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Roman Civilization


Roman Civilization Clothing Most clothing made of wool, some linen and silk 2 types: indutus = put on amictus = wrapped Subligaculum = loincloth/underwear Tunica ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Roman Civilization

Roman Civilization
  • Most clothing made of wool, some linen and silk
  • 2 types indutus put on amictus wrapped
  • Subligaculum loincloth/underwear
  • Tunica tunic (long shirt)
  • Tunica manicata long sleeve tunic
  • Tunica talares floor length tunic

Clothing (cont.)
  • Tunica angusti clavi tunic worn by equites with
    narrow purple stripes
  • Tunica lati clavi tunic worn by senators with
    wide purple stripes
  • Wrappings for warmth (worn only by old or ill
    people) legsfasciae upper legfeminalia lower
    legtibialia bodyventralia throatfocalia
  • Pants (worn only by barbarians) braccae

Clothing (cont.)
  • Toga was the mark of a Roman citizen
  • Regular toga toga pura/virilis/libera
  • Toga candida/splendens worn by men running for
    public office, candidati, bright white color
  • Toga praetexta worn by boys before manhood and
    curule magistrates, purple border

Clothing (cont.)
  • Toga picta worn by triumphing generals and
    emperors, entirely purple
  • Toga sordidata/pulla worn by people in
    mourning, dingy toga
  • Lacerna more convenient mantle that eventually
    nearly replaced the toga, came in many colors,
    could have a hood (cucullus)
  • Military cloak trabea, paludamentum, sagum,
    similar to lacerna but heavier

Clothing (cont.)
  • Paenula wrap used for protection from weather
    and cold, similar to a poncho, no sleeves
  • Synthesis dinner garment
  • Laena, abolla very heavy cloaks
  • Endormis bath robe

Clothing (cont.)
  • Sandals soleae
  • Shoes calcei
  • Mulleus patricians shoe
  • Calceus senatorius senators shoe
  • Perones shoes of untanned leather
  • Caligae soldiers half boot

Clothing (cont.)
  • Pilleus felt cap, worn by lower classes,
    especially workmen
  • Causia/petasus broad-brimmed felt hat worn for
    protection from the sun
  • Beards worn after the reign of Hadrian
  • Only jewelry worn by a roman citizen was a ring,
    often a seal ring, worn on the joint

Clothing (cont.)
  • 3 main articles make up womens clothing, tunica,
    stola, and palla
  • Tunica is similar to that of a man
  • Mamillare band of soft leather worn similar to
    modern bra
  • Strophium sash worn over tunica
  • Stola is the distinctive dress of a matron
  • Stola had a wide border (instita) at the lower
    hem and a girdle (zona)

Clothing (cont.)
  • Palla shawl-like wrap for outdoors
  • Women worn the same soleae and calcei as men
  • Nodus hair gathered in a knot on the back of
    the neck
  • Reticula hair nets
  • Vittae/taeniae/fasciolae hair ribbons
  • Coronae garlands of flowers

Clothing (cont.)
  • Umbraculum/umbella parasol
  • Flabellum fan
  • Sudaria handkerchiefs
  • Roman women wore many types of jewelry, rings,
    brooches, pins, coronets, bracelets, necklaces,
    earrings, and pendants
  • Pearl was the favorite jewel

Living Arrangement
  • Domus house
  • Atrium main room
  • Compluvium pool to collect rain water
  • Impluvium hole in the roof of the atrium to let
    in light, air, and rainwater, 4 types
  • Tuscanicum 2 pairs of beams at right angles
  • Tetrastylon similar to Tuscanicum, but with
    pillars at the intersections
  • Corinthium More pillars than tetrastylon
  • Displuviatum roof sloping outward to carry
    water away, only rain falling directly went into
    the compluvium
  • Atrium testudinatum had no impluvium

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Tablinum Study/office
  • Arca strong box for valuables, in atrium or
  • Alae wider parts of the atrium
  • Peristylium colonnaded courtyard behind the
  • Vestibulum open court between the street and

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Ostium entrance to the house, door and doorway,
    ianua/fores specifically door
  • Limen threshold
  • Culina kitchen
  • Latrina bathhouse
  • Triclinium dining room, 3 couches
  • Cubiculum bedroom
  • Bibliotheca library

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Sacrarium private chapel
  • Oecus sitting room/parlor, used also as a
    banquet hall
  • Exedra room with permanent seats, probably for
    lectures or similar purpose
  • Solarium place to sit in the sun, often on the
    flat roof, decorated with flowers and shrubs
  • Cella servorum slaves quarters

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Paries wall, made of various materials, often
    fronted with marble stucco
  • Lateres crudi stone or unburned brick
  • Opus quadratum dressed stone
  • Opus caementicum concrete
  • Lapis Puteolanus concrete made of lime and
    volcanic ashes with pieces of stone
  • Lateres cocti kiln-burned brick

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Wall frontings, either opus incertum (flat faces
    of rocks with no particular shape or pattern) or
    opus reticulatum (flat faces of stone cut into
    uniform squares, giving a pattern like a net)
  • Solum floor
  • Pavimentum floor covered by stone, brick, tile,
    and potsherds, smoothed with a heavy rammer

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Poorer homes had pavimentum floors, richer had
    stone slabs fitted together, some had concrete
  • Floors of upper stories were either made of wood
    or concrete
  • Tectum roof, usually made of tiles
  • Tegula tile, made with flanges to fit together
  • Imbrices Tiles made to cover the flanges

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • 4 parts to doorway, threshold (limen) two jambs
    (postes) and lintel (limen superum)
  • Door hinge was a cylinder turning in sockets in
    the threshold and lintel, similar to a modern
  • Fores double doors
  • Posticum back door
  • Pessuli bolts Serae bars

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Fenestra window
  • Foculi metal coal boxes used for heating
  • Some wealthy homes had furnaces
  • Water could be piped into the house from mains
    laid down in the middle of streets
  • Often a tank for water in the upper part of the
    house and a fountain in the court

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Lectus couch/bed
  • Sedile backless stool, most primitive seat
  • Sella stool, ordinary seat for one
  • Subsellium bench, used in the Senate
  • Sella curulis stool with curved, folding ivory
    legs, used by magistrates
  • Solium high backed chair with solid arms
  • Cathedra curved back chair with no arms

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Mensa table
  • Monopodium table with one support, used often
    for a lamp
  • Abacus rectangular top with raised rim, used
    just as a modern sideboard for dishes
  • Delphica table with three legs
  • Some tables made with adjustable legs

Living Arrangement (cont.)
  • Lucerna lamp Candelae candles
  • Candelabra lamp or candle stand
  • Faces torches
  • Arca chest
  • Armaria cabinets
  • Solarium sun-dial
  • Clepsydra water clock

Food and Meals
  • Great variety of fruits and vegetables
  • Many were imported from the provinces, e.g. peach
    (malum Persicum), apricot (malum Armeniacum),
    pomegranate (malum Punicum), cherry (cerasus),
    and lemon (citrus)
  • Pork, beef, mutton, and goat was eaten, goat was
    poorest, pork most popular

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Domestic and wild fowl were eaten, as well as
    wild animals such as hare, boar, and dormouse
  • Fish was very popular, both fresh and salt water,
    as well as oysters (ostreae)
  • Dairy was commonly used as milk, cheese, cream,
    but not butter
  • Honey was used as a sweetener
  • Salt was used as seasoning and preservative

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Frumentum grain, general term for any type of
    grain grown for food, including wheat, barley,
    rye, oats, and spelt (far)
  • Puls porridge made from water and ground grain
  • Pistor baker
  • Mola mill, made of lower millstone (meta) and
    upper (catillus) that would rotate
  • Panis bread, pure wheat (panis siligneus),
    lower quality (panis plebeius/castrensis/sordidus/

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Olives were next in importance to grain, eaten
    themselves or used to make oil (oleum)
  • Grapes were eaten fresh and dried, but were most
    importantly used for wine
  • Best quality wine was from the ager Falernus
  • Mustum freshly pressed grape cider
  • Defrutum grape-jelly, half evaporated mustum

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Vinum wine, mustum fermented in huge jars
    (dolia) for about nine days
  • After a year, stored in jars (amphorae)
  • Acetum vinegar, spoiled wine
  • Mulsum honeyed wine
  • Mulsa fermented honey and water

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Ientaculum breakfast, usually of bread
  • Prandium lunch, cold food, bread, salad,
    cheese, fruits, nuts, or meat from previous night
  • Merenda midday snacks
  • Vesperna evening supper, only rural

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Cena dinner, main meal of the day and social
    function, almost always being either host or
  • Umbrae uninvited friends of guests
  • Three couches were called lectus summus, lectus
    medius, and lectus imus, counter-clockwise
  • Each place on a couch was also locus summus,
    medius, and imus, left to right
  • Place of honor lectus summus, locus summus
  • Locus consularis lectus medius, locus imus

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • 3 parts of dinner, appetizer (gustus/promulsis/ant
    ecena), dinner proper (cena), and dessert
    (secunda mensa), each part could have several
  • If a dinner was going to be long, it would start
    earlier rather than go late (tempestiva convivia)

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Convivium after dinner conversation over
    dessert and wine
  • Comissatio/compotatio/symposium drinking party
    after dinner
  • Coronae convivales garlands of flowers worn
    while drinking (the scent was thought to help
    prevent intoxication)
  • Rex/arbiter/magister bibendi In charge of the
    proportion of wine to water and rules for the
    drinking, person chosen by dice throw

Food and Meals (cont.)
  • Crater large mixing bowl for wine
  • Pocula drinking goblets
  • Cyathus ladle for measuring wine, about 1/12th
    of a pint or graduated by 12ths
  • A guest proposed someones health and everyone
    immediately drank as many cyathi as were letters
    in the given name
  • Gambling was common at these drinking parties

  • Ludi scaenici theater performances
  • 4 types of theater performances, comedies
    (comoediae), tragedies (tragoediae), farces
    (mimi), pantomimes (pantomimi)
  • Fabula palliata plays in Greek costume
    depicting greek life
  • Actors were all male slaves
  • Grex troupe of actors with a manager (dominus

Theater (cont.)
  • Wigs were used to represent different characters,
    gray for old men, black for young men, red for
    slaves, etc
  • Ornamenta props used onstage
  • At first, plays were staged at the bottom of a
    sloping hill, only later were temporary theaters
    built and the first permanent one in Rome was
    Pompeys in 55 BC

Theater (cont.)
  • The orchestra was assigned to the senators, the
    next fourteen rows of seating to the equites, the
    rest for everyone else, first come first served
  • Proscaenium front line of the stage
  • Scaena all behind the proscaenium, devoted to
    the actors
  • Cavea all in front of the proscaenium, devoted
    to the spectators

Theater (cont.)
  • Cunei sections of seating, six in lower
    section, twelve in upper section
  • Praecinctio semicircular passage separating
    lower and upper seating
  • Boxes were reserved for the giver of the show,
    the emperor, and the Vestals
  • Vela awnings spread to protect people from the