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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts

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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts Unit Two Chapter Five Materials Instructions for Success: Each chapter of every unit will begin with a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts


1
Introduction to Engineering and Technology
Concepts
  • Unit Two
  • Chapter Five Materials

2
Instructions for Success
  • Each chapter of every unit will begin with a
    Mindjog. This is a warm up question that you
    should answer in your workbook in the proper
    chapter.
  • Please take notes as you move through the
    presentations in the notebook that has been
    provided.
  • Sections will come up in each presentation with
    an assignment notice. Turn to the section
    detailed on the slide in your workbook and
    complete the assignment before proceeding.
  • Good luck!

3
Objective
  • Students will define and compare the resources
    used in the development of technology.

4
Mindjog!
  • On your worksheet, please respond to the
    following question 
  • In the last chapter, we discussed manufacturing.
    In what way are material resources important to
    the production of artifacts?

5
Material Resources
  • Materials form the foundation for all production
    activities. Without material resources,
    production is not possible (Wright, 2004).
  • There are three types of natural resources that
    can become the inputs to a production. These
    materials are
  • Genetic Materials
  • Fossil Fuel Materials
  • Minerals (Wright, 2004).

6
Genetic Materials
  • Many resources come from living things, dead and
    alive. These materials are called genetic
    materials.
  • We obtain genetic material through three
    activities farming, fishing, and forestry.
  • The origin of all genetic material is in birth or
    germination. As young plants and animals slow
    their growth cycle as they age, it is termed
    maturity (Wright, 2004).

7
Fossil Fuels
  • Fossil Fuels are mixtures of carbon and hydrogen.
    Formally, they are called hydrocarbons and
    include a vast number of products in use today
    from fuels to medicine.
  • They are derived from three fossil fuel
    resources
  • Petroleum an oily, flammable mixture of
    hydrocarbons that has no specific composition.
  • Natural Gas a combustible gas that occurs in
    porous rock. It is composed of light
    hydrocarbons. Typically it is 85 methane.
  • Coal A combustible solid that is composed
    mostly of carbon, starting as plant matter and
    ending up as pressurized peat (Wright, 2004).

8
Minerals
  • Minerals are any substance with a specific
    chemical composition that occurs naturally.
  • The following is a list of minerals grouped by
    economic values
  • Ores minerals that have a metal chemically
    combined with other elements.
  • Nonmetallic minerals- substances that do not have
    metallic qualities, such as sulfur.
  • Ceramic minerals fine-grained minerals that are
    formable when wet and become hard when dried or
    fired.
  • Gems Stones that are cut and polished and
    prized for their beauty or hardness (Wright,
    2004).

9
Obtaining Genetic Materials
  • Most genetic materials are easy to find. The
    real issue is harvesting the plant or animal at
    the proper stage of growth.
  • Imagine harvesting trees for timberthree logging
    methods exist
  • Clear cutting all trees are removed from a plot
    of land. This then allows for replanting the
    area with trees that cannot grow in competition
    with mature trees. The number of tree species
    can be controlled.
  • Seed-Tree Cutting all trees are removed from a
    large area, except three or four per acre. These
    trees are used to reseed the area, which will
    then control the number of species in the area.
  • Selective cutting Mature trees of a desired
    species are selected and cut from the land
    (Wright, 2004).

10
Obtaining Fossil Fuel Resources
  • Most fossil fuel resources are buried under the
    surface of the earth.
  • Obtaining Petroleum and Natural Gas does not have
    people directly looking for it. They look for
    rock formations that might contain deposits of
    oil and gas.
  • Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel and is
    found on every continent. These reserves are
    generally recovered through mining (Wright, 2004).

11
Obtaining Minerals
  • Minerals can be extracted from the earth and
    oceans in a variety of ways
  • Evaporation using solar energy to cause the
    water to evaporate, leaving the minerals behind.
  • Fluid Mining uses two wells that extend into
    the mineral deposit. Hot water is pumped down
    one of the wells and as it dissolves, the mineral
    is forced up the other well (Wright, 2004).

12
Assignment 1
  • Please turn to the section in your workbook
    entitled, Unit Two, Chapter Five Materials.
  • Complete the extension questions under the
    Assignment 1 header before moving onto the
    next section of slides.

13
BEFORE MOVING ON
  • Did you complete the Assignment 1 Section
    under the Unit Two, Chapter Five Materials
    section of your workbook?
  • If you have, please proceed to the next slide.

14
Chapter Five Completed!
  • Please close this presentation and launch the
    file entitled, Chapter 6 Types of Materials.

15
References
  • Wright, R. (2004) Technology The
    Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
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