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The Industrial Revolution

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Title: The Industrial Revolution


1
The Industrial Revolution
  • The Revolution that changed the world forever

2
Historical Significance of the Industrial
Revolution
  • An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as
    comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life
    was not much different agriculture and
    technology were not much changed in 2000 years
  • The Industrial Revolution changed human life
    drastically
  • More was created in the last 250 years than in
    the previous 2500 years of known human history

3
What was the Industrial Revolution?
  • The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental
    change in the way goods were produced, from human
    labor to machines
  • The more efficient means of production and
    subsequent higher levels of production triggered
    far-reaching changes to industrialized societies

4
The Industrial Revolution
  • Transportation improved
  • Ships
  • Wooden ships ? Iron ships ? Steel ships
  • Wind-powered sails ? Steam-powered boilers
  • Trains
  • Automobiles
  • Communication improved
  • Telegraph
  • Telephone
  • Radio

5
Necessity Is the Mother of Invention
6
Necessity Is the Mother of Invention
7
Necessity Is the Mother of Invention
8
Necessity Is the Mother of Invention
  • The process of inventing never ends
  • One invention inevitably leads to improvements
    upon it and to more inventions

9
  • Industrial Having to do with industry, business
    or manufacturing
  • Revolution a huge change or a change in the way
    things are done
  • Industrial Revolution a change from making
    things using human and animal labor to making
    goods using machine labor.

10
  • Vertical Integration The merger of companies at
    different levels of production for a single
    product. What does that mean?
  • Horizontal Integration The merger of companies
    at the same level of production of a single
    product. Can you explain?
  • Laissez-Faire Leave business alone without
    laws or regulations to restrict business.

11
  • Imperialism US and other industrialized nations
    took advantage of other lands for their own
    economic gain. Taking over foreign lands
    (military, economic, political)
  • Social Darwinism The belief that the societal
    groups are controlled by the same rules governing
    survival of the fittest in nature
  • Gospel of Wealth The belief that the wealthy
    have the responsibility to care for the
    poor/needy (from the Gospels of Christianity)

12
Transportation
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, people relied
    on the horse and their own feet to get around.
  • With the invention of the steam locomotive,
    transportation took a huge step forward.
  • The first two major railroad companies were the
    Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads.

13
Passenger carriers
14
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15
An original steam engine
16
Steam locomotive
17
Leland Stanford
  • Leland Stanford was a business tycoon, (a
    wealthy, powerful person in business or industry)
    co-founder of the Central Pacific Railroad,
    creator of Stanford University, and the governor
    of California.

18
Textiles
  • With the invention of the spinning jenny and the
    power loom, the textile industry took off.
  • Clothes could now be made far faster than ever
    before.
  • The Textile industry was the first to
    industrialize.

19
Spinning wheel
  • The spinning wheel was the first invention, but
    it was very slow.
  • Threads were spun one at a time, by hand.

20
The spinning jenny
  • The spinning jenny could spin up to eight thread
    at time. The spinning jenny was much faster than
    the spinning wheel.

21
The Spinning Mule
  • The spinning mule used water power to spin the
    thread, which was much faster than doing it by
    hand.
  • More cloth could now be made.

22
The Power Mule
23
The power loom
  • The power loom used water power to weave cloth
  • People could make a lot of cloth quickly.

24
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25
A cotton factory
26
Agriculture
  • Advances in agriculture were also made.
  • The invention of the seed drill allowed farmers
    to plant many more seeds much more quickly.
  • The reaper allowed farmers to harvest their crops
    more efficiently.
  • More crops could now be grown feeding an
    increasing population.

27
The seed drill
28
The reaper
  • The reaper was used to cut down the harvest. It
    would take a long time to do it by hand.
    Individuals were not always paid very well for
    their labor either.

29
The mechanical reaper
  • The mechanical reaper was a lot faster than doing
    the hand reaper

30
Steel
  • With the invention of steel, buildings could be
    made much taller.
  • Steel was much harder than iron, which would bend
    if made too tall.
  • The steel industry created many new products, and
    led to the invention of the car.

31
Smoke stacks of a factory
32
A melting plant
33
Pollution
  • One of the bad things about Industrialization
    was pollution.

34
Andrew Carnegie
  • Andrew Carnegie became a millionaire in the steel
    business by putting all his competitors out of
    business.
  • He created U.S. Steel in Pittsburg.

35
The electric light
  • Can you imagine what life would be like without
    the electric light?
  • Thomas Edison invented the electric light.
  • Thomas Edison also invented many other things,
    like the phonograph.

36
Thomas Edison
37
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38
The phonograph
39
Telegraph
  • In 1844, Samuel Morse demonstrates his telegraph
    by sending a message to Baltimore from the
    chambers of the Supreme Court in Washington, DC.
    The message, "What hath God wrought?," marks the
    beginning of a new era in communication.
  • The telegraph used dots and dashes to send
    messages over electric lines. These dots and
    dashes became known as Morse Code.

40
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41
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42
Telephone
  • Alexander Graham Bell patented the first
    telephone in 1876.

43
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44
John D. Rockefeller
  • 1870 - John D. Rockefeller became the richest man
    in the world in the oil business.
  • He created Standard Oil Company.
  • Oil began being used in all types of machines,
    like cars.

45
Henry Ford
  • 1908 - Henry Ford invented the first practical
    car, the Model T.
  • The car had been invented earlier, but Ford was
    the first to make the car affordable.

46
Samuel Gompers
  • 1886 - With all the new businesses being created,
    someone needed to take care of the workers.
  • Gompers created the American Federation of Labor,
    or organization of other labor unions that had
    bonded together to protect the rights of workers.

47
Orville and Wilber Wright
  • 1903 - The Wright brothers were the first men to
    successfully fly an airplane.
  • The flight lasted only twelve seconds, but it
    proved men could fly.

48
Industrial Revolution Changes Society, Economy,
Culture
  • Social Darwinism Some believe their wealth was
    deserved because they worked for it. Those who
    werent wealthy socially weak.
  • Gospel of Wealth Some believed that it was a
    Christians duty to give to the needy and the new
    wealthy class ought to share their wealth.
  • Socialism Communism develop in response to the
    unfair wealth distribution and working practices.

49
Socialism Communism
  • Communism society owns the means of production
    the economy government provide for the needs of
    the citizens.
  • Belief that capitalism is designed to create
    poverty and poor working conditions because of
    its end goal of earning maximum profits for
    investors (individuals)
  • Motto From each according to his ability, to
    each according to his needs.
  • Theorized to be the end-result of economic
    progression.
  • Socialism government owns most of the means of
    production and operates it for public benefit.
  • Belief that if the government (the people) owns
    the means of production, these factories and
    industries will function in the public (as
    opposed to private) interest
  • Motto From each according to his ability, to
    each according to his contribution.
  • Theorized to be an essential step before
    achieving communism.

50
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
  • Utopian socialist
  • Owned a textile factory in New Lanark, Scotland
  • Set up a model community in New Harmony, Indiana
  • Decreased working hours
  • Improved working conditions and employee housing
  • Shared management and profits with employees
  • Proved that a socialist-based company could be
    profitable

51
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  • German socialist (communist) philosopher
  • Forced to leave Prussia for articles attacking
    the Prussian government
  • Relocated to France where he was considered too
    radical
  • Wrote Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels
    (1848)
  • Relocated to England where he lived out the rest
    of his life
  • Wrote Das Kapital the bible of socialism
    (1867)
  • Religion is the opiate of the people.
  • Belief that religion is designed to keep people
    submissive to those in power by promising them
    that their reward is in heaven

52
How did industrialization change the way of life?
Large gaps between the rich and the poor
Changes brought by industrialization
Size ?
Class Tensions
Cities
Working Conditions
Factories
The rise of the middle class
Living Conditions
No safety codes
Sickness
Long hours, Little pay
Dangerous conditions
53
Review Questions
  • What was the Industrial Revolution?
  • Describe at least three developments of the
    Industrial Revolution.
  • Compare and contrast the domestic and factory
    methods of production.
  • Explain the terms Gospel of Wealth and Social
    Darwinism?
  • Which of those two ideas do you agree with more?
    Explain why.
  • Explain why one invention or development leads to
    another.
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