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Chapter Eight

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Title: Chapter Eight


1
Chapter Eight
  • The Play Years
  • Biosocial Development

2
Body and Brain
  • Young childrens body and brain develop according
    to powerful epigenetic forces
  • Biologically driven
  • Socially guided

3
Body Shape and Growth Rates
  • Lower body lengthens
  • child becomes slimmer
  • Steady increase in height and weight
  • 3 inches in height per year
  • 4 1/2 pounds in weight per year

4
Genes and Ethnic and Cultural Differences
  • Genetic background prepares child to be
    experience-expectant
  • Cultural patterns and differences guide
    development
  • Most influential factors
  • genes, health, nutrition
  • Other influencing factors
  • sex, birth order, geography

5
Eating Habits
  • Food should be nutritious
  • isnt alwaysoften far from ideal
  • enough caloriesnot enough vitamins and
    mineralsmajor nutritional problems are
  • iron-deficiency anemia
  • too much sugar
  • too much fat
  • not enough fruits and vegetables

6
Brain Development
  • Underlies rapidly expanding cognitive abilities
  • by age 2, 75 of brain weight achieved
  • by age 5, 90 of brain weight achieved
  • pruning of dendrites has occurred

7
Speed of Thought
  • Myelinationprocess by which axons become
    insulated with a coating of myelin, a fatty
    substance that speeds transmission of nerve
    impulses
  • thoughts follow each other fast enough for
    children to perform one task after another
  • fast processing essential for fast and complex
    communication
  • experience affects rate of myelination

8
Connecting the Brains Hemispheres
  • Corpus callosumnerve fibers that connect the two
    halves of the brain

9
Connecting the Brains Hemispheres, cont.
10
Connecting the Brains Hemispheres, cont.
  • Left Side, Right Side
  • lateralizationspecialization of the two sides of
    the brain
  • left brain
  • logical analysis, language, speech
  • right brain
  • visual and artistic skills
  • Coping with Brain Damage

11
Planning and Analyzing
  • Prefrontal cortex (or frontal lobe) is the final
    part of the human brain to reach maturity
  • the area in the very front of the brain that is
    least developed in nonhumans
  • mid-adolescence
  • maturation occurs gradually and incomplete until
    advances at about age 3 or 4 make possible
    impulse control and formal education

12
Planning and Analyzing, cont.
  • Perseverationthe tendency to persevere, to stick
    to a thought or action long after it is time to
    move on
  • occurs normally in young childrenanother aspect
    of immature self- control

13
Educational Implications of Brain Development
  • By age 6, children are ready for formal
    instruction
  • before, brain not sufficiently developed in ways
    it needs to be, but now child can
  • sit still for more than an hour
  • scan a page of print
  • balance sides of body
  • draw and write with one hand
  • listen and think before talking
  • remember important facts
  • control emotions

14
Educational Implications of Brain Development,
cont.
  • The brain provides the foundation for education
  • any impediments to normal growth of the brain can
    put academic achievement on shaky ground

15
Motor Skills and Avoidable Injuries
  • Brain development allows for greater coordination
    and impulse control
  • Physical maturation can make a child more
    vulnerable to injury

16
Gross Motor Skills
  • Large body movements improve
  • running, jumping, climbing, throwing
  • Gross motor skills are practiced and mastered

17
Gross Motor Skills, cont.
  • Motor skills develop as rapidly as brain
    maturation, motivation, guided practice, and
    innate ability allow
  • Children learn basic motor skills by teaching
    themselves and learning from other children

18
Fine Motor Skills
  • Small body movements are harder to master
  • pouring, cutting, holding crayon, tying
  • lacking the muscular control, patience, and
    judgment needed
  • fingers short and fat
  • confusion over which is dominant hand

19
Artistic Expression
  • Childrens artistic endeavors are also their play
  • drawings often connected to perception and
    cognition
  • gradual maturation of brain and body is apparent
  • artwork helps develop fine motor skills
  • in artwork, many children eagerly practice
    perseveration

20
Serious Injuries
  • Accidents are the most common cause of childhood
    death
  • poison, fire, falls, choking, and drowning
  • unintended injuries cause millions of premature
    deaths per year until the age of 40 then disease
    becomes greatest cause of mortality
  • Injury control/harm reductionthe idea that
    accidents are not random, but can be made less
    harmful with proper control

21
Three Levels of Prevention
  • Primary preventionactions that change overall
    background conditions to prevent some unwanted
    event or circumstance
  • Secondary preventionactions that avert harm in
    the immediate situation
  • Tertiary preventionactions taken after an
    adverse event to reduce the harm or prevent
    disability

22
Three Levels of Prevention, cont.
  • An Example Pedestrian Deaths
  • Primary prevention Better sidewalks, slower
    speeds, wider roads, longer traffic signals, etc.
  • Secondary prevention Improving car brakes,
    having school-crossing guards, having children
    walk with adults, etc.
  • Tertiary prevention Protective helmets, laws
    against hit-and-run driving, emergency room
    procedures, etc.
  • Results show that these measures help to reduce
    unnecessary deaths

23
Parents, Education, and Protection
  • SES is a powerful predictor of many accidents
  • Prevention and protection crucial
  • Parents need to institute safety measures in
    advance
  • Parents job is protection

24
Child Maltreatment
  • Sensational cases attract attention
  • but dont represent the typical case
  • still, we need to learn lessons about abuse in
    order to understand its causes and consequences

25
Changing Definitions of Maltreatment
  • Abuse and neglect
  • child maltreatmentintentional harm or avoidable
    endangerment to child
  • child abusedeliberate action that is harmful to
    childs well-being
  • child neglectfailure to meet childs basic needs

26
Changing Definitions of Maltreatment, cont.
  • Types of abuse physical, sexual, emotional, and
    educational
  • Neglect twice as common as abuse
  • one sign is failure to thrive
  • another is hypervigilance
  • can be a symptom of post-traumatic stress
    disorder

27
Changing Definitions of Maltreatment, cont.
  • Reported maltreatmentcases about which
    authorities have been informed
  • 3 million per year
  • Substantiated maltreatmentcases that have been
    investigated and verified
  • 1 million per year

28
Reported Cases of Child Maltreatment, United
States, 19762001
29
Rates of Substantiated Child Maltreatment, United
States, 19902001
30
Consequences of Maltreatment
  • If not spotted early, then reported and stopped,
    maltreatment can affect every aspect of a childs
    development

31
Brain Damage and Consequences for Learning
  • Types of possible brain damage
  • shaken baby syndrome
  • condition caused by maltreatment involving
    shaking a crying baby, with severe brain damage
    as result
  • brain damage in despondent or terrorized child
  • memory may be impaired logical thinking may be
    delayed

32
Brain Damage and Consequences for Learning, cont.
  • Another brain disorder may appear in neglected
    child with clinically depressed mother unable to
    provide emotional support and guidance
  • right prefrontal cortex develops more than left
    consequently, negative emotions dominate, with
    greater likelihood of depression occurring
  • Inadequate essential nourishment also impedes
    normal brain development

33
Impaired Social Skills
  • Maltreated childrens social skills
  • less friendly, more isolated and aggressive
  • the earlier abuse begins, the worse the
    relationship with peers

34
Three Levels of Prevention, Again
  • Primary preventionprevents maltreatment before
    problem starts
  • need for family support, e.g.,
  • stable neighborhoods
  • basic values
  • SES

35
Three Levels of Prevention, Again, cont.
  • Secondary preventionresponds to first symptoms
    or signs of risk
  • spots and treats early problems
  • identifies high-risk children
  • potential disadvantages
  • wrongfully stigmatizes family as inadequate
  • undermines helpful cultural or family patterns
  • creates sense of helplessness in families

36
Three Levels of Prevention, Again, cont.
  • Tertiary preventionhalting harm after it occurs,
    then treating victim
  • removal from family
  • adoption
  • Foster carelegally sanctioned, publicly
    supported plan that transfers care of maltreated
    child from parents to others

37
Chapter Nine
  • The Play Years
  • Cognitive Development

38
How Young Children Think Piaget and Vygotsky
  • PiagetSwiss developmentalist
  • believed young children were limited by their
    egocentric perspective
  • egocentrismPiagets term for type of centration
    in which child sees world solely from his/her
    personal perspective
  • VygotskyRussian developmentalist
  • recognized how childs social/cultural context
    helps shape his/her cognitive development

39
Piaget Preoperational Thought
  • Preoperational thoughtPiagets term for
    cognitive development between 2 and 6 years
  • characterized by centration, focus on appearance,
    static reasoning, and irreversibility

40
Obstacles to Logical Operations
  • Centrationtendency to focus on one aspect of a
    situation
  • Egocentrism or ego-centrationcontemplation of
    the world exclusively from childs personal
    perspective
  • empathy is an exception

41
Obstacles to Logical Operations, cont.
  • Focus on appearanceignores all attributes except
    appearance
  • Static reasoningassumes that the world is
    unchanging
  • Irreversibilityfails to recognize that reversing
    a process can sometimes restore whatever existed
    before transformation

42
Conservation and Logic
  • Thinking is intuitive rather than logical
  • Conservationprinciple that amount of substance
    is unaffected by changes in appearance
  • applied to liquids, numbers, matter, length
  • understanding develops after age 7, and then
    slowly and unevenly

43
Conservation and Logic, cont.
44
Vygotsky Children as Apprentices
  • One Theory
  • theory-theoryGopniks term for the idea that
    children attempt to construct a theory to explain
    everything they see and hear

45
Vygotsky Children as Apprentices, cont.
  • Children do not strive alone their efforts are
    embedded in social context
  • parents guide young childrens cognitive growth
    in many ways
  • present new challenges for learning
  • offer assistance and instruction
  • encourage interest and motivation

46
Vygotsky Children as Apprentices, cont.
  • Apprentice in thinkingchild whose intellectual
    growth is stimulated and directed by older and
    more skilled members of society
  • Guided participationprocess by which young
    children, with the help of mentors, learn to
    think by having social experiences and by
    exploring their universe

47
How to Solve a Puzzle
  • Guidance and motivation
  • structure task to make solution more attainable
  • provide motivation
  • Guided participation
  • partners (tutor and child) interact
  • tutor sensitive and responsive to needs of child
  • eventually, because of such mutuality, child able
    to succeed independently

48
Scaffolding
  • Scaffoldingsensitive structuring of childs
    participation in learning encounters
  • Zone of proximal development (ZPD) skills too
    difficult for child to perform alone but that can
    be performed with guidance and assistance of
    adults or more skilled children
  • lower limit of ZPD can be reached independently
  • upper limit of ZPD can be reached with assistance
  • ZPD is a measure of learning potential

49
Scaffolding, cont.
  • Private speechinternal dialogue when people talk
    to themselves through which new ideas are
    developed and reinforced
  • verbal interaction is a cognitive tool
  • Social mediationuse of speech to bridge gap
    between childs current understanding and what is
    almost understood

50
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51
Theory of Mind
  • We each have our own personal understanding of
    human mental processes, and child develops this
    too
  • complex interaction of human mental processes
  • emotions
  • thoughts
  • perceptions
  • actions

52
Emergence by Age 4
  • Social referencing
  • Sudden understanding that mental phenomena may
    not reflect reality
  • people can be deliberately deceived or fooled

53
Contextual Influences on Theory of Mind
  • Brain maturation (prefrontal cortex)
  • General language ability
  • An older sibling
  • Culture that anticipates the future

54
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55
Language
  • Emergent literacyskills needed to learn to read
  • Is early childhood a sensitive or a critical
    period for language development?
  • ages 2 to 6 do seem to be a sensitive perioda
    time when a certain type of development (in this
    case, emergent literacy) occurs most rapidly

56
Vocabulary
  • 2 to 6 olds learn average of 10 words per day
  • Fast mappingspeedy and not precise way a child
    assimilates new words by mentally charting them
    into interconnected categories
  • logical extension, or application of newly
    learned word to other unnamed objects in same
    category, closely related to fast mapping
  • fast mapping aided by the way adults label new
    things for children

57
Vocabulary, cont.
  • Fast mapping, cont.
  • children use basic assumptions about syntax and
    reference to fast map
  • children cannot comprehend every word they hear
  • difficulties may occur
  • with words expressing comparisons
  • with words expressing relationships of time and
    place

58
Grammar
  • The grammar of a language includes the
    structures, techniques, and rules used to
    communicate meaning
  • Young children learn grammar so well they tend to
    apply its rules when they should not, a tendency
    called overregularization
  • examples plural nouns (foots), past tense
    (breaked the glass)

59
Learning Two Languages
  • Two points of view
  • bilingualism is an asset, even a necessity,
  • child should become proficient in own 1st
    language
  • How easy is it to be bilingual?
  • many 6-year-olds have difficulty pronouncing
    certain sounds
  • but auditory sensitivity helps young children
    master pronunciation over time, a much harder
    task if language learned after puberty

60
Learning Two Languages, cont.
  • Best solution children become balanced
    bilinguals, fluent in 2 languages
  • research confirms children can become equally
    fluent in 2 languages
  • easiest way for child to become bilingual is if
    parents speak 2 languages
  • ideally, each parent represents 1 language and
    helps child with mastery
  • sending child to preschool where 2nd language
    taught also effective

61
Early-Childhood Education
  • Controversy over whether, when, and where

62
Many Types of Programs
  • Distinct educational curricula have been
    developed
  • Maria Montessori (100 years ago) developed
    structured, individualized projects for poor
    children

63
Child-Centered and Readiness Programs
  • Many newer programs are child-centered or
    developmental
  • use a Piaget-inspired model that allows children
    to discover at their own pace
  • Alternative programs stress academic readiness
  • some readiness programs explicitly teach basic
    school skills

64
Reggio-Emilia
  • Reggio-Emiliaa new form of early-childhood
    education pioneered in the Italian city of that
    name
  • children encouraged to master skills not normally
    seen until age 7
  • artistic expression, exploration of the
    environment, and collaboration between parents
    and teachers encouraged

65
Reggio Emilia, cont.
  • Early childhood is the prime learning period for
    every child and some learn even more
  • The above has led to conclusion nations should
    provide quality early education
  • Head Start
  • has provided half-day education for millions of 3
    to 5 year olds, boosting abilities and skills, at
    least temporarily and probably for longer

66
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67
Quality Learning
  • Three research projects have shown excellent
    longitudinal data
  • High/Scope (Michigan)
  • Abecedarian (North Carolina)
  • Child-Parent Centers (Chicago)
  • Children in these programs have scored higher on
    math and reading achievement tests than other
    children from same backgrounds, schools, and
    neighborhoods

68
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69
Quality Learning, cont.
  • High-quality early education is associated with
    positive outcomes for all children
  • what is high-quality education?
  • safety, adequate space, and equipment
  • low adult-to-child ratio
  • trained staff
  • curriculum geared to cognitive development
  • learning includes creative/constructive play

70
Chapter Ten
  • The Play Years
  • Psychosocial Development

71
Emotional Development
  • Self
  • Goals
  • Emotions

72
Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Eriksons 3rd Stage
  • self-esteem emerges
  • self-conceptunderstanding of the selfdevelops
  • spontaneous play becomes goal directed
  • attention span gets longer
  • pride leads to concentration and persistence
  • guilt is a negative consequence of this stage

73
Emotional Regulation
  • Ability to direct or change ones feelings
  • externalizing problemsdifficulties arising from
    childs tendency to externalize emotions outside
    the self, lashing out in impulsive anger and
    attacking other people or things
  • internalizing problemsdifficulties arising from
    childs tendency to internalize emotions or
    inhibit their expression, being fearful and
    withdrawn

74
Neurons and Nurture
  • Emotional regulation part of brain function
  • also learned through social awareness
  • Genetic variations
  • some people naturally more emotionally expressive
  • Early stress
  • result of damage during brain development either
    prenatally or postnatally
  • via maternal drug use, illness, stress, or if
    infant malnourished, injured, or frightened

75
Neurons and Nurture, cont.
  • Care History
  • secure attachment easier emotional regulation
  • parenting practices
  • securely attached regulate emotions, show
    empathy
  • insecurely attached respond abnormally to other
    childrens distress
  • ability to modulate and direct emotion essential
    to emotional intelligence

76
Cognition and Emotions
  • First step to emotional regulation awareness of
    own emotions and the emotional response of others
  • Emotional intelligenceGolemans term for the
    understanding of how to interpret and express
    emotions
  • develops throughout life, but crucial in early
    childhood
  • amygdalaemotional hotspot in prefrontal cortex
    of brain that children need to govern if they are
    to become balanced and empathic adults
  • parents can use childrens natural attachment to
    teach them how and when to express feelings

77
Empathy and Antipathy
  • Empathyunderstanding another persons emotions
  • leads often to prosocial actions
  • helping another without obvious benefit to
    oneself
  • Antipathydisliking or hating someone else
  • may lead to antisocial behavior
  • injuring another person or destroying something
    that belongs to another

78
Empathy and Antipathy, cont.
  • Sharing
  • freely done or directed by others
  • Aggression
  • instrumentalused to obtain an object such as a
    toy
  • reactiveinvolves retaliation for an act whether
    or not it was intentional
  • relationdesigned to inflect psychic (mental)
    pain
  • bullying aggressionunprovoked attack

79
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80
Learning Social Skills Through Play
  • Peersothers of the same age and status
  • peers make the best playmates
  • play is most adaptive and productive activity of
    children

81
Active Play
  • Rough-and-tumble play
  • helps child develop muscle strength and control
  • caregivers should look for a play face when
    attempting to figure out if child is playing or
    fighting

82
Imaginative Play
  • Sociodramatic play
  • helps child explore and rehearse social roles
    he/she has seen
  • helps child test ability to convince others
  • helps child regulate emotions through imagination
  • helps child examine personal concerns in
    nonthreatening way

83
Parenting Patterns
  • Parenting patterns influence childs emotions

84
Baumrinds Three Styles of Parenting
  • Baumrinds 4 important dimensions that influence
    parenting
  • expression of warmth or nurturance
  • strategies for discipline
  • quality of communication
  • expectations for maturity

85
Baumrinds Three Styles of Parenting, cont.
  • 3 Styles
  • authoritarianhigh standards and expectations
    with low nurturance
  • children likely to become conscientious,
    obedient, and quietbut not happy
  • permissivelittle control, but nurturing
  • children likely to lack self-control and are not
    happy
  • authoritativelimits and guidance provided but
    willing to compromise
  • children are more likely to be successful,
    articulate, intelligent, and happy

86
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87
Baumrinds Three Styles of Parenting, cont.
  • Recent studies have found link between parenting
    styles and child behavior less direct than
    Baumrinds original research indicated
  • impact of childs temperament
  • influence of community and cultural differences
    on childs perception of parenting
  • in poor or minority families, authoritarian
    parenting tends to be used to produce
    high-achieving, emotionally regulated children
    strict and warm can be successful

88
Punishment
  • Discipline an integral part of parenting

89
Techniques of Discipline
  • Culture is a strong influence
  • expectations
  • offenses
  • punishments
  • In United States
  • time-out is used
  • child stops all activity and sits in corner or
    stays inside for a few minutes

90
Techniques of Discipline, cont.
  • In deciding which technique to apply, parents
    should ask How does technique relate to child?
  • childs temperament, age, and perceptions crucial
    considerations

91
What About Spanking?
  • Reasons for parenting variations
  • culture, religion, ethnicity, national origin
  • parents own upbringing
  • Developmentalists fear children who are
    physically punished will learn to be more
    aggressive
  • domestic violence of any kind can increase
    aggression between peers and within families

92
The Challenge of Video
  • Dilemma for parents about letting children watch
    television and play video games
  • parents find video a good babysitter
  • parents believe video can sometimes be
    educational tool
  • Experts suggest parents turn off the TV to avoid
    exposing children to video violence

93
The Evidence on Content
  • Exposure to violence greatgood guys and bad guys
    show violent behavior
  • All good guys male no non-white heroes
  • Women/females portrayed as victims or adoring
    friendsnot as leaders
  • Content of video games even worse than than that
    of television
  • more violent, sexist, racist

94
The Evidence on Content, cont.
  • Children, especially males, who watched
    educational television became teens who earned
    higher grades, read more
  • Children, especially females, who watched violent
    television had lower grades

95
The Evidence on Content, cont.
  • Content of video games crucial reason behind
    great concern of developmental researchers
  • research shows that violent TV and video games
    push children to be more violent than they
    normally would be
  • computer games probably worse, as children are
    doing the virtual killing

96
The Evidence on Content, cont.
  • Developmentalists look at the following to
    evaluate poor content
  • perpetuation of sexist, ageist, and racist
    stereotypes
  • depiction of violent solutions for every problem
    and no expression of empathy
  • encouragement of quick, reactive, emotions rather
    than thoughtful regulation of emotions

97
Boy or Girl So What?
  • Male or femaleimportant feature of self-concept
  • Sex differencesbiological differences between
    males and females
  • far less apparent than in adulthood
  • Gender differencesculturally imposed differences
    in roles and behaviors
  • more significant to children than to adults

98
Development of Gender Awareness
  • By age 2, awareness of gender-related
    preferences and play patterns
  • By age 3, cognitive awareness of own gender
  • By age 4, awareness of gender appropriate toys
    or roles
  • By age 6, well-formed ideas and prejudices about
    own sex and the other sex

99
Theories of Gender Differences
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Freuds view sexual attraction to opposite-sex
    parent
  • phallic stageaccording to Freud, 3rd stage of
    psychosexual development occurring in early
    childhood when penis becomes the focus of
    psychological concern and physiological pleasure

100
Theories of Gender Differences, cont.
  • Oedipus complexaccording to Freud, occurring in
    the phallic stage, in which boys have sexual
    desire for their mothers and hostility towards
    their fathers guilt and fear resolved by gender
    appropriate behavior
  • Identification
  • Superegopersonality part that is self-critical
    and judgmental
  • Electra complexgirls understanding they cant
    replace mother, so want to be like her

101
Behaviorism
  • Gender-appropriate behavior learned through
    observation and imitation
  • Children learn gender-appropriate behavior by
    modeling it after that of people they want to
    imitate
  • Especially for young boys, conformity to gender
    expectations rewarded, punished, modeled

102
Cognitive Theory
  • Gender typing occurs after concept of gender has
    developed
  • Once gender consistently conceived, child
    organizes world based on that understanding
  • Gender schema organizes the world in terms of
    male and female
  • internal motivation to conform to gender-based
    cultural standards and stereotypes guides
    attention and behavior

103
Sociocultural Theory
  • Gender values strenuously kept
  • Many traditional cultures emphasize gender
    distinctions
  • To break through restrictiveness of cultural
    expectations, some embrace the idea of
    androgynya balance of male and female
    psychological characteristics
  • true androgyny possible if supported by whole
    culture

104
Epigenetic Theory
  • Every aspect of human behavior a mix of genetics
    and environment
  • environment shapes, enhances, or halts genetic
    impulses
  • Differences between male and female brains
  • Environmental influences

105
Conclusion Gender and Destiny
  • 5 theories lead to 2 conclusions and 1 question
  • Gender differences are not simply cultural or
    learnedbiological foundation much greater than
    originally suspected
  • Biology is not destinyenvironment and
    experiences shape children
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