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Title: Roles of Women Author: Great Valley High School Last modified by: Great Valley High School Created Date: 5/21/2007 5:06:40 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Label the picture You have 60 seconds


1
Label the picture You have 60 seconds
2
  • At the start of the twentieth century, women were
    not equal with men.
  • Women were seen as in charge of the home, while
    the man went out to work.
  • Most importantly, they were not allowed to vote
    in national General Elections.
  • Some people began to support the campaign to give
    women the vote (womens suffrage).

3
  • The Victorians thought that the ideal wife was
  • Angelic
  • Obedient
  • Pale and delicate
  • Silent
  • A possession (when a woman married her husband,
    her possessions and even the woman herself
    legally became her husbands property)

4
  • Women had made progress in some areas.
  • They were allowed to vote in local elections.
  • In 1865, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became the
    first qualified female doctor.
  • In 1879, Somerville College opened at Oxford
    University the first female college.

5
From 1850 women gained educational, civil and
political equality.
Politically
  • 1867 John Stuart Mills proposed bill to give
    women the vote laughed out of parliament. 71
    votes for 123 against but most abstained.
  • These bills were proposed more and more yet never
    passed. From then on these bills were proposed
    nearly every year.
  • 1869 Municipal Franchise Act gave single women
    the right to vote in local elections.
  • 1870-1894 women are allowed to be elected to
    school boards, poor law guardianship, parish and
    district councils.
  • 1870 Married Womens Property Acts meant husbands
    no longer owned their property. Women were able
    to sue for desertion without going to the
    workhouse.
  • 1870 Education Act ( 1872 Scotland) assured girls
    the same basic education as boys.

6
Suffrage
  • Suffrage means the right to vote.
  • When the Industrial Revolution began, the right
    to vote was limited to a small group of
    Anglican, upper class, land-owning men.
  • The economic and social changes of the Industrial
    Revolution will slowly force the British
    government to give the right to vote to middle
    class men, then working class men, then married
    women, and then all women.

7
Suffragettes who have never been kissed.
Women seeking the vote were an easy target for
low-grade humour.
8
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9
Did women deserve the vote?
Women can be teachers, lawyers and doctors.  
Women are not able to fight in the army so cannot
defend the country.  
The number of women in work was increasing.  
Women do not want to vote.  
Women are increasingly involved in political
activities, like trade unions.  
If women could vote they might abandon their
families for politics.  
Not giving women the vote means that they are
treated the same as criminals.  
If women could vote, Britain would seem weaker to
the other world powers.
Women were allowed to vote in Australia, New
Zealand and some parts of the USA.  
Past experience shows that men are perfectly
capable of governing without women.  
If more people could vote, the government would
be able to say that it was more democratic and
represented more people.
Women can already vote in local elections which
deal with female issues.  
Women would be more likely to want social reforms
which would better the conditions of the country.
Women would be told how to vote by their husbands.
Women could vote in local elections and had
proven that they didnt vote for radical or
wacky people.
Step 1 Look at both sides of the argument
Step 2 Think about different people having
different opinions
Step 3 Try to answer the question
10
  • An Anti-Suffrage Campaign Poster

11
Which step does each statement match up to?
Most women would have supported the arguments in
favour of womens suffrage, because they wanted
to gain more power and influence.
Step 1 Look at both sides of the
argument  Step 2 Think about different people
having different opinions Step 3 Try to answer
the question
  • There were arguments in favour of women getting
    the vote, but there were also some arguments
    against it mainly a fear of the unknown and
    that it was tradition that women did not vote.
  • On the whole, women had proved that they deserved
    the vote because they had shown that they were
    capable of playing an intelligent role in society.

12
Reforming Parliament
1
  • In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy.
    Yet, it was far from democratic
  • Less than five percent of the people had the
    right to vote.
  • Wealthy nobles and squires dominated politics.
  • The House of Lords could veto any bill passed by
    the House of Commons.
  • Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants could not
    vote or serve in Parliament.
  • Populous new cities had no seats in Parliament,
    while rural towns with few or no voters still
    sent members to Parliament.
  • In 1832, Parliament finally passed the Great
    Reform Act.
  • It redistributed seats in the House of Commons.
  • It enlarged the electorate by granting suffrage
    to more men.

13
A New Era in British Politics
1
  • In the 1860s, the old political parties regrouped
    under new leadership
  • The Tories became the Conservative party, led by
    Benjamin Disraeli.
  • The Whigs evolved into the Liberal party, led by
    William Gladstone.
  • In the late 1800s, these two parties pushed
    little by little for suffrage to be extended.
  • By centurys end, almost-universal male suffrage
    had been achieved.
  • In 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to
    limit the power of the House of Lords.
  • In time, the House of Lords would become a
    largely ceremonial body, while the elected House
    of Commons would reign supreme.

14
Social and Political Reforms
During the 1830s industrialization led to rapid
changes in British society, and some began to
call for social and political reform.
15
Other Reforms
  • New Laws
  • 1833, Parliament abolished slavery in Great
    Britain, all British Empire
  • Government compensated slave owners depending on
    how many they freed
  • Parliament also passed new public health and
    crime laws
  • Chartism
  • 1839, group called Chartists worked for voting
    rights for all men
  • Name from Peoples Charter, petition sent to
    Parliament demanding voting rights, secret
    ballot, annual elections, pay for representatives
    in Parliament
  • Parliamentary Reaction
  • Peoples Charter rejected Chartists gained wide
    popular support, staged uprisings large revolt,
    1848
  • Chartists did not see immediate results but many
    reforms passed eventually

16
Compare How did the demands of Chartism compare
to the voting reforms passed in 1832?
Answer(s) 1832 voting reforms redrew borough
lines, extended vote to many middle-class
property owners, gave parliamentary
representation to many industrial towns, but not
to industrial workers Chartists called for
additional reforms, extending the vote to all
men, vote by secret ballot, annual elections,
payment of representatives in Parliament
17
Victorian Era Voting Reforms
In 1837 Queen Victoria became the ruler of Great
Britain. The Victorian Era lasted until 1901. It
was a time of great change, including voting
reforms that made the country more democratic.
18
Womens Suffrage
19
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20
First wave feminism 1800s - 1920s
Womens right to vote was an issue raised from
the 1830s through 1918 / 1928.
  • Concerns
  • women's social and legal inequalities
  • education, employment, the marriage laws, and
  • the plight of intelligent middle-class single
    women.
  • They were not primarily concerned with the
    problems
  • of working-class women, nor did they necessarily
    see
  • themselves as feminists in the modern sense
  • (the term was not coined until 1895).
  • First Wave Feminists largely responded to
    specific injustices
  • they had themselves experienced.
  • Improvements
  • opening of higher education for women
  • reform of the girls' secondary-school system,
  • including participation in formal national
    examinations
  • the widening of access to the professions,
    especially medicine
  • married women's property rights,
  • recognized in the Married Women's Property Act
    of 1870
  • some improvement in divorced and separated
    women's child custody rights.
  • Mary Wollstonecrafts book Vindication of the
    rights of women 1792
  • In the book she attacked the educational
    restrictions that kept women in a state of
    "ignorance
  • and slavish dependence."
  • She was especially critical of a society that
    encouraged women to
  • be "docile and attentive to their looks to the
    exclusion of all else."
  • Wollstonecraft described marriage as "legal
    prostitution" and added that women
  • "may be convenient slaves, but slavery will have
    its constant effect, degrading the master
  • and the abject dependent."

21
Mary Wollstonecraft, Frances Wright, and Margaret
Fuller believed that giving women an equal
education to that of men would do more to improve
womens position in society than voting rights.
22
The Origins of the Suffragist Movements
  • Female suffrage - emerged as a political issue in
    Britain in the 1860s following Parliaments
    refusal to replace man with person in what
    would become the 1867 Reform Act bill.
  • 19th century loose groupings of suffragists
    drawing on ideas and members from other
    campaigns, such as the Chartists and the
    Abolitionists no dominant individuals or groups
    until the turn of the century.
  • Trans-national movement, sought to redress the
    social injustice of male repression.
  • British society support for the idea that
    suffragism was a mental disorder akin to
    epidemic hysteria, with its attendant symptoms of
    a loss of the normal sense of decency and of the
    normal use of reasoning powers.
  • Edward VIIs surgeon sexually embittered women
    who were clearly life-long strangers to joy.

23
A bit of background
  • In 1850 women were thought of as second class
    citizens.
  • People believed women were inferior to men
    physically and mentally.
  • Women were paid less than men, and tended to do
    less skilled work.
  • They were excluded from many professions and it
    was thought that a womans place is in the home.
  • Women were not allowed to vote in general
    elections.
  • Women would lose their femininity in politics.
  • Women werent well educated enough to vote.
  • If women became involved in politics the home
    would suffer.
  • Women were too emotional to handle the
    responsibility of the vote.

24
  • Caption What a Woman may be, and yet not have
    the vote Mayor, Nurse, Mother, Doctor or
    Teacher, Factory Hand
  • What a man may have been, and yet not lose the
    vote Convict, Lunatic, Proprietor of white
    slaves, Unfit for Service, Drunkard

25
Anti-Suffrage
Caption WHAT! DINNER NOT READY YET! WHAT HAVE
YOU BEEN DOING?
26
Anti Suffrage
27
A bit of background
Conservatives against women voting, worried
they would vote for liberal or labour.
Liberals worried if property owning women were
given the vote then they would vote conservative.
Labour, started in 1900, were in favour of female
suffrage but wanted all working class women to
get the vote first.
28
  • The National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies
    (NUWSS) was founded by Millicent Fawcett.
  • It was an organisation set up to win the vote for
    women.
  • By the beginning of the twentieth century it had
    over 500 branches.
  • Members of the NUWSS were nicknamed suffragists.

29
The NUWSS
  • 1897, National Union of Womens Suffrage
    Societies by by Millicent Fawcett - grew to
    have over 50,000 members.
  • Adherents of peaceful protest - pragmatic rather
    than ideological as she thought that violent
    behaviour would only fuel traditional notions
    that women were too irrational to be worthy of
    suffrage.
  • Strategy - the patient use of logical arguments
    to gain the vote. Argued that if women were bound
    by laws, surely they should have a say in their
    making.
  • \And women even employed men who could vote when
    they could not!
  • Very slow progress converted some but the
    predominant feeling was still that women would
    not be able to understand the workings of
    Parliament.

30
National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies.
  • Established 1897 by Millicent Fawcett.
  • Methods
  • Peaceful protest.
  • Petitions to parliament
  • E.g. 1910 presented petition with 250,000
    signatures in favour of female suffrage.
  • Propaganda
  • Newspaper The Suffragist. Leaflets etc. In 1913
    spend 45,000 on publicity.

31
  • NUWSS Large membership
  • 1909 13,000 members
  • 1913 100,000 members and 500 branches nationwide.
  • Maintained support for peaceful respectful
    methods.
  • Processions gained publicity.
  • Peaceful methods easy to ignore.
  • By 1905 the press had were virtually ignoring
    them.
  • Large membership and propaganda meant they had a
    wide influence across Britain. Benefits of male
    membership.
  • Concentrated on a wide range of issues not just
    female suffrage.
  • Lost essential political support from Liberals
    from 1910.
  • S. Holten argues pre war campaigning before the
    war was important for bringing womens issues to
    the fore.

32
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33
  • The suffragists followed traditional political
    methods in their fight to get the vote.
  • They held meetings and demonstrations, signed
    petitions and wrote letters to MPs.
  • The suffragists made people aware of the campaign
    for womens rights, but not everybody was
    impressed.

34
The WSPU
  • 1903, Womens Social and Political Union founded
    by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters,
    Christabel and Sylvia.
  • The Unions members became known as the
    Suffragettes - not prepared to be patient,
    willing to use violence.
  • Peaceful until 1905, Christabel and Annie Kenney
    arrested for interrupting a political meeting.
    They refused to pay a fine, preferring a prison
    sentence to highlight the injustice that was
    being done to them.
  • Emmeline Pankhursts autobiography
  • ..this was the beginning of a campaign
    the like of which was never known in England, or
    for that matter in any other countrywe
    interrupted a great many meetingsand we were
    violently thrown out and insulted. Often we were
    painfully bruised and hurt.
  • Violence committed by the WSPU members burned
    down churches (CofE opposed to their appeals),
    planted a bomb in Westminster Abbey, vandalised
    Oxford Street shops and golf courses, firebombed
    the homes of politicians and sailed down the
    Thames hurling abuse at Parliament.
  • Also used some non-violent measures however, such
    as refusing to pay taxes, chaining themselves to
    Buckingham Palace and welcoming arrests.

35
  • Emmeline Pankhurst started the Womens Social and
    Political Union (WSPU) in 1903.
  • Its members were called the suffragettes.
  • They set up a headquarters in London and hoped to
    draw more attention to womens suffrage.

36
Emmeline Pankhurst
  • Central leaders in the suffrage movement in
    Britain included Emmeline Pankhurst, a leader of
    the National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies.
  • Various womens organizations in the West had
    circulated petitions, led marches, and held
    demonstrations to support their demands for the
    right to vote.
  • After the refusal of government officials to
    offer full suffrage, Pankhurst advocated extreme
    militancy in pursuit of womans rights.
  • She helped to organize assaults on private
    property and hunger strikes to promote her cause.
  • Her militancy and the less radical activities of
    others helped women achieve suffrage.

37
  • WSPU Members Card

38
Womens Social and Political Union - 1903
  • Founded by Emmeline Pankhurst
  • Motto deeds not words.
  • Methods
  • Believed in using militancy to gain the vote.
  • Gained publicity through propaganda, leaflets,
    newspapers, marches and demonstrations.
  • Series of 6 meetings in 1908 attracted more than
    25,000 women to attend.
  • 1908 Demonstration Hyde Park 1,000 spent on
    publicity.

39
  • When the suffragettes moved to London, it
    provided opportunities for staging spectacular
    demonstrations.
  • Womens Sunday on 21st June 1908 was a large
    meeting held by the WSPU.
  • It brought suffragettes from all over the UK to
    march in seven different processions through
    central London to Hyde Park.

40
  • It was a highly organised demonstration
    attracting a crowd of 200,000 one of the
    largest single demonstrations ever up to that
    time.
  • Many dressed in the suffragette colours of
    purple, white and green and over 700 banners were
    carried.
  • Emmeline Pankhurst spoke to the crowds and
    demanded that the government supported a bill for
    womens suffrage.

41
  • The organisers persuaded the authorities to
    remove a quarter of a mile of park railings to
    accommodate the processions that gathered in Hyde
    Park.
  • Amongst the brass bands, singers and parades
    were 20 temporary platforms erected in a circle
    around the park for 80 different speakers to
    address the crowds.

42
Which of these sources is the most useful to
somebody trying to find out about Womens Sunday?
  • I am sure a great many people never realised
    until yesterday how young and dainty and elegant
    and charming most of the leaders of the movement
    are. And how well they spoke with what free and
    graceful gesture never at a loss for a word or
    an apt reply to an interruption calm and
    collected forcible, yet so far as I heard, not
    violent earnest but happily humorous as well.
  • Daily Mail, June 1908

Step 2 How reliable is each source? (Think about
about who made it, when and why)
Step 3 How useful is each source? (Think about
what it shows and what is missing)
Step 1 What does each source say/show?
43
Which step does each statement match up to?
Since the source appeared in a newspaper and was
written by a journalist, it should accurately
reflect the events of the day and shouldnt twist
things to make them out to be better or worse.
Step 1 What does each source say/show? Step 2
How reliable is each source? (Think about about
who made it, when and why) Step 3 How useful is
each source? (Think about what it shows and what
is missing)
The photograph only shows one street leading up
to Hyde Park. It doesnt show the park itself or
what is going on behind the camera it is only a
single snapshot of a single view.
  • This source thinks that the campaigners were
    elegant and charming and seems surprised by the
    success of the demonstration.

44
  • Prime Minister Herbert Asquith sent a letter to
    Emmeline Pankhurst saying that he had nothing
    further to add to his previous statement the
    government intended, at some point in the future,
    to bring in a general reform bill which might be
    amended to include female suffrage.
  • Emmeline Pankhurst was disappointed and wrote
    our wonderful demonstration, it appeared, had
    made no impression on him.

45
18 November 1910---Black Friday
  • The British suffragettes were ladies with a
    fighting spirit.
  • The women of the Women's Social and Political
    Union (WSPU) were used to throwing stones and
    smashing the windows of government buildings.
  • In 1910 their anger increased when a limited
    suffrage bill stalled in parliament.
  • On 18 November a procession of women on their way
    to parliament came to blows with the police.
  • On this 'Black Friday' 120 ladies were arrested
    and many others were assaulted.

46
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47
  • They had a weekly newspaper called Votes for
    Women which had a circulation of 40,000 by 1914.
  • They sold WSPU merchandise and chalked messages
    on pavements and buildings.
  • However, Deeds not Words became their motto and
    they were prepared to act violently too.

48
Emmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are Militant, 1913
  • In the following document Pankhurst explains the
    reasons for the rise in militant behavior.
  • Know that in your minds there are questions like
    these you are saying, "Women Suffrage is sure to
    come and how is it that some women are using
    violence to attain their end? Let me try to
    explain to you the situation. During the '80's
    1880s, women, like men, were asking for the
    franchise more meetings were held, and larger,
    for Woman Suffrage than were held for votes for
    men, and yet women did not get it. Men got it
    because they were and would be violent want to
    say here and now that the only justification for
    violence for damage to property for risk to the
    comfort of other human beings is the fact that
    you have tried all other available means and have
    failed to secure justice from the moment we began
    our militant agitation to this day I have felt
    absolutely guiltless I tell you that in Great
    Britain there is no other way.

49
Christabel Pankhurst inviting members of the
public to rush the House of Commons on October
13th
50
Deeds, not Words!---Violent Acts
  • Chaining themselves to park railings
  • Breaking shop windows
  • Setting mailboxes on fire
  • Sending a note on a cow to the prime minister
  • Digging up golf courses
  • Burning down railway stations and churches
  • Knocking off policemen helmets

51
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52
  • Militant Tactics
  • 1905 Christabel Pankhurst arrested for pretending
    to spit at a police man.
  • 1908 started stone throwing
  • 1909 First Scottish militant demonstration takes
    place in Glasgow and Dundee.
  • 1909 Imprisoned suffragettes start hunger
    striking. When government introduces force
    feeding 150 councils sent petitions to the
    government protesting about this action.
  • 1910 18th November Black Friday 150
    suffragettes hurt in violence outside parliament.
  • 1912-14 Wild Period begins arson attacks, acid
    on golf courses, letter boxes. Telephone wires
    cut. David Lloyd Georges house burnt.
  • Emily Wilding Davison, Slasher Mary Richardson
    attacked painting in National Gallery. 1,000
    imprisoned by 1914.

53
The Swan and Edgar store in London is tidied up
in 1912 after suffragettes shattered its windows.
54
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55
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56
Go to Prison!
  • By breaking the law, the WSPU knew that they
    risked being punished.
  • To prevent being recognized and photographed to
    protect their identity, they wore the fashionable
    big hats or veils to hide their face.
  • Each time they took part in a violent protest,
    they were arrested, put on trial, found guilty,
    and sent to prison.
  • There they were treated harshly, because the
    British government thought this would stop them
    from protesting again.

57
Spies
  • To protect their identity from spies for the
    government taking pictures of them as they
    protested, the women wore large hats and
    fashionable veils.
  • The hats also became a symbol for the suffragette.
  • Secret Weapon of the Suffragette. The evolution
    of the ladies hat with the emancipation of women.
    An informative and humorous  look at the ladies
    hat fashion as it reflected the early suffrage
    movement and became a visual  weapon of
    empowerment. The consequences of the potential
    threat that a ladies hat had in the British
    courts that led to a change in court etiquette.
    The change of design of the ladies hat to reflect
    her new 'serious'  position as she won her
    recognition and place in the white collar work
    force.

58
State Response
  • Evidence of their movements Scotland Yard
    ordered a camera lens to carry out the first
    secret surveillance photography in Britain
    against the Suffragists.
  • Also, attended meetings and kept detailed notes
    on them.
  • 1871 became policy for all inmates to be
    photographed in prison, but civil disobedience
    continued by refusing to have their photographs
    taken, so they were either captured
    surreptitiously whilst exercising or forcibly
    held in front of the lens.

59
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60
  • The suffragettes chained themselves to railings
    outside Parliament, broke windows and aimed to
    cause a nuisance.
  • They even firebombed churches and attacked the
    house of David Lloyd George, the Chancellor of
    the Exchequer.
  • As a result, many suffragettes spent time in
    prison.

61
  • As suffragettes became more militant and violent,
    arrests became common.
  • When they were in prison, many suffragettes went
    on hunger strike and had to be force fed.
  • This was very unpopular and used by the
    suffragettes in their propaganda.

62
  • The following day, Mary Richardson, a Canadian
    suffragette living in London, went to the
    National Gallery.
  • She attacked the Rokeby Venus, a famous painting
    of a nude woman by Velazquez.

63
  • Richardson slashed the painting with an axe seven
    times before being overpowered by a policeman and
    gallery attendant.
  • She was sentenced to six months in prison, the
    maximum allowed by law.
  • The newspapers nicknamed her Slasher Richardson.

64
Which of these sources is the most useful to an
historian trying to find out about the attack on
the Rokeby Venus?
  • Suffragette outrage - Rokeby Venus slashed with a
    chopper
  • At the National Gallery, yesterday morning, the
    famous Rokeby Venus, the Velasquez picture which
    eight years ago was bought for the nation by
    public subscription for 45,000, was seriously
    damaged by a militant suffragist connected with
    the WSPU. The woman, producing a meat chopper
    from her cloak, smashed the glass of the picture,
    and rained blows upon the back of the Venus.
  • Manchester Guardian, 11th March 1914
  • I have tried to destroy the picture of the most
    beautiful woman in history as a protest against
    the Government for destroying Mrs Pankhurst, who
    is the most beautiful character in modern
    history. Justice is an element of beauty as much
    as colour and outline on canvas. Mrs Pankhurst
    seeks to procure justice for womanhood, and for
    this she is being slowly murdered by a government
    of betraying politicians.
  • Statement by Mary Richardson released by the WSPU
    after her arrest

Step 2 How reliable is each source? (Think about
about who made it, when and why)
Step 3 How useful is each source? (Think about
what it says and what is missing)
Step 1 What does each source say?
65
Which step does each statement match up to?
The statement by Mary Richardson is useful
because it tells us the motivation behind the
attack and why she thought it was necessary.
Step 1 What does each source say/show? Step 2
How reliable is each source? (Think about about
who made it, when and why) Step 3 How useful is
each source? (Think about what it shows and what
is missing)
The newspaper describes the attack in negative
terms, calling it an outrage, while Mary
Richardson calls it justice.
  • The newspaper should describe the events without
    bias, because it is designed to inform its
    readers. Mary Richardson is trying to justify the
    attack, so presents her opinion and not those of
    the people against the suffragettes.

66
Were the suffragettes too violent?
The suffragettes own newspaper was sold on
street corners and spread the reasons why women
should vote.
They suffragettes chained themselves to
Buckingham Palace as the Royal Family were seen
to be against women voting.
The suffragettes wrote petitions to Parliament
one in 1910 had 250,000 signatures.  
Golf courses were vandalised by the
suffragettes.  
Some suffragettes refused to pay taxes.  
Suffragettes hired out boats, sailed up the
Thames and shouted abuse through loud hailers at
Parliament.  
Suffragette meetings and demonstrations could be
very large one in 1908 had 200,000 attendees.  
One suffragette attacked a valuable painting at
the National Gallery.  
The suffragettes would chalk slogans on pavements
and buildings.  
Emily Davison, a suffragette, was killed as she
tried to disrupt the running of the Derby.  
The suffragettes tried to gatecrash political
meetings and heckle the speakers.  
Churches were firebombed by the suffragettes
because they thought the Church of England was
against giving women the vote.
The suffragettes attacked politicians who they
thought blocked female suffrage laws in
Parliament.
The suffragettes sold WSPU merchandise tea
sets, postcards, scarves.
The suffragettes broke windows along Londons
famous Oxford Street.
Step 1 Look at both sides of the argument
Step 2 Think about different people having
different opinions
Step 3 Try to answer the question
67
Which step does each statement match up to?
It is true that they did use some violent tactics
they firebombed churches and attacked
politicians. However, they used violent tactics
alongside peaceful ones.
Step 1 Look at both sides of the
argument  Step 2 Think about different people
having different opinions Step 3 Try to answer
the question
  • Suffragettes were not only violent campaigners.
    By using both types of tactics, the suffragettes
    hoped to win support from a cross section of
    people.
  • People who were directly affected by the violence
    would have thought that the violence was over the
    top. However, it convinced other people that the
    suffragettes were determined to succeed.

68
WOULD YOU KILL YOURSELF TO GET THE VOTE?
EMILY DAVISON
69
EMILY DAVISON
  • Daughter of Charles Davison and Margaret Davison
  • Born at Blackheath, London in 1872
  • Successful at school
  • Won a place at Holloway College
  • Had to give up because mother was ill and could
    not afford fees.
  • Became a schoolteacher in Worthing.
  • Paid for herself to go to London University
  • Became a private teacher
  • Became a suffragette, 1906. Joined the WSPU.

70
EMILYS PRISON RECORD
March 30th 1909 One month in prison for obstruction
July 30th 1909 Two months in prison for obstruction
September 4th 1909 Two months for stone throwing at White City, Manchester
October 20th 1909 One month for stone throwing at Radcliffe near Manchester
November 19th 1910 One month for breaking windows in the House of Commons
January 10th 1912 Six months for setting fire to postal boxes at Holloway, London
November 30th 1912 Ten days for assaulting a vicar who she mistook to be David Lloyd George (PM)
71
EMILY IN PRISON
  • On June 19th 1909 Emily Davison decided to make a
    protest against forcible feeding. Emily explained
    her actions in a statement issued by the WSPU.
  • In my mind was the thought that some desperate
    protest must be made to put a stop to the hideous
    torture, which was now our lot.
  • Therefore, as soon as I got out I climbed on to
    the railing and threw myself out to the
    wire-netting, a distance of between 20 and 30
    feet.
  • The idea in my mind was "one big tragedy may save
    many others".

72
The idea in my mind was "one big tragedy may save
many others".
THE BIG IDEA?????
73
THE NIGHT BEFORE
  • On the eve of the Derby she went with two friends
    to a WSPU event in the Empress Rooms, Kensington.
  • With a fellow-militant in whose flat she lived,
    she had planned a Derby protest without tragedy -
    a mere waving of the purple-white-and-green at
    Tattenham Corner, which, by its suddenness, it
    was hoped would stop the race.
  • Whether from the first her purpose was more
    serious, or whether a final impulse altered her
    resolve, I know not.
  • Her friend declares that she would not thus have
    died without writing a farewell message to her
    mother.
  • Yet she sewed the WSPU colours inside her coat as
    though to ensure that no mistake could be made as
    to her motive when her dead body should be
    examined.

EVIDENCE FROM SYLVIA PANKHURST
74
THE WITNESS
  • She stood alone there, close to the white-painted
    rails where the course bends round at Tattenham
    Corner she looked absorbed and yet far away from
    everybody else and seemed to have no interest in
    what was going on round her.
  • A minute before the race started she raised a
    paper of her own or some kind of card before her
    eyes. I was watching her hand. It did not seem to
    shake. Even when I heard the pounding of the
    horses hoofs moving closer I saw she was still
    smiling.
  • And suddenly she slipped under the rail and ran
    out into the middle of the racecourse. It was all
    over so quickly.
  • Emily was under the hoofs of one of the horses
    and seemed to be hurled for some distance across
    the grass.
  • The horse stumbled sideways and its jockey was
    thrown from its back.
  • She lay very still.

Mary Richardson A suffragette.
75
Picture of the Derby tragedy. Most people are
oblivious, still watching the race.
76
  • Emily Davison
  • Davisons body trampled by the horse

77
THE GUARDIAN REPORT
  • The derby and the suffragette ---Tuesday May 13,
    1913
  • "They had just got round the Corner, and all had
    passed but the King's horse, when a woman
    squeezed through the railings and ran out onto
    the course.
  • She made straight for Anmer, and made a sort of
    leap for the reins. I think she got hold of them,
    but it was impossible to say. Anyway the horse
    knocked her over, and then they all came down in
    a bunch.
  • They were all rolling together on the ground. The
    jockey fell with the horse, and struck the ground
    with one foot in the stirrup, but he rolled free.
    Those fellows know how to tumble.
  • The horse fell on the woman and kicked out
    furiously, and it was sickening to see his hoofs
    strike her repeatedly. It all happened in a
    flash. Before we had time to realise it was over.
    The horse struggled to its feet - I don't think
    it was hurt - but the jockey and the woman lay on
    the ground. The ambulance men came running up,
    put them on stretchers, and carried them away.
    Most of the other jockeys saw nothing of it. They
    were far ahead. It was a terrible thing.
  • Another version has it that the woman did not
    come from behind the rails, but had managed to
    stay outside when the mounted policemen cleared
    the course, and had concealed herself by
    crouching down, and that she ran towards the
    horse bending low without trying to seize the
    reins.
  • All the accounts agree that she was struck with
    terrible force by the galloping horse, and that
    she rolled several yards before the horse lost
    its footing and fell upon her.
  • The jockey, said one man, 'flew from the horse's
    back like a stone from a sling,' and it was
    doubtless only owing to his jockey's skill in
    knowing just how to fall that he was not far more
    seriously injured.

78
THE GUARDIAN (continued)
  • The woman was far more seriously hurt, and the
    first report that spread about the course was
    that she was killed. She turned out to be one of
    the best known of the militant suffragists, Miss
    Emily Wilding Davison. It is said that underneath
    her jacket was found a suffragette flag tied
    round her body. A house surgeon at the Epsom
    Cottage Hospital a couple of hours after the
    accident reported that she was suffering from
    severe concussion of the brain.
  • 'She has lain unconscious since the time of her
    admission,' he said, 'and it is impossible to say
    for a few hours whether her life will be saved.'
    The first clue to her identity was the finding of
    a paper in her possession bearing the words
    'W.S.P.U. Helpers.' The people who were near
    enough to see what happened could not believe at
    first that the woman ran out deliberately. They
    thought she must have had the idea that all the
    horses had gone by, and had rushed on the course,
    as everyone does, as soon as the racers have
    passed. The only alternative to this theory in
    the mind of the crowd was that it was the deed of
    a mad person or a suicide, for it was about as
    dangerous a thing to do as it would be to throw
    oneself in the track of an express train.
  • Anmer was the last of the string, and the last
    but one was Mr. Bronson's Agadir, ridden by Earl.
    The woman just missed Agadir, and Earl was the
    only jockey who got a glimpse of what happened.
    The race had been over for some moments before
    the news reached the stands and the King learnt
    what had befallen his jockey. He was standing in
    the Jockey Club at the time, and soon afterwards
    he looked on with great concern at the spectacle
    of the jockey, bleeding and with closed eyes,
    carried past on a stretcher towards the hospital.
    The King then went to tell the Queen what had
    happened. The doctor afterwards reported to the
    King that Jones had had a wonderful escape. One
    of his arms was injured and he was bruised all
    over, and one of his ribs was broken.

79
THE NEWSPAPER REPORT
  • Which newspaper is this report from?
  • What does it tell us about the attitude of the
    king to Emily?
  • What evidence is there to suggest that the
    witnesses were not sure about what happened in
    the race?
  • Why do you think the witnesses were not sure what
    had happened?
  • Jones (the jockey) refused to attend Emilys
    funeral. Why do you think he did this and was he
    right not to attend? give your reasons.
  • Do you think that people in 1913 would be
    impressed with Emilys sacrifice? give your
    reasons.

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81
Kings horse Anmer
Jockey Herbert Jones
82
Suffragettes stand guard over Emily Davidsons
coffin
83
The suffragette campaign got its first martyr.
Emily Davison threw herself under the hooves of
King Edward's horse, Anmer, at the Derby and
suffered fatal injuries. At the time, her
sacrifice horrified her opponents but inspired
her supporters. Tens of thousands lines the
streets of London as her coffin was borne past on
its way to her final resting place in
Northumberland.
84
In 1988 the contents of Emily Davison's handbag
were examined. In it was found a return ticket
to Epsom and a diary with appointments for the
following weeks
85
  • The press continued to ridicule the movement.
  • The caption says
  • SHOULD WOMEN MIX IN POLITIX? NIX!

86
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88
  • An edition of The Daily Mirror reporting on the
    arrest of Emmeline Pankhurst and other
    Suffragettes who marched at Buckingham Palace.

89
Go to Prison!
  • They were handled roughly when arrested.
  • They were then body-searched and bathed.
  • Prison guards and female warders treated them
    like they were murderers.
  • Poor food Bread and water---led to getting sick
  • Long nights---lights went out at 8PM and could
    not speak until morning
  • Hunger strikes and forced-feedings

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91
  • Emmeline Christabel Pankhurst released from
    Holloway Jail, London, 22 December 1908

92
  • Jailed for Freedom Pin
  • This prison door symbol was modeled after Sylvia
    Pankhurst's Holloway Brooch, representing the
    portcullis gate of Holloway Prison where British
    suffragettes were incarcerated.20





93
  • Emmeline Pankhurst arrested outside Buckingham
    Palace in 1914

94
A Suffragette demonstrates. The arrow at the top
of the poster indicates that she has been
imprisoned and earned the Holloway Degree."

95
THE HUNGER STRIKE
  • Started by a suffragette, Marion Dunlop 1909.
  • Freed by the government who did not want her to
    become a martyr.
  • Other suffragettes followed to get out of prison.
  • Winsom Green prison, Birmingham started force
    feeding

96
Suffragettes Hunger Strikes
  • On 25th June 1909 Marion Wallace-Dunlop was
    charged "with willfully damaging the stone work
    of St. Stephen's Hall, House of Commons, by
    stamping it with an indelible rubber stamp, doing
    damage to the value of 10s.
  • According to a report in The Times
    Wallace-Dunlop printed a notice that read
    "Women's Deputation. June 29. Bill of Rights.
  • It is the right of the subjects to petition the
    King, and all commitments and prosecutions for
    such petitionings are illegal."
  • Wallace-Dunlop was found guilty of willful damage
    and when she refused to pay a fine she was sent
    to prison for a month.
  • Christabel Pankhurst later reported "Miss
    Wallace Dunlop, taking counsel with no one and
    acting entirely on her own initiative, sent to
    the Home Secretary, Mr. Gladstone, as soon as she
    entered Holloway Prison, an application to be
    placed in the first division as befitted one
    charged with a political offence.
  • She announced that she would eat no food until
    this right was conceded."
  • Marion Wallace-Dunlop refused to eat for several
    days.
  • Afraid that she might die and become a martyr, it
    was decided to release her after fasting for 91
    hours.
  • Soon afterwards other imprisoned suffragettes
    adopted the same strategy.
  • Unwilling to release all the imprisoned
    suffragettes, the prison authorities force-fed
    these women on hunger strike. In one eighteen
    month period, Emily Pankhurst, who was now in her
    fifties, endured ten of these hunger-strikes

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98
EMILY DAVISON ON HUNGER STRIKE
Emily Davison was sent to Strangeways Goal in
September 1909, for throwing stones at the
windows of the Liberal Club. Emily decided to go
on hunger strike. This account was included in a
letter that she wrote to a friend in
Switzerland. In the evening the matron, two
doctors, and five or six wardresses entered the
cell. The doctor said "I am going to feed you by
force." The scene, which followed, will haunt me
with its horror all my life, and is almost
indescribable. While they held me flat, the
elder doctor tried all round my mouth with a
steel gag to find an opening. On the right side
of my mouth two teeth are missing this gap he
found, pushed in the horrid instrument, and
prised open my mouth to its widest extent. Then
a wardress poured liquid down my throat out of a
tin enamelled cup. What it was I cannot say, but
there was some medicament, which was foul to the
last degree. As I would not swallow the stuff and
jerked it out with my tongue, the doctor pinched
my nose and somehow gripped my tongue with the
gag. The torture was barbaric
99
SUFFRAGETTES on FORCE FEEDING
  • Constance Lytton was force-fed in October 1909.
    An account of her experiences was included in her
    book Prison and Prisoners.
  • Two of the wardresses took hold of my arms, one
    held my head and one my feet. The doctor leant on
    my knees as he stooped over my chest to get at my
    mouth. I shut my mouth and clenched my teeth
  • The doctor seemed annoyed at my resistance and he
    broke into a temper as he pried my teeth with the
    steel implement. The pain was intense and at last
    I must have given way, for he got the gap between
    my teeth, when he proceeded to turn it until my
    jaws were fastened wide apart.
  • Then he put down my throat a tube, which seemed
    to me much too wide and something like four feet
    in length. I choked the moment it touched my
    throat. Then the food was poured in quickly it
    made me sick a few seconds after it was down. I
    was sick all over the doctor and wardresses.
  • As the doctor left he gave me a slap on the
    cheek. Presently the wardresses left me. Before
    long I heard the sounds of the forced feeding in
    the next cell to mine.
  • It was almost more than I could bear, it was
    Elsie Howley. When the ghastly process was over
    and all quiet. I tapped on the wall and called
    out at the top of my voice. 'No Surrender', and
    then came the answer in Elsie's voice, 'No
    Surrender'.

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102
Forced Feedings of Suffragettes
  • Prison doctors force-fed hunger strikers by
    pouring liquid food, milk and raw eggs, down a
    tube through their noses and into their stomachs.
  • The doctors said this was done to save the
    protesters lives.
  • The suffragettes said it was torture.

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105
Proposed Bills
  • 1910
  • 1st conciliation bill
  • 300 MPs voted for it on 1st reading
  • Passed 2nd reading by 100 votes.
  • Asquith stopped the bill by calling a general
    election.
  • 1911
  • 2nd Conciliation bill
  • Passed 1st reading
  • 2nd reading failed to get a majority.
  • Presented again in 1912 but ruled out.

106
  • 1913
  • Bill presented to parliament again
  • Passed 1st reading
  • Failed 2nd reading by 47 votes.
  • Restricted Suffragette activity in wild period.
    E.g. banned hall owners from renting them to
    suffragettes.
  • Government was busy with other issues.
  • Naval race with Germany in the lead up to W.W.I
  • Miners and Dockers strike
  • From 1910 Liberals depended on support from Irish
    nationalists. They would lose this support if
    they debated women instead of Ireland.

107
The Cat-and-Mouse Act
  • Hunger strikes in prisons responded to by
    force-feeding - huge public outcry as this was
    traditionally meted out to lunatics rather than
    educated women.
  • 1913 the Cat-and-Mouse Act was introduced,
    which ordered that hunger-strikers should be
    released when they fell ill and re-arrested once
    they had recovered sufficient strength.
  • If these women did not recover and instead died
    whilst on release then the government was able to
    exonerate itself from any blame or embarrassment.
  • Their weakened state also meant that they could
    not engage in any violent activities whilst on
    release, so it provided the government with a
    very powerful weapon against the suffragettes.
  • Edgar Holt it was an effective measure and
    there were
  • no more deaths from hunger strikes until
    1920.

108
Why do you think sources E and F were produced?
Use the sources and your own knowledge to explain
your answer. 8
Source E A Suffragette poster showing a
hunger-striking Suffragette being force-fed
Source F A Suffragette poster from 1913,
attacking the Liberal Government
109
  • A poster protesting against the Cat and Mouse Act!

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111
Public Response
  • 1913 movement gained its first real martyr
    when Emily Davison threw herself under the kings
    horse during the Epsom Derby.
  • This was however quite counter-productive if
    this is what an educated woman does, surely no
    women should be allowed to vote?
  • Most photographs issued in the press however
    showed police and mob brutality which increased
    public sympathy.
  • Central to non-violence is an awareness that
    brutal repression can produce opposition to their
    opponents.
  • Suffragists realised that they were gaining more
    than they were losing due to these incidents
    generating sympathy.
  • Then deliberately tried to incite violent
    reprisals in order to unease and embarrass their
    opponents and encourage them to grant them their
    demands.

112
  • This was one of the Anti-Suffrage Propaganda
    Posters that appeared about the Hunger Strikes
    and Forced-Feedings.

113
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115
Government Attitudes and Actions.
Actions of the suffragists.
Actions of the Suffragettes.
Why did women not have the vote by 1914?
Attitude of public and press.
Splits in the suffrage movement.
To answer this essay question you need to explain
how the factors above made it hard for women to
get the vote. E.g. What were the splits in the
movement AND how did this make it hard for women
to get the vote.
116
World War One and the Extension of the Franchise
  • It is arguable that, had it not been for the
    First World War, the violent actions of the
    militant suffragists might have escalated even
    further
  • February 1913, blew up part of David Lloyd
    Georges house a man who was widely considered
    to be a supporter of womens rights
  • But when war broke out break out, Pankhurst and
    Fawcett told their members to cease their
    campaigns and lend their full support to the war
    effort and the government.
  • Certain groups did continue campaigning but far
    less publicly and often carried out war-work
    simultaneously.
  • 1918, Representation of the People Act extended
    the franchise to certain women result of
    campaigns or the work done by women during the
    war years?

117
Key points Before the war, the most common
employment for a woman was as a domestic
servant. However, women were also employed in
what were seen to be suitable occupations
e.g. teaching, nursing, office work.
118
Key points When war broke out in August
1914, thousands of women were sacked from jobs in
dressmaking, millinery and jewellery making.They
needed work and they wanted to help the war
effort.
119
Key points Suffragettes stopped all
militant action in order to support the
war effort.
120
Women proved they were more than able to adapt to
supposedly men only environments.
121
A woman working in a munitions factory in Wrexham
122
Key points The shell shortage crisis in 1915
began to change the situation. Women were taken
on to work in munitions factories. The
government did a deal with the trade
unions, known as the Treasury Agreements. The
unions agreed to accept female labour in place of
men for the duration of the war.
123
Key points The armed forces also employed
women, but the jobs were mainly of a clerical
and domestic nature.
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125
Key points Women were in great demand for the
caring side of employment and became nurses in
the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry, and drivers
and clerks in Voluntary Aid Detachments.
VADs
126
  • After the War
  • 1 Women were expected to give way to men
    returning from the forces and return to pre-war
    womens work.
  • 2 The assumption that a womans place is in the
    home returned.
  • 3 The percentage of women at work returned to
    pre-war levels.
  • 4 More women than before worked in offices.

127
  • After the War
  • 5 Shorter skirts and hair became fashionable.
  • 6 Women went out with men without a chaperone.
  • 7 Women smoked and wore make-up in public for the
    first time.
  • 8 In 1919 being female or married was no longer
    allowed to disqualify someone from holding a job
    in the professions or civil service.

128
Right to Vote Given
  • 1918, Parliament granted vote to women over age
    30
  • By 1928 voting rights for British women over the
    age of 21 were on the same basis as British men.

129
The Campaign for Female Suffrage
February 6th 1918 The Representation of the
People Act decreed All women over 30 who were
married to property owners or who owned property
themselves were allowed to vote in parliamentary
elections.
ERH
This enfranchised 8 million women
130
Olive Schreiner 1918
Many women have now the vote and are part of the
governing power of their nation all will have
it soon.
131
  • Emmeline Pankhursts statue in Westminster,
    London

132
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