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Module 2 Translation Skills

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Title: Module 2 Translation Skills


1
Module 2Translation Skills
  • Unit 1 Diction

2
1. Correspondence between English and Chinese at
Word Level
1)Word-for-word correspondence
  • Marxism
  • ??
  • ?????
  • laser

3
2)One word with multiple equivalents of the same
meaning
  • Wife
  • ???????????????????????
  • Potato
  • ?????????????
  • ?
  • human being, man, people, person

4
3)One word with several equivalents of different
meanings
  • Cousin
  • ?????????????????????????
  • President
  • ????????????????????????

5
? walk
  • Saunter
  • (??, ??)
  • Amble
  • (??, ??)
  • Stride
  • (????)
  • Trudge
  • (??)
  • Trapes
  • (??)
  • Shamble
  • (????, ??????)
  • Prance
  • (????)
  • Scamper
  • (??)
  • Clump
  • (????),
  • tiptoe

6
4)Equivalents interwoven with one another
  • talk ?
  • speak ?
  • say ?
  • tell ?

7
5)Words without equivalents
  • Teenager
  • 13-19?????
  • Clock-watcher
  • ?????????
  • ?
  • (in Chinese thought) the soft, inactive, female
    principle or force in the world
  • ?
  • (in Chinese thought) the strong, active, male
    principle or force in the world

8
2. Methods of discriminating the original
meaning of an English word
  • 1)Judging from the word formation
  • 2)Judging from the references
  • Health is above wealth, for this cannot give so
    much happiness as that.
  • ????????,????/???????/????????????

9
3) Judging from the context and collocation head
  1. He was badly wounded in the .
  2. You should use your a bit.
  3. He has a good for mathematics.
  4. The dinner cost us five dollars a .
  5. Prick with the of a needle.
  6. He was standing at the of the staircase.
  7. Lets discuss the question under five s.
  8. The of his bed was piled with books.
  9. Present at the meeting were the s of government
    of the four countries.
  10. s or tails?
  11. Where is the ?
  1. ???????
  2. ???????????
  3. ?????????
  4. ?????????5???
  5. ?????
  6. ?????????
  7. ????????????????
  8. ?????????
  9. ??????????????
  10. ???????
  11. ?????(????)

10
3) Judging from different braches of learning and
specialties
  • base
  • in lexicology??
  • in business??
  • in painting??
  • in survey??
  • in military???

11
3. Techniques of translating a given English word
  • Deduction
  • boomer a person born in the marked rise in
    birthrate
  • ?????????
  • 2) Transplant
  • microwave??
  • supermarket????

12
3) Extension???
  1. Bottleneck
  2. brain trust
  3. brain drain
  4. It is more than transient everydayness.
  1. ????????
  2. ???????
  3. ???????????
  4. ?????????????

13
4) Substitution
  • kill sb. as an example
  • ????
  • The same is not true with a mortal illness.
  • ?????????(??),????????

14
5) Explanation
  • a throwaway society
  • ??????????????
  • redshirt?????
  • ??????????????????
  • swan song
  • ???????????????

15
6) Combination???
  • so subtle and careful an observer
  • ??????????
  • a grim and tragic Christmas
  • ????????
  • the body and mind cramped by noxious work
  • ????????????

16
7) Transliteration
  • Wall Street
  • ???
  • The Times
  • ????
  • Clone
  • ??

17
8) Pictographic translation
  • H-beam
  • ???
  • O-ring
  • ???

18
Unit 2Introduction to Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • Skill I Conversion

19
1. Conversion into verbs
  • English sentences contain no more than one
    predicate verb, while in Chinese it is not
    unusual to have clusters of verbs in a simple
    sentence.
  • Families upstairs have to carry pails to the
    hydrant downstairs for water.
  • ??????????????????????

20
1)Nouns converted into verbs
  • The sight and sound of our jet planes filled me
    with special longing.
  • ??????????,???????,????????

21
2)prepositions converted into verbs
  • Coming! She skimmed over the lawn, up the path,
    up the steps, across the verandah, and into the
    porch.
  • ??!????????,????,????,????,?????

22
3) adjectives converted into verbs
  • Many English adjectives after a link verb
    indicating ones consciousness, feelings,
    emotions, desires, etc., are always converted
    into Chinese verbs.
  • Doctors have said that they are not sure they can
    save his life.
  • ??????????????????

23
4)adverbs into verbs
  • As he ran out, he forgot to have his shoes on.
  • ?????,??????

24
2. Conversion into nouns
  • 1) verbs converted into nouns
  • Such materials are characterized by good
    insulation and high resistance to wear.
  • ????????????,?????
  • The design aims at automatic operation, easy
    regulation, simple maintenance and high
    productivity.
  • ???????????,????,????,?????

25
2) adjectives into nouns
  • They did their best to help the sick and the
    wounded.
  • ?????????????????

26
3) pronouns into nouns
  • The result of this experiment is much better than
    those of previous ones.
  • ????????????????????

27
3. Conversion into adjectives
  • 1) nouns converted into adjective
  • Independent thinking is an absolute necessity in
    study.
  • ???????????????
  • 2) adverbs into adjectives
  • The pressure inside equals the pressure outside.
  • ??????????????

28
4. Conversion into adverbs
  • 1) Adjectives converted into adverbs
  • Only when we study their properties can we make
    better use of the materials.
  • ?????????????????????

29
2) Nouns and verbs into adverbs
  • I have the honor to inform you that your request
    is granted.
  • ???????,???????????
  • Rapid evaporation at the heating-surface tends to
    make the steam wet.
  • ?????????,???????????

30
5. Conversion of sentence elements
  • Conversion in a broader sense includes the
    conversion of the active voice into the
    passive. Sometimes, it may involve the change
    of various elements of a sentence, such as from
    the subject to the object, and vice versa.

31
Examples
  • As the match burns, heat and light are given off.
  • ???????????
  • (from subject to the object)
  • Care must be taken at all times to protect the
    instrument from dust and damp.
  • ??????????,???????????
  • (from the subject to the predicate)

32
Examples
  • The baby doubled its weight in a year.
  • ?????????????
  • (from the subject to the attributive)
  • She behaves as if she were a child.
  • ??????????
  • (from the predicate to the subject)

33
Unit 2Introduction of Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • Skill II Restructuring

34
1. Different word order in English and Chinese
  • Most of the information we have got is through
    that channel.
  • ???????????????????
  • His address is 3612 Market Street, Philadelphia,
    PA. 19104, USA.
  • ??????????????????3612?,????19104?

35
  • 1) Interrogative inversion????
  • What did you do yesterday?
  • ?????????
  • 2) Imperative inversion????
  • Speak you, said Mr. Black, Speak you, good
    fellow!
  • ????????,??!??!
  • 3) Exclamatory inversion????
  • How dreadful is this place!
  • ???????!

36
  • 4) Hypothetical inversion????
  • Had you come yesterday, you could have seen him
    here.
  • ???????,???????????
  • Young as he is, the little boy has learned a lot.
  • ??????????,??????????
  • 5) Balance inversion????
  • Through a gap come an elaborately described ray.
  • ?????????????????
  • 6) Link inversion????
  • On this depends the whole argument.
  • ???????????

37
  • 7) Signpost inversion????
  • By strategy is meant something wider.
  • ????????
  • 8) Negative inversion????
  • Not a word did he say.
  • ??????
  • 9) Metrical inversion????
  • As pants the hart for cooling streams. (Normal
    order As the hart pants for cooling streams.)
  • ?????????????

38
2. Restructuring in English-Chinese Translation
  • 1) Different sequences in customary word
    combination
  • You, he and I
  • ???
  • Food, clothing, shelter and transportation
  • ????
  • Back and forth
  • ????
  • Every means possible
  • ???????

39
2) Different sequences in customary sentence
arrangement
  • He had to quit the position and went into exile,
    having been deprived of his power.
  • ?????????,????,?????
  • We had been dismayed at home while reading of the
    natural calamities that followed one another for
    three years after we left China in 1959.
  • ???1959?????????,????????????????????????????,????
    ???

40
3) Adverbial clauses in a complex sentence
  • The government is determined to keep up the
    pressure whatever the cost it will pay in the
    end.
  • ???????????,???????????
  • The librarians have compiled a card-index
    catalogue so that they can afford facilities for
    reference.
  • ???????,???????????????

41
4) Cases involving adverbials
  • They, not unexpectedly, did not respond.
  • ??????,???????????
  • Illogically, she had expected some kind of
    miracle solution.
  • ????????????????,????????

42
5) That clause used as a judgment or conclusion
  • I believe equally that it is in the interests of
    the world as a whole that Europe should
    increasingly unite and speak with a common voice.
  • ?????,??????????,?????????????,????????????
  • It was a keen disappointment that I had to
    postpone the visit I had intended to pay to China
    in January.
  • ?????1?????,????????,????????

43
3. Restructuring in Chinese-English Translation
  • ??????????
  • a powerful, modern, socialist country
  • ??????????
  • an outstanding contemporary American writer
  • ????,??????????
  • Heal the wounded, rescue the dying, practice
    revolutionary humanitarianism.

44
Unit 2Introduction of Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • Skill III Amplification

45
Amplification in English-Chinese Translation
  • 1. Amplification by supplying words omitted in
    the original
  • cell phoneOtherwise, benefits seem murky.
  • ????,??????????????
  • In the evening, after the banquets, the concerts
    and the table tennis exhibitions, he would work
    on the drafting of the final communique.
  • ??????????????????????,??????????

46
2. Amplification by supplying necessary
connectives
  • Heated, water will change into vapor.
  • ??????????

47
3. Amplification by supplying words to convey
the concept of plurality
  • Note that the words technique and technology
    require explanation.
  • ???,??????????????
  • He stretched his legs which were scattered with
    scars.
  • ?????,??????????
  • The mountains began to throw their long blue
    shadows over the valley.
  • ??????????????????

48
4. Amplification by supplying words to make an
abstract concept clear
  • After all preparations were made, the plane took
    off.
  • ??????????,???????
  • Most people in America, minority people in
    particular, are convinced that injustices exist
    in their economic system.
  • ??????,???????,???????????????????
  • Some people were anxious to relax in retirement
    with all the strains relieved.
  • ?????????????,????????????????

49
5. Amplification by logical thinking
  • Air pressure decreases with altitude.
  • ??????????????

50
6. Amplification by supplying words of
generalization
  • According to scientists, it takes nature 500
    years to create an inch of topsoil.
  • ?????????,?????500???????????(2.54??)???????

51
7. Amplification for purpose of rhetoric or
coherence
  • This printer is indeed cheap and fine.
  • ????????????
  • I like Chinese food. Lots of people do these
    days. Sort of the fashion.
  • ??????????????????,?????????????!

52
8. Amplification by repetition
  • They could sense her (Titanic) mass, her eerie
    quiet and the ruined splendor of a lost age.
  • ??????(?????)?????,???????????,??????????????????

53
Amplification in Chinese-English Translation
  • 1. Amplifying by adding necessary pronouns
  • ??????,?????,????????????
  • Before handing in your translations, you have to
    read them over and over again and see if there is
    anything in them to be corrected or improved.

54
2. Amplifying by adding necessary articles
  • ???????????,???????,????????
  • The ear is the organ which is used for hearing.
    The nose is used for smelling. The tongue is used
    for tasting.

55
3. Amplifying by adding necessary connectives
  • ??????,???????
  • Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit
    makes one lag behind.
  • ?????,??????
  • So long as green hills remain, there will never
    be a shortage of firewood.

56
4. Amplifying by adding necessary prepositions
  • ????????
  • Lets meet at the school gate.

57
5. Amplifying by adding necessary background words
  • ?????,??????
  • Three cobblers with their wits combined equal
    Zhuge Liang the mastermind.
  • ??????
  • Dont try to show off your proficiency with the
    ax before Lu Ban the master carpenter.
  • ????????????
  • It is just as the proverb goes, The onlooker
    sees most of the game.

58
Unit 2Introduction of Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • SkilI IV Omission

59
Omission
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????,????
    ???,?????????????????,??????????????????,??280??
    ,????????,??30???????????,?????????????????,?????
    ????????,??????????????????????????,????????

60
1. From grammatical point of view
  • (1) Omission of pronouns
  • He put his hands into his pockets and then
    shrugged his shoulders.
  • ????????,???????
  • You must always remember not to become conceited.
  • ???????
  • She seldom absents herself from class.
  • ??????
  • I remembered her eyes as she looked at me before
    she died.
  • ?????????????????

61
(2) Omission of articles
  • The moon was slowly rising above the sea.
  • ??????????
  • Any substance is made up of atoms whether it is a
    solid, a liquid, or a gas.
  • ????,???????????,???????

62
(3) Omission of propositions
  • Smoking is prohibited in public places.
  • ?????????
  • Now complaints are heard in all parts of the
    country.
  • ??,????,?????

63
(4) Omission of conjunctions
  • He looked gloomy and troubled.
  • ???????????
  • Ones mind works fast when it is in great danger.
  • ??????,?????(?????)
  • If I had known it, I would have joined it.
  • ????,??????

64
(5) Omission of verbs
  • When the pressure gets low, the boiling point
    becomes low.
  • ???,?????

65
(6) Omission of it
  • It was with some difficulty that he found the way
    to his own house.
  • ??????????????

66
(7) Omission of other sentence structures
  • University students who have worked at a job
    would receive preference over those who had not.
  • ????????????
  • Anything one can imagine, other man can make
    real.
  • ?????,???????

67
2. From rhetorical point of view
  • University applicants who had worked at a job
    would receive preference over those who had not.
  • ??????,???????????
  • (??????,????????,??????,????????,????,??????)
  • Neither party shall cancel the contract without
    sufficient cause or reason.
  • ????????????
  • (????...?????????,??????)

68
  • There was no snow, the leaves were gone from the
    trees, the grass was dead.
  • ????,??????
  • (??????...????????,??????????)
  • There was still the faith that ordinary men are
    greater than the powers of nature or the
    mechanisms of mans hands and will master them
    all in the end.
  • ????????,???????????????????????,??????????
  • (??,The mechanisms of mans hands???????????????
    )

69
Unit 2Introduction of Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • SkilI V Negation and Affirmation

70
Antonymic Translation
  • 1. English affirmation is converted to
    Chinese negation
  • Keep off the lawn.
  • ??????!
  • Admission by invitation only.
  • ?????
  • I do think that it is beyond his power to fulfill
    the task.
  • ????????????????????
  • The lecturer spoke above the heads of his
    audience.
  • ????????,??????

71
  • He went to an outdoor phone booth and dialed
    Chicago, then New York, then San Francisco.
    Silence. Silence. Silence.
  • ???????????,????????????????????????????????????(?
    ?)
  • He was absent from his own country last year.
  • ???????????
  • He was extremely sorry for the shortness of time.
  • ?????????????
  • The plan as it is leaves much to be desired.
  • ??????????????
  • Before I could saythank you,the postman had
    disappeared around the corner.
  • ??????????,?????????????

72
1. English negation is converted to Chinese
affirmation
  • I cant remember his name.
  • ????????
  • You can't be too careful.
  • ???????
  • If you need any further help, please dont
    hesitate to contact us.
  • ????,?????????
  • The significance of these incidents wasn't lost
    on us.
  • ?????????????

73
  • The doubt was still unsolved after his repeated
    explanation.
  • ???????,???????
  • He carelessly glanced through the note and got
    away.
  • ????????????????
  • All the articles are untouchable in the museum.
  • ?????????????

74
  • Winners are not afraid to do their own thinking
    and to use their own knowledge.
  • ?????????,??????????
  • He killed all the chicken infected with the bird
    flu without exception.
  • ?????????????????????

75
3. Same English word, with either affirmative
or negative equivalents in Chinese
  • Im new to the work.
  • ????????(???????)
  • He is free with his money.
  • ????????(???????)
  • He realized that he was in trouble.
  • ??????????(??????????)
  • The station is no distance at all.
  • ???????(????????)
  • Its no less than a fraud.
  • ?????????(????????)

76
4. Double negation for emphasis
  • There is no rule that has no exception.
  • ?????????
  • There is not any advantage without disadvantage.
  • ????????

77
5. Roundabout affirmative???????
  • He didnt half like the girl.
  • ?????????
  • I couldnt feel better.
  • ?????????
  • I couldnt agree with you more.
  • ??????????
  • If that isnt what I want!
  • ?????????!
  • He cant see you quick enough.
  • ??????????

78
Some traps in negative structures?????
  • The engine didnt stop because the fuel was
    finished.
  • ?????????????????
  • The importance of this conference cannot be
    overestimated.
  • ???????????????????
  • I shall never be able to stress too much for your
    kindness.
  • ????????,??????????

79
  • You cannot be too careful in proofreading.
  • ???,??????
  • All that glitters is not gold.
  • ???????????
  • Everything is not straightened out.
  • ?????????????
  • You may leave at once for all I care.
  • ???????,??????

80
7. Negation in Chinese-English Translation
  • 1) Negation according to usage????
  • ???,???????,?????????
  • As the saying goes, Men only weep when deeply
    hurt.
  • Except for the howl of the north wind, the
    snow-mantled land is silent.

81
2) Negation for emphasis or rhetorical effect
  • ?????????,?????????????,?????
  • No comrade in the Party must ever forget this
    bitter lesson and we must all take warning from
    it.
  • ????????????????,?????
  • The 16th Party Congress fully demonstrates that
    our Party is flourishing and has no lack of
    successors.

82
3) Negation to convey exactly the original
meaning????????????
  • ?????,?????????????????
  • This organization has not, so far, justified the
    hopes which the people of the world place in it.
  • ????????????,???????????????
  • Like those of little experience, he was easily
    elated by success and deflated by failure.

83
Unit 3Sentence Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • Translation of
  • Long English Sentences

84
Analysis of sentences
  • Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised
    in an environment where there are many stimuli
    which develop his or her capacity for appropriate
    responses will experience greater intellectual
    development.

85
  • ??
  • ???behaviorists
  • ???suggest
  • ???????
  • suggest??????
  • ???child,
  • ???experience,
  • ???greater intellectual development.
  • who is raised in an environment?????,
    ????????child
  • where there are many stimuli?????,
    ????????environment
  • which develop his or her capacity for appropriate
    responses?????, ????????stimuli

?????Behaviorist suggest that-clause ???
86
Translation
  • ???????, ?????????????????, ??????????????????,
    ??, ????????????????

87
1. ?????(???????)
  • The Chinese seemed justifiably proud of their
    economic achievements.
  • ?????????????????????,????????
  • He arrived in Washington at a ripe moment
    internationally.
  • ??????,???????,??????
  • His failure to observe the safety regulations
    resulted in an accident to the machinery.
  • ??????????,??????????

88
1. ?????( Embedding???)
  • Congress has made laws requiring most pressure
    groups to give information about how much they
    spend and how they spend it, the amount and
    sources of funds, membership, and names and
    salaries of their representatives.
  • ????????,???????????????????,????,????????????????
    ???????????

89
2. ?????
  • The problem is that in the last generation or so
    weve come to assume that women should be able,
    and should want, to do everything that by
    tradition  men have done at the same time as
    pretty well everything that by tradition women
    have done.
  • ???,???????????,??????,???????????????????????,???
    ???????????????????????

90
2. ?????
  • If parents were prepared for this adolescent
    reaction, and realized that it was a sign that
    the child was growing up and developing valuable
    powers of observation and independent judgment,
    they would not be so hurt, and therefore would
    not drive the child into opposition by resenting
    and resisting it.
  • ???????????????????, ?????????????????,
    ????????????????????, ???????????,
    ?????????????????????????????

91
3. ?????
  • It therefore becomes more and more important
    that, if students are not to waste their
    opportunities, there will have to be much more
    detailed information about courses and more
    advice.
  • ??, ????????????(???)???, ?????????????????????,
    ????????????????????
  • Such is a human nature in the West that a great
    many people are often willing to sacrifice higher
    pay for the privilege of becoming white collar
    workers.
  • ???????????????????????????, ???????????

92
4. ???????
  • Modern scientific and technical books, especially
    textbooks, require revision at short intervals if
    their authors wish to keep pace with new ideas,
    observations and discoveries.
  • ????????, ????????, ??????????????????????????????
    ??????, ????????????, ???????????

93
Unit 3Sentence Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • II. Translation of
  • English Attributive Clauses

94
?????
  • This is the soldier who just returned from the
    front.
  • ????????????
  • Those who sacrifice themselves for the peoples
    cause are the real heroes of history.
  • ?????????????????????

95
??????
  • He was the writer who was moving into operational
    activities.
  • ??????,?????????
  • Although he lacks experience, he has enterprise
    and creativity, which are decisive in achieving
    success in the area.
  • ???????,??????????,?????????????????
  • It is he who received the letter that announced
    the death of your uncle.
  • ???????,?????????

96
??????
  • This is the paper mill that they set up in 1978.
  • ?????????1978?????
  • There has never been a man around me who wrote so
    many memos.
  • ??????????????????????????

97
????????
  • A driver who is driving the bus mustnt talk with
    others or be absent-minded.
  • ??????,??????,??????(???????)
  • Men become desperate for work, any work, which
    will help them to keep alive their families.
  • ???????????,??????,???????????????(???????)

98
????????
  • My assistant, who had carefully read through the
    instructions before doing his experiment, could
    not obtain satisfactory results, because he
    followed them mechanically.
  • ??????????????????????????,???????????(???????)

99
Unit 3Sentence Translation Skills
Module 2 Translation Skills
  • III. Translation of
  • English Adverbial Clauses

100
????????
  • He shouted as he ran.
  • ????,????(?????????????)
  • They built the bridge in two months when everyone
    thought it would take two years.
  • ??????????????,????????????????(????????????)

101
????????
  • The crops failed because the season was dry.
  • ??????,????? (????????)
  • Because he was convinced of the accuracy of this
    fact, he stuck to his opinion.
  • ??????????,???????(????????????)

102
????????
  • You can drive tonight if you are ready.
  • ????????,????????(???????????,????)

103
????????
  • We should start early so that we might get there
    before noon.
  • ??????????,????????(??????????)

104
????????
  • I still think that you make a mistake while I
    admit what you say.
  • ??????,??????????(????????)

105
Unit 4Translation of Passive Voice
Module 2 Translation Skills
106
Passive voice
  • Passive voice is widely used in English passages,
    especially in scientific and technological
    reports.
  • In Chinese, it cannot be chased as frequently as
    that in English. Chinese prefers active voice to
    passive voice.

107
Ways of Translation
  • Translate the English passive voice into Chinese
    active voice.
  • Translate the English passive voice into Chinese
    passive voice.

108
English passive voiceChinese active voice
  • (1) ????????????????????????, ?????????????,??
    ,??,????????????????

109
Examples
  • 1. The stocks are mainly issued through a special
    market in a way similar to that of bond issuance.
  • ???????????????,????????????
  • 2. Nuclear power's danger to health, safety, and
    even life itself can be summed up in one word
    radiation.
  • ????????, ????????????????????????

110
English passive voiceChinese active voice
  • (2) ??????????????, ??????????(??,???)??????

111
Examples
  • 1. Television, it is often said, keeps one
    informed about current events, allows one to
    follow the latest developments in science and
    politics, and offers an endless series of
    programmes which are both instructive and
    entertaining.
  • ????, ????????, ????????????????,
    ???????????????????????????
  • 2. It is generally accepted that the experiences
    of the child in his first years largely determine
    his character and later personality.
  • ??????,????????????????????????????

112
It?????
  • It is asserted that
  • ????
  • It is believed that
  • ????
  • It will be said
  • ????
  • It is hoped that
  • ??
  • It is said that
  • ??
  • It must be admitted that
  • ????
  • It will be seen from this that
  • ????
  • It is well known that
  • ????(????)
  • It is generally considered that
  • ??(???)??
  • It was told that
  • ?????
  • It is reported that
  • ???
  • It is supposed that
  • ???
  • It must be pointed out that
  • ????
  • It may be said without fear of exaggeration that
  • ????????

113
English passive voiceChinese active voice
  • (3) ???????by, in, for?????????????????, ?????,
    ???????????????????

114
Examples
  • Family planning was designated a basic state
    policy in China in the 1980s and was included in
    the constitution.
  • ???20??80???????????????,??????
  • Communications satellites are used for
    international live transmission throughout the
    world.
  • ????????????????????

115
(4) ?????????
  • 1. Great efforts should be made to inform young
    people especially the dreadful consequences of
    taking up the habit.
  • ????????????,????????????????
  • 2. Something has to be done to counter the recent
    rise in unemployment.
  • ?????????????????

116
(5) ??????????
  • 1. The smaller 10 pence coin was introduced in
    1992.
  • ?????10??????1992?????
  • 2. The multilateral trading system was developed
    through a serious of trade negotiations or
    rounds, held under GATT.
  • ??????????????????????????????

117
English passive voiceChinese passive voice
  • (1)????????????????????????, ?, ?, ?,
    ??, ?, ?, ??????

118
Examples
  • 1. At the end of the month he was fired for
    incompetence.
  • ??,?????????????
  • 2. Our foreign policy is supported by people all
    over the world.
  • ??????????????????
  • 3. The US stock markets were attacked from the
    worst one-day crash in modern history on October
    19th, 1987, the day which has come to be known as
    Black Monday?
  • 1987?10?19?,?????????????????????????????????
    ??
  • 4. I was astounded that he was going to give me a
    job.
  • ?????????,????????

119
(2)??????????
  • She is delivered of a boy.
  • ????????
  • He has been wedded to translation.
  • ????????????
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