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HELLO, THIS MESSAGE IS IN ENGLISH

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Title: HELLO, THIS MESSAGE IS IN ENGLISH


1
HELLO, THIS MESSAGE IS IN ENGLISHWHY AM I
SPEAKING ENGLISH AND WHY CAN YOU UNDERSTAND ME?
IF YOU CAN UNDERSTAND THIS TURN TO PAGE 149 AND
READ FIGURE 5-2 AND LOOK AT THE MAP. GOODBYE.
2
1611 A book spread English and solidified its
dominance???
3
The Geography of Language
Die Geographie der Sprache
  • La Geografía del Idioma

La Géographie de Langue
La Geografia di Lingua
4
Key Issues
  • Where are English language speakers distributed?
  • Why is English related to other languages?
  • Where are other language families distributed?
  • Why do people preserve local language?

5
Language Defined
  • Organized system of spoken words or symbols by
    which people communicate with one another with
    mutual comprehension (Getis, 1985).
  • Languages subtly gradate (?) one to another.
  • Dialects and other regional differences may
    eventually lead to incomprehensibility - a new
    language.
  • Explain the impact Migration and
    Isolation has on language???

6
Language and Perception Words for Snow
10 Words or more 'ice' sikko 'bare ice'
tingenek 'snow (in general)' aput 'snow (like
salt) pukak 'soft deep snow' mauja 'snowdrift'
tipvigut 'soft snow' massak 'watery snow'
mangokpok wet snow on top of ice
putsinniq 'snow filled with water' massalerauvok
mushy snow' akkilokipok
What does this tell us about this culture? Who
might this language be spoken by?
Inuit people!
7
Language as Element of Cultural Diversity
  • 6000 Languages spoken today, not including
    dialects
  • 1500 Spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa alone
  • 400 in New Guinea alone
  • 100 in Europe
  • TED Talks Dont insist on English?
  • http//www.ted.com/talks/patricia_ryan_ideas_in_al
    l_languages_not_just_english?utm_sourcedirect-on.
    ted.comshare1ac5ad4b0utm_contentroadrunner-rrs
    horturlawesmon.ted.com_c08VTutm_mediumon.ted.c
    om-noneutm_campaign
  • However, this diversity is diminishing
  • 2000 Threatened or Endangered Languages is
    this an effect of globalization?


8
Language in Africa
  • There are over 2100 and by some counts over 3000
    languages spoken natively in Africa in several
    major language families

9
  • South Africa has eleven official languages
  • Afrikaans
  • English
  • Ndebele (un de bele)
  • Northern Sotho (sutu)
  • Sotho (sutu)
  • Swazi
  • Tswana
  • Tsonga
  • Venda (bin da)
  • Xhosa (cosa)
  • Zulu
  • Most South Africans can speak more than one
    language.

10
What problems might arise?

11
Roots of Language
Written Languages (Literary Tradition)- 1st
evidence of written languageSumerian 3000 B.C.,
Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Libraries established by
2500 B.C. (more than 200,000 of the tablets have
been preserved. - Why is writing connected to
the Neolithic Revolution and not Paleo?

12
Roots of Language
How to Write a Language?

13
Roots of Language
How to Write Down a Language?

Ideograms symbols represent a phrase or word -
Sumerian Chinese Egyptian Japanese
14
How to Write a Language?
  • Phonetic symbols represent a sound
  • Most languages, including Romance languages
  • All the symbols look similar, even if it is a
    different language.
  • A phonetic alphabet is the key innovation. WHY?


15
Language Families
16
Language Divisions how we classify language.
  • Language Families
  • Language Branches
  • Language Groups
  • Languages
  • Dialects
  • Accents

17
Language Divisions for English
-- Indo-European -- Germanic -- West Germanic
-- English -- Northeastern -- Boston (Pak da
ka o-fa dere, pleese!)
  • Language Families
  • Language Branches
  • Language Groups
  • Languages
  • Dialects
  • Accents

18
(No Transcript)
19
Dialects in the United States Think Pair Share
  • Influenced and modified by later immigration
  • Read Settlement in the East on page 151 and tell
    me why we have different dialects.
  • Read Current Dialect Differences in the East and
    answer
  • What is an isogloss?
  • Where are they in U.S.?
  • Word examples?

Please discuss with a partner!
20
Key Issue 2 Why is English Related to Other
Languages?
  • Language family collection of languages related
    through a common ancestral language that existed
    long before recorded history.
  • Language branch a collection of languages
    related though a common ancestral language that
    existed several thousand years ago.
  • Creolized language that mixes a colonizers
    language with the indigenous language

21
(No Transcript)
22
FAMILY BRANCH LANGUAGE
English
Spanish
Mandarin
Arabic
Turkish
Japanese
Hindi
Russian
Vietnamese
Yoruba
23
Indo-European Language Family (50 of World)
  • Main Branches
  • Germanic - Dutch, German
  • Romance - Spanish, French
  • Baltic-Slavic - Russian
  • Indo-Iranian - Hindu, Bengali

24
Indo-European Language Family - Germanic Branch
  • LANGUAGE GROUP Languages within a branch
  • West Germanic
  • English (514 million)
  • German (128)
  • Dutch (21)
  • North Germanic
  • Danish (5)
  • Norwegian (5)
  • Swedish (9)

25
Germanic Branch - Icelandic
Largely unchanged because of isolation. Highly
developed literary tradition. Ancient sagas can
be read by modern speakers of Icelandic.
26
Germanic Branch - English
Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of
years of British colonialism. Brought to New
World by British colonies in 1600s. Has become an
important global lingua franca. What does lingua
franca mean?
27
Indo-European Language Family - Romance Branch
  • Like English these languages have been spread by
    Colonialism.
  • Spanish (425 million)
  • Portuguese (194) - most in Brazil
  • French (129)
  • Italian (62)
  • Romanian (26)

Separated by physical boundaries! or Slavic
people
28
Key Issue 3 Where are other language families
distributed?
  • Turn to page 161 and read the bullet points under
    the Classification of Languages
  • Take Notes

29
Sino-Tibetan Language Family (26)
  • Branches
  • Sinitic - Mandarin, Cantonese
  • Austro-Thai - Thai, Hmong

Chinese languages based on 420 one syllable words
with meaning infered from context and tone.
30
Language Families of Africa
There are far fewer MAJOR languages in the large
continent of Africa than in Europe which is much
smaller, but has many more MAJOR languages. What
conclusions can you draw? Only 8 African
languages are spoken by more than 10 million
people
Fig. 5-14 The 1,000 or more languages of Africa
are divided among five main language families,
including Austronesian languages in Madagascar.
31
Afro-Asiatic Language Family
  • Main Branch Semitic
  • Arabic(256)
  • Language of the Koran spread by Islamic Faith
    and Islamic (Ottoman) Empires
  • Hebrew (5)
  • Language of the old Testament (with Aramaic)
    completely revived from extinction in Israel,
    1948.

32
Niger-Congo Diffusion
  • Review
  • Who were the Bantu?
  • What is Khoisan?
  • Why is one type of language widespread and the
    other is not?

33
Key Terms
PIDGIN - a form of speech that adopts simplified
grammar and limited vocabulary from a lingua
franca, used for communication between speakers
of two different languages.
Slave trade developed pidgin languages (slaves
communicating with locals to create a common
language)
CREOLE - a language that results from the mixing
of a colonizers language with an indigenous
language. Often they are pidgins
34
Key Terms
DIALECT - a regional variety of a language
distinguished by pronunciation, spelling, and
vocabulary. Social Dialects - can denote social
class and standing. Vernacular Dialects - the
common, slang, speech of a region.
The term Cockney has had several distinct
geographical, social, and linguistic
associations. Originally a pejorative applied to
all city-dwellers, it was eventually restricted
to Londoners and particularly to the "Bow-bell
Cockneys those born within earshot of Bow Bells,
the bells of St Mary-le-Bow in east London's
Cheapside district. More recently, it is
variously used to refer to those in London's East
End, or to all working-class Londoners generally
Pg. 149 Dialects in England
35
Key Terms
ISOLATED LANGUAGE - a language that is not
related to any other languages and thus not
connected to any language families. Examples
include Basque and Icelandic.
Basque Spain
36
Language and the Environment(Linguistic Ecology)
Mt Cook, New Zealand
TOPONYM - a place name. These are language on
the land, reflecting past inhabitants and their
relation to the land.
Cook Islands, Polynesia
Devils Tower, WY
Badwater, Death Valley
37
Endangered Languages
  • As recently as 3,000 years ago, there were 10,000
    to 15,000 languages in the world.
  • Today, only about 6000 left.
  • Of those, 1/2 will be gone by the year 2100 and
    all but 500 of the rest will be endangered.
  • More than 90 percent of the languages in
    existence today will be extinct or threatened in
    little more than a century if current trends
    continue.


38
Extinct Languages - USA (93)
ABNAKI-PENOBSCOT ACHUMAWI AHTENA APACHE,
KIOWA APACHE, LIPAN ATAKAPA ATSUGEWI
BILOXI CADDO CAHUILLA CATAWBA
CHEHALIS, LOWER CHEROKEE CHETCO CHINOOK
CHINOOK WAWA CHITIMACHA CHUMASH
CLALLAM COEUR D'ALENE COOS COQUILLE
COWLITZ CUPEÑO EYAK FLATHEAD-KALISPEL
GALICE GROS VENTRE HAN HAWAI'I PIDGIN
SIGN LANGUAGE HOLIKACHUK HUPA IOWA-OTO
KALAPUYA KANSA KASHAYA KATO KAWAIISU
KITSAI KOYUKON LUMBEE LUSHOOTSEED
MAIDU, NORTHEAST MAIDU, NORTHWEST MAIDU,
VALLEY MANDAN MARTHA'S VINEYARD SIGN
MATTOLE MENOMINI MIAMI MIWOK MOBILIAN
MOHEGAN MONO NANTICOKE NATCHEZ
NISENAN NOOKSACK OFO OSAGE POMO
POWHATAN QUAPAW QUILEUTE QUINAULT
SALINAN SALISH SERRANO SHASTA SIUSLAW
SNOHOMISH TANAINA TILLAMOOK TOLOWA
TONKAWA TÜBATULABAL TUNICA TUSCARORA
TUTELO TUTUTNI TWANA UNAMI WAILAKI
WAMPANOAG WAPPO WASCO-WISHRAM WINTU
WIYOT WYANDOT YANA YOKUTS YUKI
YUROK

39
Endangered Languages
  • Why are they disappearing?
  • Globalization
  • Migration (Urbanization)
  • Economic Development
  • Lingua Franca easiest to use
  • Media
  • Internet (Requires certain character sets)
  • Lingua Franca - a language used for trade by two
    people who speak different native tongues. Most
    common Lingua Franca today English.


40
  • Key Points
  • Language is a fundamental element of cultural
    identity.
  • Languages diverge via migration and isolation.
  • Small languages are disappearing as a result of
    globalization.
  • Languages that share a common ancestor belong to
    the same family.
  • Language diversity is a source of political
    conflict in the world.

McDonalds, Israel
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