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Unit 7: Social Psychology

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Unit 7: Social Psychology Ch 18: Individual Interaction Ch 19: Group Interaction Ch 20: Attitudes and Social Influence Ch 21: Psychology: Present and Future – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 7: Social Psychology


1
Unit 7 Social Psychology
  • Ch 18 Individual Interaction
  • Ch 19 Group Interaction
  • Ch 20 Attitudes and Social Influence
  • Ch 21 Psychology Present and Future

2
Ch 18 Individual Interaction
  • Why we need friends
  • Social psychology seeks to explain how our
    thoughts, feelings, perceptions, ___________
    are influenced by ___________ w/ others.
  • Social cognition is a subfield of social psych.
    that focuses specifically on how we perceive,
    store, retrieve information about
    __________________.
  • As infants we learn to associate
    _____________________ w/ the satisfaction of
    ____________.
  • Being around other humans becomes a habit that is
    difficult to break. We develop needs for
    _______, respect, love, affection, other
    _________________ that can only be satisfied by
    _______.

3
  • Anxiety companionship
  • We seem to need company most when were ______ or
    anxious. We also need it when were unsure of
    ourselves want to _______________ w/ others.
  • We like to compare our experiences w/ others.
    (How many of you asked one or more of your
    classmates how they did on your last psychology
    test when you got them back?) ?
  • This helps us to ___________ our own situation.
  • This is how we learn our _______________
    ___________.
  • When we are uncertain, we want to socialize w/
    people who are in a __________________.
  • Friends offer support in trying times b/c they
    can serve as __________ can react to our
    problems.
  • Friends tend to help __________, be of no
    significant help w/ _______________ of stress,
    hinder peoples ability to deal w/ ___________ of
    stress.
  • By repeatedly going over _____________ events,
    you might your sensitivity to them.

4
  • How we choose friends
  • Although modern methods of _____________
    communication make it easier to be friends w/ all
    kinds of people, we rarely go beyond the most
    ____________________ in making friends.
  • __________ physical proximity refers to the
    distance of one person to another person. The
    closer 2 individuals are geographically (home,
    school, work, etc), the more likely they are to
    form a relationship. We tend to form
    relationships w/ people we _______________.
  • ___________ what are you getting out of the
    friendship?
  • Stimulation value is the ability of a person to
    _________ in or to expose you to new ideas
    ______________.
  • Utility value is the ability of a person to help
    another achieve his/her ________.
  • Ego-support value is the ability of a person to
    provide another person w/ _________,
    encouragement, __________.

5
  • ___________________ our appearance greatly
    influences others impressions of us. People
    feel better about themselves when they associate
    w/ people whom others ___________________.
  • We often consider those w/ physical beauty to be
    more responsive, ________, sociable, intelligent,
    ______, outgoing, poised.
  • This is true of same-sex opposite-sex
    relationships.
  • One study showed that the only ___________________
    _ attractive people displayed more was that they
    tend to be more comfortable in ____ __________.
  • We usually seek out others whom we consider to be
    ________ in attractiveness.
  • _________ we tend to like people who agree w/
    support us b/c they make us _____________ about
    ourselves (ego-support value).

6
  • __________ we tend to choose friends whose
    backgrounds, attitudes, interests are similar
    to _____________. Why?
  • Agreement on what is worthwhile fun, which
    provides the basis for _______ ____________.
  • Most of us feel uneasy around people who are
    constantly ____________ our views.
  • Most of us are ____________ enough to assume that
    people who share our values are basically
    _____________________.
  • People who agree about things usually find it
    easier to ___________ w/ each other.
  • Complementarity the attraction that often
    develops b/w _____________ of people b/c of the
    ability of one to supply what the other _______.
  • Helps in some relationships, but most
    psychologists agree that _________ is a much more
    important factor.

End Section 1
7
  • 1st impressions
  • Your ____________ of a person are often based on
    your __________ of him/her.
  • Your 1st impression is usually based on a
    persons __________________.
  • The primacy effect is the tendency to
    ____________ of others based on 1st impressions.
  • These initial judgments often influence us more
    than ______ ____________ does.
  • These impressions sometimes become a
    _________________ b/c the way you act toward
    someone changes depending on your impression of
    him/her which influences how that person
    __________ w/ you.

8
  • Schemas
  • Forming ____________ helps us place these people
    into categories or schemas.
  • Schemas are different for _____________.
  • When you meet someone who exhibits a particular
    characteristic, you might assume he/she possesses
    ____________________ based on your past
    experience.
  • Ex. You meet someone who is intelligent assume
    she is also interesting. Another person meets
    her, but assumes she must also be boring.
  • We also develop schemas about people weve never
    met but ________________.
  • Schemas allow us to explain a persons _____
    _______ to _______ his/her future behavior.
    They also allow us to organize information so
    that we can respond appropriately in
    __________________.

9
  • Stereotypes
  • Are a __________________ about people in a given
    _________ often based on half-truths
    non-truths.
  • Occur when we develop _______ for entire groups
    of people.
  • May contain __________________ information.

10
  • Attribution theory
  • A collection of principles based on our
    ____________ of the causes of events, other
    peoples behavior, our own ___________.
  • Internal (or dispositional) attributions refers
    to a persons personal ______________.
  • External (or situational) attributions refers to
    _________________ on their behavior.
  • The fundamental attribution error is the tendency
    to attribute others behavior to ________
    attributions ignore the ________ factors
    contributing to their behavior.
  • The actor-observer bias is our tendency to focus
    on _______ factors when explaining the behavior
    of others, but more on __________ factors when
    explaining our own.
  • We realize our own behavior changes from
    situation to situation, but when we observe
    people we dont take _________________.
  • The self-serving bias is our tendency to claim
    ______ is due to our efforts, while failure is
    due to circumstances _____________________.

11
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Is the process through which ________ are
    conveyed using space, ___________, facial
    expressions.
  • People are ___________ of their nonverbal
    communication.
  • We are more aware of nonverbal communication when
    were on the _____________ of the messages.
  • Body language refers specifically to our use of
    space, posture, __________.
  • Although the use of body language is often
    ___________, many of the postures we adopt
    gestures we make are governed by ______________.

End Section 2
12
  • Parent-child relationships
  • Many psychologists believe that early
    persistent patterns of _____________ interaction
    can influence peoples later __________________
    about their relationships w/ the significant
    people in their lives.
  • If our caregivers are loving, responsive
    consistent, we _________ other people to meet our
    needs.
  • If our caregivers are unaffectionate,
    unresponsive, inconsistent, we will most likely
    be more _____________ of other people.
  • As we form relationships w/ people outside our
    families, we apply what __________ from our
    families.
  • Our parents (may) provide us w/ the 1st example
    of a __________ relationship.
  • Many people tend to _________ this model (for
    better or worse).
  • In our society, parent-child conflict may develop
    during _____________.
  • Generational identity is the theory that people
    of ____________ tend to think differently about
    certain issues b/c of different formative
    experiences.

13
  • Romantic love
  • While love w/o marriage is becoming more common
    in our society, marriage w/o love is
    ________________.
  • Marrying for convenience, companionship,
    financial security, or any reason that _______
    __________ strikes most of us as impossible or at
    least unfortunate.
  • Some believe that one of the main reasons its
    difficult for many people to adjust to love
    marriage is b/c we have _________________ about
    love. This could also explain the s of
    _________.
  • There are 2 types of love
  • ________ love intense, sensual, all-consuming.
  • Feelings of great ___________, intense sexuality,
    the threat that it might go away. When it
    subsides, it __________ into the 2nd type.
  • ____________ love friendship, liking someone,
    mutual trust, wanting to be w/ them.
  • More _______, includes commitment _________.

14
  • Like vs. (romantic) love
  • Liking is based primarily on ______ for another
    person the feeling that he/she is ________ to
    you.
  • Loving has 3 major components
  • _______ (attachment)
  • ________ (the desire to give)
  • _________ (a special knowledge of each other
    derived from uncensored self-disclosure)
  • People in love feel strong desires to be w/ each
    other, to _____, to be praised cared for, to
    _______, be fulfilled.
  • W/o caring, need becomes _____________, but w/o
    need, caring becomes charity or plain
    ____________.
  • Men women tend to express the same degree of
    love for each other, but women ____________ their
    boyfriends more than their boyfriends like them.
  • Women also tend to love share _________ w/
    their same-sex friends more than men do.
  • When both partners express their interest in each
    other, the relationship is likely to _________.
  • So love isnt something that happens to you, its
    something you seek _________.

15
  • The triangular theory of love
  • Another psychologist proposed the triangular
    theory of love which contends that love is made
    up of 3 parts
  • __________
  • __________
  • _____________
  • The various combinations of these parts account
    for the many ___________ love is experienced.
  • Early love is heavy on passion light on
    ____________, whereas a couple celebrating their
    50th anniversary is heavy on intimacy
    commitment, but probably light on _________.

16
  • Marriage
  • A couples formal public ___________ to each
    other.
  • Odds for a successful marriage improve if they
    have similar ________, economic, ___________
    backgrounds practice the same __________.
  • Odds are even better if their _____ were happily
    married, they had happy __________, maintain
    good relationships w/ their _________.
  • 2 principles tend to govern behavior leading to
    successful marriages
  • Endogamy The tendency to marry someone who is
    from ones own ____ ______.
  • Homogamy The tendency to marry someone who has
    _____________ such as physical attractiveness,
    age, physique.

17
  • Marital problems divorce
  • In general, healthy adjustment to marriage
    depends on 3 factors
  • 1. Whether their _______ are compatible.
  • 2. Whether their images of themselves each
    other are _____________.
  • 3. Whether they agree on what __________ in the
    marriage are.
  • External factors may make it impossible for
    either to live up to their own ______________,
    but often the couple just _____________.
  • In many ways, divorce is like adjusting to
    ______. A person often _________ even if he/she
    wanted the divorce. Other common emotions are
    resentment, fear, loneliness, anxiety, mostly
    the feeling of __________.
  • __________________ often occurs this is when
    divorced people go through a period of ______
    that lasts until they suddenly realize they have
    _______.
  • They then begin to construct __________ as single
    people.

18
  • Children divorce
  • A divorce is usually far more ______ for the
    children than the parents. This is b/c
  • Children usually ________ the divorce.
  • Children usually ______________ the reasons for
    the divorce.
  • Children rarely have any _______ over the outcome
    of a divorce.
  • Children arent as _______________ able to cope
    w/ the experience.
  • A child whose parents divorce may exhibit
    behaviors like __________________, depression,
    /or __________.
  • How long these behaviors last may be determined
    by the _________ of the parents relationship,
    the ________ of the childs life, the adequacy
    of the ______________________.
  • Most children do eventually __________ w/ the
    divorce.
  • It helps if the parents explain the divorce
    allow the child to express his/her _________.

End Section 3
19
Ch 19 Group Interaction
  • Groups
  • A collection of people who have a degree of
    ______________, some amount of ______________,
    shared _______.
  • People who __________ but dont interact arent
    considered a group but an aggregate. So
    _________ is the key factor in forming a group.
  • _____________ occurs when any action by 1 member
    will affect or _______ the other members.
  • In small groups, members usually have a
    ____________ on each other. But in large groups,
    the influence may be ________.

20
  • ___________ is crucial to the functions of a
    group. It may be directed outwards toward
    _________ or internal for group members to
    discuss group activities share common goals.
    It also aids members __________________.
  • Shared goals 2 kinds
  • Task functions activities directed toward
    getting a ___________.
  • Social functions responses directed toward
    satisfying the ___________ of members.
  • Usually groups meet both types of goals, but 1
    type is __________.
  • A _________ organization seems more useful for
    task-oriented groups, whereas a ___________
    network is more useful in socially oriented
    groups.

21
  • Why do we join groups?
  • They satisfy our need to _______.
  • We use group members as standards against which
    to ________________ our experiences.
  • Groups our ___________.
  • Group members may offer us ________ in trying
    times.
  • Groups provide us w/ _____________.
  • Groups help us accomplish things that we couldnt
    do ________.

22
  • How are groups held together?
  • Factors that a groups cohesiveness are
  • Norms ______________ that govern the behavior
    attitudes of group members.
  • Includes rules, tendencies, habits.
  • Group members are _________ for breaking them
    may only be __________.
  • Ideology the set of principles, _______,
    defined objectives for which a group stands
    their _______.
  • Commitment demonstration of personal
    _________________________.
  • If a person is willing to pay , endure hardship,
    or undergo humiliation to join a group, he/she is
    ________________ w/ that group.
  • When people actively participate in group
    decisions share the ______ of a groups
    accomplishments, their feelings of belonging
    .

23
  • Types of groups
  • When a groups members _______ w/ their group,
    they are known as the in-group.
  • The out-group includes everyone who isnt a
    member of the __________.
  • A primary group is a group of people who interact
    daily _____________.
  • Tend to be more __________.
  • A secondary group is a larger group of people w/
    whom you might have a more ____________________.

24
  • Social facilitation vs. social inhibition
  • Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
    _____________ in the presence of a group.
  • Ex. Home team advantage.
  • Seems to occur when participants perform
    __________________ tasks.
  • Social inhibition refers to the tendency to
    _____________ in the presence of a group.
  • Ex. Stuttering when giving a speech.
  • Seems to occur when participants perform complex
    tasks or tasks that involve __________________.
  • The effect of a crowd on your behavior may also
    be a reflection of your concern about being
    __________.
  • Its about ____________!

25
  • Interactions w/in groups
  • The particular role(s) we play w/in groups is
    important. Each group member has certain unique
    _______________, the group has a of different
    tasks that need to be performed.
  • There are many aspects to group structure
  • The ______________________ b/w individual members
  • The ______ of each member on a particular
    dimension (ex. Popularity or power, amount of
    resources).
  • The roles (__________ expected of individuals)
    the members are expected to play.
  • Sometimes the roles a person plays may __________.

26
  • Decision making
  • Group polarization is the theory that group
    discussion ________ the majoritys point of view
    shifts group members opinions to a more
    ____________________.
  • The _______ of the same arguments results in
    stronger attitudes in support of the majoritys
    view.
  • BUT if opinions of a group are _____ ____ on an
    issue before a discussion, the group discussion
    usually results in _____________.
  • Groupthink refers to __________ decision making
    that occurs as a result of a group emphasizing
    unity over _______________.
  • Group members refrain from criticizing each other
    may not discuss _____________________.
  • Decision making can be improved by encouraging
    group discussion, hearing ALL viewpoints,
    _________ each others views. Also, focus on the
    _______.

27
  • Leadership
  • A leader embodies the ___________ of the group
    represents the group to outsiders. W/in the
    group, the leader initiates action, gives orders,
    makes decisions, __________________.
  • An effective leader has a great deal of _______
    on the other members.
  • Leaders tend to be _______________, more
    self-confident, more energetic outgoing,
    slightly more intelligent than other members of
    _____________.
  • When a leader is ___________, followers trust the
    correctness of his/her views, obey him/her
    willingly, feel affection for the leader, are
    more ________ to perform at peak levels.
  • Styles of leadership
  • ______________ makes all the decisions
    assigns tasks.
  • _____________ only minimally involved in group
    decision making, he/she encourages the group to
    make its own decisions.
  • __________ encourages the group to make
    decisions through consensus.

End Section 1
28
  • Group pressure to conform
  • Conformity is acting in accord w/ ___________ or
    customs usually b/c of direct or indirect
    ________________.
  • Many people sometimes conform to other peoples
    ideas of the truth, even when they __________.
  • Why do we conform?
  • Most children are taught the overriding
    ____________ of being liked accepted.
  • Conformity is the standard means of gaining this
    approval.
  • We learn to __________ throughout our lives.
  • We are more likely to follow rules when an
    ____________ is present.
  • We usually only need _________ disagreeing w/ the
    majority in order to be willing to go against a
    smaller group. It seems that its hardest to
    ______________.
  • Even when we conform, we might not actually
    change our _____. This contradiction of public
    behavior private belief is known as compliance.

29
  • Factors that conforming behavior in people
  • Belonging to a group that _________ ____________
    of groups rather than individuals.
  • The desire to be ______ by other members of the
    group.
  • Low _______________.
  • Social shyness.
  • Lack of ____________ w/ a task.
  • __________ (conformity as the size of the
    group grows to 5-6 people. After that conformity
    levels off).
  • ___________________.

30
  • Obedience to authority
  • The influence _____________ have on your
    attitudes behavior is ____________. Sometimes
    this influence is direct obvious, other times
    its indirect ________.
  • Obedience is a change in _______________ brought
    about by social pressure to comply w/ people
    perceived to be __________.
  • It can be ______________________.
  • The abuses of German Nazis American soldiers in
    Vietnam show that individuals often obey
    _________________, even when obedience goes
    against their __________.

31
  • The Milgram experiment
  • P.558-560.
  • During 1960s, Stanley Milgram wanted to determine
    whether participants would administer ___________
    to others just b/c an _____________________ told
    them to.
  • It was a study on peoples _______________________
    _______.
  • Almost 1,000 male participants were told the
    study was on how ______________________.
  • Participants, the __________, were told to
    administer an electric shock to the _______
    when they answered incorrectly.
  • Shocks werent real but learners acted as if in
    __________________.
  • ____ of the teachers administered the full
    shock possible b/c they were told to.
  • The teachers often showed signs of extreme
    discomfort many wanted to quit but _______
    ________________.
  • People assume that authorities know what they are
    doing, even when their instructions seem to be
    __________.
  • The experiment has been repeated w/ ______
    __________.

32
  • The Stanford prison experiment
  • P. 561-562.
  • In 1971, Philip Zimbardo wanted to determine how
    participants of ________________ would respond to
    being placed in a simulated prison environment w/
    ½ acting as guards ½ as prisoners. The
    experiment was planned to last ____________.
  • He created a _______ in the basement of a
    building at Stanford Univ. Male volunteers were
    questioned then ______________ the role of
    guard or prisoner.
  • W/in _______, the guards began behaving very
    harshly w/ the prisoners (excessively punishing
    ________ them) the prisoners, whom at 1st
    rebelled, eventually became angry ________.
  • The experiment was called off after _______.
  • Participants, although drastically affected at
    the time, reported ____________________.
  • Showed the _________________ in affecting
    peoples actions personalities.
  • Led to new, tougher _________________ for
    psychology experiments.

33
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34
End Section 2
35
  • Aggression
  • Any behavior intended to do _____________________
    harm to others.
  • There are several theories about what causes
    people to act in aggressive ways
  • ________ factors Humans have innate biological
    factors that cause aggression (like some wild
    animals). __________________ also influence a
    persons aggressive behavior.
  • ___________ factors Children learn aggressive
    behavior by observing _________ adults. The
    media also teaches aggressive behavior to
    children they can become _____________________.
  • ___________ factors Certain personality traits
    (like impulsiveness, little empathy, w/ a
    dominating nature) can turn a person into a
    bully. Aggressive people may also be arrogant
    often strike out at others to affirm their
    ____________________.
  • __________ factors The frustration-aggression
    hypothesis states that frustration or a failure
    to _____________________ leads to aggression in
    certain situations.

36
  • Controlling aggression
  • So aggression is a combination of ___________,
    cognitive, personality, ____________ factors.
  • How do we limit control aggression?
  • Catharsis is ____________ or aggression by
    letting out powerful negative emotions.
  • This can be done by talking it out w/ someone,
    _________________ ________, etc
  • But some believe that expressing aggression may
    lead to _______ ___________ b/c you focus on the
    problem.
  • _____________ for violent behavior (but the
    punishment must not be excessive) limit the
    amount of __________ theyre exposed to.
  • Can be controlled by teaching people to
    _____________________ in ways other than violence.

37
  • Group conflict vs. cooperation
  • Conflicts b/w groups are a fact of life, but why
    do they occur persist?
  • Studies have found that competition (even if it
    ________________) can lead to conflict.
  • However, when 2 opposing groups have to
    ____________ cooperate for the good of all,
    gradually intergroup tensions lessen may go
    away.
  • So the key to ending conflict is ____________.
  • A social trap is when individuals in a group
    decide not to _________, but to act selfishly
    create a ____________ for all.

38
  • Helping others (or not)
  • Altruism is the _____________, often at a cost or
    risk, for reasons other than expectation of a
    ________.
  • Diffusion of responsibility occurs when the
    presence of others lessens an individuals
    feelings of ___________ for his/her actions or
    failure to act.
  • We assume that ___________ will/should act.
  • The bystander effect occurs when an individual
    doesnt take action b/c of the presence of
    others.
  • People may even _________ each other not to act.
  • The larger the crowd, the __________ we are to
    act.
  • We also have a tendency to ______ the need for
    any response. We may hear screams wait to make
    sure its a real emergency rather than
    ____________________ by acting immediately.
  • Its easier to believe nothing is wrong if others
    are ___________ may even make you think that
    not doing anything is the proper thing to do.

39
  • We are more likely to act if a _____ is present,
    we know the person who needs help, know what kind
    of help is needed, have seen the correct response
    modeled before, /or expect ______________ w/ the
    person needing help.
  • Social loafing refers to the tendency to put less
    effort into work when ___________________ w/
    others.
  • We realize that our individual contributions are
    not as apparent easily measured in a group
    setting may also experience a sense of
    ______________.
  • When people act as individuals, obey their
    consciences, are concerned w/ self-evaluation,
    we think of them as _______________. But when
    deindividuation occurs, people lose their sense
    of self follow _______________. They may
    behave irrationally when there is less chance of
    being _______________.
  • May feelings of guilt or self-awareness
    causing normally pleasant people to _______
    _________.
  • But social pressure can also lead people to do
    good things as well or just ____________ doing
    bad things.

End Section 3
40
Ch 20 and 21 Quiz
41
Ch 20 Attitudes and Social Influence
  • Attitude
  • A ___________ to act, think, feel in particular
    ways towards a class of people, objects, or an
    _______.
  • Where do attitudes come from?
  • __________ classical operant.
  • _________________ we form opinions after
    thinking about something or sometimes w/ very
    little thought.
  • ___________ culture, parents, peers,
    experiences, etc

42
  • Functions of attitudes
  • Help us make up our self-concept (how we see or
    describe ourselves our _____________ of
    ourselves).
  • _____________ have attitudes as well.
  • People in the same __________ tend to have the
    same _________ b/c they are exposed to the same
    _____________.
  • Serve as guidelines for interpreting
    categorizing people, objects, events, as well
    as guide us to __________ in certain ways.
  • So they tell us what to approach what to avoid.
  • Sometimes our attitudes arent _________ w/ our
    behavior. Your behavior may reflect your
    attitudes more/less strongly depending on why you
    formed a certain attitude.
  • Many psychologists believe that the attitudes
    that most strongly predict behavior are those
    acquired through ___________________.

End Section 1
43
  • Attitude change
  • There are 3 main processes involved in forming or
    changing attitudes
  • Compliance a _________________ to avoid
    discomfort or rejection to gain approval.
  • We often give in to social pressure, but this is
    usually only ___________ the attitude doesnt
    ________________.
  • Identification seeing oneself as _______ to
    another person/group ______________ __________
    of another person/group as ones own.
  • Its different from compliance b/c the person
    _________ the newly adopted views.
  • But these attitudes are _____, b/c if a person
    stops identifying w/ the other person/group, the
    attitude may _____.

44
  • Internalization incorporating the values,
    ideas, standards of others as part of
    ___________.
  • The attitude becomes an ________ ______ of the
    person.
  • Its most likely to occur when an attitude is
    _________ w/ a persons basic beliefs supports
    his/her self-image.
  • This is the ____________ of the 3 types of
    attitude formation/change.
  • Compliance or identification may lead to the
    ______________ of an attitude.
  • Often the 3 __________.

45
  • Cognitive consistency
  • Our attitudes change b/c were always trying to
    get things to fit together ________ inside our
    heads.
  • Holding 2 opposing attitudes can create
    ___________________.
  • Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable feeling
    when a person experiences _________ thoughts,
    attitudes, beliefs, or feelings.
  • To reduce dissonance, its necessary to change
    either the __________ or the conflicting
    ___________.
  • How do we reduce dissonance?
  • By __________ it exists.
  • ______ situations or exposure to information that
    would create conflict.
  • By _________ the attitude /or reevaluating the
    event.
  • The process of dissonance reduction doesnt
    always take place ___________.

46
  • Attitudes actions
  • Actions can affect ___________ if you act
    speak as though you have certain beliefs
    feelings, you may begin to really believe feel
    that way. That is known as counterattitudinal
    behavior.
  • This is also a method of reducing ___________
    ____________.
  • People have a need for self-justification (the
    need to ___________ ones attitude behavior).
  • Studies have shown that if people are led to
    believe theyve ___ someone, they will convince
    themselves they didnt like the victim so the
    victim ______ the injury.
  • A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person
    ____ in such a way as to make a belief,
    prediction, or expectation _______________.
  • Ex. You think people are basically nice so you
    are very friendly making people like you, or
    you think people are basically rude so you are
    very unfriendly making people _____________.

47
  • Prejudice
  • A preconceived attitude toward a person or group
    that has been formed w/o sufficient evidence
    isnt _______________.
  • _____________________.
  • Its not always __________.
  • Can be based on social, economic, or physical
    factors.
  • A stereotype is an oversimplified, hard to change
    way of seeing people who belong to __________.
  • A role is an oversimplified, hard to change way
    _________.
  • What causes prejudice?
  • People tend to be prejudice in favor of those
    they see as ______ to themselves against those
    they see as ____________.
  • May acquire it through ______________.
  • Other causes as well.
  • Discrimination is the ___________________ of
    members of certain groups.
  • Prejudice is an ________ discrimination is an
    ___________.
  • A person may be prejudice, but not discriminate.
    Also, a person may discriminate (due to something
    like social pressure) but not be prejudice.

End Section 2
48
  • Persuasion
  • A direct attempt to ______________________.
  • The persuaders main hope is that by changing the
    other persons attitudes, he/she can change that
    persons __________ as well.
  • Persuasive communication can be broken into 4
    parts
  • 1. The __________ of the message.
  • Is it trustworthy sincere?
  • Is he/she _______________ about the subject?
  • Is he/she ___________?
  • - If the answer to all these questions is
    yes, the message is more likely to be
    __________.
  • - The boomerang effect is when a change in
    attitude or behavior ______ of the one
    desired by the persuader occurs.
  • - Ex. You dont like the sports player
    trying to get you to buy a particular pair
    of shoes.

49
  • 2. The ___________ itself.
  • The persuasiveness of a message depends on its
    content how it is composed organized.
  • The central route for persuasion relies on
    presenting information __________.
  • The peripheral route for persuasion relies on
    ___________ appeals.
  • 3. The ___________ through which its delivered.
  • When, where, how the message is delivered.
  • Personal contact is usually the most _______.
  • Movies, tv, the internet are more effective
    media of persuasion than ____________ b/c were
    more likely to believe what we see hear.
  • 4. The ____________ that receives it.
  • Persuading people to alter their views depends on
    knowing who they are why they hold the
    __________ they do.
  • You need to know what __________ them.
  • People tend to ignore information that doesnt
    _______________________.

50
  • Heuristics
  • Rules of thumb or ________that may lead to but
    doesnt guarantee a __________.
  • If an individual isnt __________ in an issue,
    he/she is likely to rely on heuristic processing
    (a very casual, low-attention form of
    _______________).
  • Advertisers use heuristics to get us to buy their
    products by using ________, stressing their
    products popularity, having it endorsed by a
    _______, etc

51
  • The sleeper effect
  • The ____________ on attitude change of a
    persuasive communication.
  • Changes in attitude arent always ________
    usually have their greatest impact _____________
    then fade away.
  • So why might the persuasion be delayed?
  • The tendency to retain the message but forget the
    __________ (this is significant if the source was
    viewed _____________).
  • It can take time for the message to sink in
    people to ______________.

52
  • The inoculation effect
  • Is developing a __________________ by exposing a
    person to arguments that challenge his/her
    beliefs so that he/she can __________________
    them.
  • A person who has resisted a _________ on his/her
    beliefs is ready to defend them against a
    ________________ that might otherwise have been
    overwhelming.
  • It __________ individuals to defend their beliefs
    more strongly gives them ______ in defending
    their beliefs.
  • The most _______________ you have are the ones
    that youve never had to defend.

53
  • Brainwashing
  • An extreme form of ______________ involving
    physical torture _____________ manipulation by
    use of peer pressure, threats, rewards, guilt,
    /or intensive ______________.
  • Peoples convictions are broken down they
    accept _____________ of belief, feeling, /or
    behavior.
  • Brainwashing is done by
  • Stripping away all ________ subjecting him/her
    to intense social pressure ____________.
  • ____________ every act of compliance to his/her
    capturers.
  • Eventually, the person begins _______ what
    his/her capturers wish.

End Section 3
54
Ch 21 Psychology Present and Future
  • Careers in psychology
  • Psychology is a logical undergraduate major for
    people planning graduate work in fields like
    sociology, ____________, law, medicine, or
    ________.
  • These are all fields in which ________ _________
    plays a key role.
  • Some career options are
  • Crisis hot line advisor. A crisis intervention
    program is a short-term psychological ___________
    that helps individuals families deal w/
    emergencies or highly stressful situations.
  • Certain types of salesmen good salesmen tend to
    be _________ to others.

55
  • _________________ assistant.
  • Personnel director involves getting the right
    people hired for jobs keeping them
    ___________________.
  • _________ psychologist.
  • Clinical psychologist provides therapy. Often
    _______________.
  • Consulting psychologist often provides
    short-term services for businesses regarding
    _______________ how it relates to the
    services/product the business provides.

End Section 1
56
  • Fields of psychology
  • Psychology is among the ______________ fields
    according to the US Bureau of Labor.
  • Forensic psychology deals w/ diagnosis,
    evaluation, treatment, testimony regarding the
    law _________________.
  • Industrial/organizational psychology deals w/ the
    psychology of the ____________.
  • They help businesses operate more
    _________________________.
  • Sports psychology studies athletics athletic
    _______________.
  • They focus on maximizing performance through
    techniques like visualization (_______________
    the steps involved in a successful performance or
    process).

57
  • Psychologys contributions to society
  • Mental health
  • The ________ are no longer seen as being
    possessed needing to be put in chains, but as
    needing ____________________.
  • Testing
  • Psychologists have played a leading role in
    ______________ many tests (IQ, career interest
    inventories, etc) including the SAT (a
    standardized test that measures verbal, written,
    mathematical ________ abilities) the ACT (a
    standardized test that consists of 4 assessment
    tests that measure academic ______________).
  • Everyday living
  • _________________ (daycare, tv, etc)
  • Childrearing
  • Learning/behavior ______________
  • Much, much more

58
  • Experimental vs. applied psychology
  • Experimental psych uses a ________ of scientific
    methods to study human animal __________.
  • Applied psych puts the knowledge of psych to work
    solving _________________.
  • Both gather the available evidence offer the
    best explanation they can find.
  • Both study __________ use similar processes.
  • Applied psychologists search for
    ____________________ experimental psychologists
    for __________________.

59
  • The challenges of psychology
  • Social change, ______________, early learning,
    the biological bases for behavior, reduction of
    violence, etc are all among the __________
    facing psychologists today.
  • Gerontology is the study of _____. Its becoming
    increasingly important as people are
    ________________.
  • The top 3 killers of children adolescents in
    our society are accidents, ______, drugs
    mostly ___________ problems.
  • Many of the dangers facing society today are
    caused by ____ ___________, so they can only be
    solved by changing the behavior __________ of
    individuals ______________.

End Section 2
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