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Biology and Behavior

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Title: The Biological Bases of Behavior Author: RHS Last modified by: Jaclyn Barnes Created Date: 2/2/2012 2:03:08 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biology and Behavior


1
Biology and Behavior
  • Unit 2
  • Chapter 3

2
Neuron Diagram
3
Neurotransmitters and Behavior
  • Acetylcholine
  • motor neurons and voluntary muscles
  • contributes to attention, arousal and memory
  • Monoamines
  • Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin
  • controls voluntary movements
  • abnormal levels contribute to psychological
    disorders
  • GABA
  • responsible for inhibition in central nervous
    system
  • regulates anxiety and modulates sleep
  • Endorphins
  • contributes to modulation of pain

4
The Peripheral Nervous System
  • Somatic Nervous System
  • responsible for voluntary movement
  • carry information in skin, muscles, joints to CNS
    and from CNS to muscles
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • controls automatic, involuntary visceral
    functions
  • mediates physiological arousal (emotions)
  • Fight-or- flight response

5
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic
  • mobilizes bodys resources for emergencies
  • fight-or-flight response
  • releases hormones
  • activation slows digestion and drains blood from
    periphery
  • Parasympathetic
  • conserves bodily resources
  • slow HR, reduce BP
  • activates processes that allow the body to save
    and store energy

6
Central Nervous System
  • lies within the skull and spinal column
  • Brain and spinal cord
  • protected by meninges and cerebrospinal fluid

7
The Spinal Cord
  • connects brain to body
  • carries brains commands to peripheral nerves
  • relays sensations from periphery of body to brain
  • transmits signals from brain to motor neurons to
    move bodys muscles

8
The Brain
9
The Hindbrain
  • Medulla
  • attached to spinal cord
  • controls unconscious functions
  • circulating blood, breathing
  • Pons
  • bridge of fibers connecting brainstem to
    cerebellum
  • coordination of movement and sense of equilibrium
  • clusters of cell bodies controlling sleep and
    arousal

10
The Midbrain
  • lies between the hindbrain and forebrain
  • integrates sensory processes
  • hearing vision
  • reticular formation contributes to muscle
    reflexes, breathing, pain perception, and arousal

11
The Forebrain
  • Limbic system
  • regulates emotion, memory and motivation
  • hippocampus memory
  • Thalamus
  • composed of somas
  • relays all sensory information except smell
  • Hypothalamus
  • controls autonomic nervous system
  • links brain and endocrine system
  • regulates basic biological drives
  • Cerebrum
  • responsible for complex mental activities
  • learning, thinking, remembering

12
The Cerebrum
  • Occipital lobe
  • back of the head
  • primary visual cortex receives and processes
    visual information
  • Parietal Lobe
  • forward of occipital lobe
  • primary somatosensory cortex registers sense of
    touch
  • Temporal Lobe
  • below parietal lobe
  • primary auditory cortex devoted to auditory
    processing
  • Frontal Lobe
  • largest lobe at front
  • primary motor cortex controls muscle movement

13
Right Brain/Left BrainCerebral Laterality
  • Unit 2
  • Chapter 3

14
Right Hemisphere
  • Nonverbal processing
  • spatial, musical, visual recognition tasks
  • Intuitive
  • follow gut feeling
  • Thoughtful
  • sense others feelings
  • Imaginative
  • creating images

15
Left Hemisphere
  • Verbal processing
  • language, speech, reading, writing
  • Logical
  • decisions based on facts
  • Analytical
  • follow fine details
  • Memory
  • processing symbols

16
Bisecting the Brain
  • Each hemispheres primary connections are to the
    opposite side of the body
  • L hemisphere R hand
  • R hemisphere L hand
  • Both eyes and ears deliver information to both
    hemispheres
  • Auditory input stronger/ more immediate for
    opposite hemisphere

17
Handedness
  • the hand that performs faster or more precisely
    on manual tests
  • the hand that one prefers to use, regardless of
    performance
  • either left or right
  • either right or non-right
  • ambidexterity

18
Brain lateralization Handedness
  • handedness was opposite from the specialized
    hemisphere
  • majority of left-handers also seem to have a
    left-hemispheric brain specialization
  • genetic factors, brain injury

19
Problem Solving Tasks
  • Males
  • rely heavily on left brain
  • solve problems step by step
  • Females
  • greater access to right brain
  • focus on more than one problem at a time

20
The Endocrine System
  • Unit 2
  • Chapter 3

21
Endocrine System Another Way to Communicate
  • consists of glands that secrete hormones into the
    bloodstream that help control bodily functions
  • digestion
  • blood pressure regulation
  • pulsatile- released several times/day in brief
    bursts or pulses that last only minutes
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