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Energy Flow in Ecosystems

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Energy Flow in Ecosystems Science 10 Trophic Levels Trophic levels refer to feeding levels in an ecosystem. They help to explain food and energy distribution in an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Flow in Ecosystems


1
Energy Flow in Ecosystems
  • Science 10

2
Trophic Levels
  • Trophic levels refer to feeding levels in an
    ecosystem. They help to explain food and energy
    distribution in an ecosystem.
  • 1st trophic level producers
  • 2nd trophic level primary consumers
  • 3rd trophic level secondary consumers
  • 4th trophic level tertiary consumers

3
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4
Detritivores and Decomposers
  • Detritivores organisms that consumes dead
    material and animal wastes including decomposers
  • Decomposers various bacteria and fungi that
    break down dead material and animal wastes and
    extract the remaining nutrients

5
  • Trophic levels show the transfer of energy
    through a food chain.
  • On average, only 10 of energy from one trophic
    level is transferred to the next level. Why?

6
Energy Use by an Organism
  • All living organisms use energy to move, grow,
    reproduce and carry out activities.
  • As a result
  • 30 of energy gets converted to thermal energy
    through cellular respiration
  • 60 of energy gets converted into waste
  • Only 10 of energy is converted into body tissue,
    usable at the next level.

7
  • There are various tools to explain the
    relationship between each trophic level including
    the three pyramids found on pages 14, 16 and 17.

8
Pyramid of Numberspage 14
  • Benefits
  • It shows how MANY organisms are at each level so
    we can estimate the energy available.
  • It helps explain why there are fewer organisms
    higher up the food chain
  • Drawbacks
  • Sometimes, small herbivores and carnivores
    outnumber the organism they consume so the
    pyramid does not reflect the energy flow.
  • Think of the number of insects that can feed on a
    tree.

9
Biomass the total dry mass of a given population
of organisms.
10
Pyramid of Biomasspage 16
  • Benefits
  • Shows how MUCH of a living organism is at each
    level so we can estimate how much energy is
    available.
  • Biomass can be several small organisms at a
    trophic level, or a few big organisms at a
    trophic level.
  • Drawbacks
  • Sometimes, producers reproduce very quickly, but
    the total biomass is lower than the primary
    consumers, making the pyramid upside down.
  • Example zooplankton and algae

11
Pyramid of Energy page 17
  • Benefits
  • A pyramid of energy demonstrates the flow of
    chemical energy through each trophic level.
  • It cannot be inverted because there is always
    less energy available as you go up a trophic
    level.
  • Drawbacks
  • Energy pyramids do not reflect the quantity of
    organisms.
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