and toward the audience implied in
    literary work. Tone may be formal, informal,
    intimate, solemn, sombre, playful, serious,
    ironic, condescending, or many another possible
    attitudes.

340
132. tone
341
133. tour de force
  • A feat of strength and virtuosity. Tour de force
    is used in criticism to refer to works that make
    outstanding demonstrations of skill.

342
133. tour de force
343
134. tragedy
  • A term with many meanings and applications. In
    drama it refers to a particular kind of play, the
    definition of which was established by
    Aristotles Poetics, in narrative, particularly
    in Middle Ages, it refers to a body of work
    recounting the fall of a persons of high degree.

344
134. tragedy
345
135. tragic flaw
  • The theory that there is a flaw in the tragic
    hero that causes his or her downfall. The
    theory has been revised or refuted by criticism
    that considers the supposed flaw as an integral
    and even defining part to the protagonist's
    character.

346
135. tragic flaw
347
I do not read a book I hold a conversation with
the author. -Elbert Hubbard
348
136. Transcendentalism
  • A reliance of the intuition and the conscience, a
    form of idealism a philosophical ROMANTICISM
    reaching America a generation or two

349
136. Transcendentalism
  • after it developed in Europe.
    Transcendentalists believed in living close to
    nature and taught the dignity of manual labor and
    in democracy and individualism.

350
136. Transcendentalism
Thomas ColeThe Voyage of Life Youth 1842
351
136. Transcendentalism
Henry David Thoreau
Ralph Waldo Emerson
352
137. trope
  • In rhetoric a trope is a FIGURE OF SPEECH
    involving a turn or change of sensethe use of
    a word in a sense other than the literal in this
    sense figures of comparison as well as ironical
    expressions are tropes.

353
137. trope
Example of irony
354
137. trope
Example of irony
355
138. utopia
  • A fiction describing an imaginary ideal world.
    DYSTOPIA, meaning bad place, is the term
    applied to unpleasant imaginary places, such as
    those in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and
    George Orwells 1984.

356
138. utopia
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
357
139. verse (as in poetry)
  • Used in two senses (1) as a unit of poetry, in
    which case it has the same significance as STANZA
    or LINE and (2) as a name given generally to
    metrical composition.

358
139. verse (as in poetry)
Robert Lowell
Sylvia Plath
359
140. vignette
  • A SKETCH or brief narrative characterized by
    precision and delicacy. The term is also applied
    to SHORT-SHORT STORIES less than 500 words in
    length.

360
140. vignette
Sandra Cisneros
361
Books are a narcotic. -Franz Kafka
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