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Title: The%20Ferment%20of%20Reform%20and%20Culture


1
The Ferment of Reform and Culture
  • 1790 to 1860

2
Religious liberalism
  • Secular rationalism
  • Deism (Jefferson, Franklin, Paine) relied on
    reason rather than revelation scientific
    believes in the existence of a God or supreme
    being but denies revealed religion.
  • Unitarian faith stressed the essential goodness
    of human nature - free will and salvation
    through good works- appealed to intellectuals

3
Second Great Awakening
  • Spectacular religious revivals reversed the
    trend towards secular rationalism fueled a
    spirit of social reform
  • Attempt to improve Americans faith, morals, and
    character affected education, family,
    literature, and the arts culminating in the
    abolitionist movement to end slavery

4
Peter Cartwright Born Sept. 1,1785
Died Sept. 25,1872
  • Early American "hellfire and brimstone" preacher.
  • Helped start the Second Great Awakening

5
Charles Grandison Finney 1792 1875
  • Evangelist spellbinding oratory style
  • Often called one of "America's foremost
    revivalist
  • Encouraged women to pray
  • Opposed liquor and slavery

6
William Miller Born February 15, 1782
Died December 20, 1849
  • American Baptist preacher, whose followers were
    called Millerites - Adventists
  • Millerites rose from the Burned Over District
    in the 1830s.
  • They expected Christ to return to earth on
    October 22, 1844.

7
Effect of Religious Diversity
  • Second Great Awakening widened lines between
    classes and regions
  • Prosperous regions in East little effect
  • Methodists and Baptists and new sects swelled
    by fervor
  • Baptist and Methodist churches split over slavery
    issue

8
Joseph Smith Born 23-Dec-1805
Died 27-Jun-1844
  • Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-Day Saints (Mormons)
  • Cooperative sect
  • Voted as a unit
  • Polygamy
  • Murdered

9
Brigham Young Born 1-Jun-1801
Died 29-Aug-1877
  • Second prophet of the Latter Day Saints.
  • Led followers to Utah
  • Utah grew and became prosperous
  • Theocracy cooperative commonwealth

10
Free Schools for a Free People
  • Whenever the people are well-informed, they
    can be trusted with their own government.
    Thomas Jefferson
  • Early republic tax supported schools rare
    opposition to free public education
  • Manhood suffrage ? triumph of tax-supported
    school 1825-1850

11
Horace Mann Born 4-May-1796
Died 2-Aug-1859
  • Humanitarian
  • Advocated for public education
  • basis of quality education is good teachers
  • Wanted longer school terms, higher pay for
    teachers, expanded curriculum
  • Pushed for reform in mental institutions and
    called for the end of slavery.
  • Known as "the father of the American common
    school - to serve individuals of all social
    classes and religions.

12
Noah Webster Born 16-Oct-1758
Died 28-May-1843
  • Schoolmaster of the Republic
  • Lexicographer
  • Standardized the American language

13
William H. McGuffey Born Sept. 23,1800(in PA.)
Died 1873
  • McGuffeys Reader
  • Text for most schools from 1836-1900
  • Contained religious messages
  • Sought to instill morality, patriotism, and
    idealism
  • 122,000,000 copies sold

14
Emma Willard Born Feb. 23, 1787
Died April 15, 1870
  • Women's rights advocate
  • 1821 founded the first women's school of higher
    education, the Troy Female Seminary.
  • Troy became famous, offering collegiate education
    to women and new opportunity to women teachers.

15
An Age of Reform
  • Promises of the Second Great Awakening led to a
    wave of reform
  • Women were prominent in the reform movements
  • Targets/goals?
  • Suffrage
  • Prison reform and criminal codes
  • Alcohol
  • Slavery

16
Dorothea Dix Born 4-Apr-1802
Died 17-Jul-1887
  • Activist for the insane
  • Through a vigorous program of lobbying state
    legislatures and the United States Congress,
    created the first generation of American mental
    asylums.

17
Neal S. Dow
  • Father of Prohibition
  • Employer of labor witnessed debauching effect
    of drink
  • Sponsored 1st prohibition law in Maine in 1851

18
Lucretia Mott Born 3-Jan-1793
Died 11-Nov-1880
  • Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer and
    proponent of women's rights.
  • Co-organizer of Seneca Falls Convention
  • Signatory of the Declaration of Sentiments.

19
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Born 12-Nov-1815
Died 26-Oct-1902
  • President of the National Woman Suffrage
    Association from 1865-90
  • Drafted the Declaration of Sentiments (Demanded
    the vote at Seneca Falls)
  • Coorganized Seneca Falls

Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony
20
Susan B. Anthony Born 15-Feb-1820
Died 13-Mar-1906
  • Prominent women's rights advocate
  • In 1869, she and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded
    the National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA)
  • Arrested and fined for trying to vote in the 1872
    Presidential election
  • Age 26

21
Elizabeth Blackwell Born February 3, 1821
Died May 31, 1910
  • Abolitionist and women's rights activist
  • 1849 - she became the first woman to earn a
    medical degree in the United States.Barred from
    practice in most hospitals, she founded her own
    infirmary, the New York Infirmary for Indigent
    Women and Children, in 1857.

22
Margaret Fuller Born 23-May-1810
Died 19-Jul-1850
  • Friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson and associated
    with transcendentalism
  • Edited the transcendentalist journal, The Dial
    from 1840 to 1842
  • Joined Horace Greeley's New York Tribune as
    literary critic
  • First female journalist to work on the staff of a
    major newspaper.
  • Fuller's major work, Woman in the Nineteenth
    Century (1845), argued for the independence of
    women.

23
Utopian Societies
  • Reformers set up over 40 communities
  • New Harmony, Indiana
  • Brook Farm in Massachusetts transcendentalist
  • Oneida Community
  • Shakers

24
Robert Owen Born 14-May-1771
Died 17-Nov-1858
  • Idealistic Scottish manufacturer
  • Founder of the Cooperative Movement
  • Began a communal society in 1825 in New Harmony,
    Indiana.
  • It failed.
  • New Moral World
  • Owen's envisioned successor of New Harmony.
    Owenites
  • fired bricks to build it, but construction never
    took place.

25
John Humphrey Noyes Born Sept. 3, 1811
  Died April 13, 1886
  • American utopian socialist. He founded the Oneida
    Community in 1848.
  • There were smaller communities in Wallingford,
    Conn. Newark, NJ Putney,Vt and Cambridge, Vt.
  • The Oneida Community dissolved in 1880,

26
Scientific Achievement
  • Early Americans interested in practical science
  • Louis Agassiz biologist insisted on original
    research
  • Audubon naturalist
  • Sylvester Graham

27
Louis Agassiz Born 28-May-1807
Died 14-Dec-1873
  • Swiss-born American biologist, and geologist, the
    husband of educator Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz,
    and one of the first world-class American
    scientists
  • insisted on original research

28
John James Audubon Born 26-Apr-1785 (in Haiti)
Died 27-Jan-1851
  • American naturalist
  • He painted, catalogued, and described the birds
    of North America.
  • Published Birds of America,
    in 1838.

29
Sylvester Graham Born
July 5, 1794 Died September 11, 1851
  • American Presbyterian minister
  • Early advocate of dietary reform
  • Vegetarianism and temperance movement
  • 1829 - invented Graham flour and Graham bread,
    made from unsifted and unbolted flour and free
    from chemical additives
  • Used to make graham crackers and other products.

30
Artistic Achievement
  • The Hudson River School of Art

31
The Hudson River School of Art
  • The Hudson River School used a Romantic approach
    to depict scenes of America's wilderness, drawing
    inspiration from the Hudson River Valley, the
    Catskills, the Berkshires and the newly opened
    West.

32
The Hudson River School of Art
  • Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty and Asher B. Durand
    were among the early practitioners of this style
    and they had a significant influence on the
    artists that followed them.

33
The Hudson River School of Art
  • Thomas Cole was a teenager when his family
    emigrated from England. He was a passionate
    devotee of the scenery of his adopted country.
    Cole is considered to be the finest American
    landscape artist of the 19th Century.

34
The Hudson River School of Art
  • 1825 to 1875 was a time of powerful national
    pride in the United States. The dramatic and
    uniquely American landscapes by Thomas Cole
    prompted a positive response from the American
    public. Inspiration and spectacular natural
    beauty are reflected in the famous paintings,
    Niagara by Frederic Edwin Church, and Yellowstone
    Falls by Albert Bierstadt.

35
NIAGARA FALLS by Frederic Edwin Church (American
1826-1900)
36
Albert Bierstadt, Yellowstone Falls, ca. 1881,
37
The Hudson River School of Art
  • Thomas Doughty was one of the first American
    painters to restrict himself to landscape
    painting as his genre. Some consider him the
    catalyst for the Hudson River School given he was
    the one who recognized early on the magnificent
    subject matter offered within the American
    countryside.

38
The Hudson River School of Art
  • Asher B. Durand's early career was as an
    engraver. When he began to paint it was as first
    a portraitist before turning his attention to
    nature. Cole was a major inspiration upon him.

39
The Hudson River School of Art
  • The Hudson River School looked into the
    conflict between modernity and nature as well as
    the effects of increasing industrialization and
    westward expansion.

40
Title View on the Schoharie, 1826 Artist
Thomas Cole (American 1801-1848)
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                         
41
Title Otsego Lake Looking North from Two Mile
Point, ca. 1883 Artist Edward B. Gay
(1837-1928)
42
Title Cooperstown from Three Mile Point, ca.
1850 Artists Louis Remy Mignot (1831-1870)
Julius Gollmann (-1898)
43
Title Emporium of Indian Curiosities, 1856
Artist Joachim Ferdinand Richardt (American
1819-1895)
44
Title Cider Making in the Country, 1863
Artist George Henry Durrie (American
1820-1863)
45
Gilbert Stuart
  • One of the greatest portrait painters of his time
  • Best known for his portraits of Washington

46
Gilbert Stuart
  • George Washington (a.k.a. the "Athenaeum Head"
    ca. 1798 Stuart copy of unfinished 1796
    original),
  • Portrait of George Washington for the White
    House, 1797. This is the painting that Dolley
    Madison rescued when the White House was burned
    during the War of 1812

47
John Singleton Copley Born July 3, 1738
Died September 9, 1815
  • American artist of the colonial period, famous
    for his portraits of important figures in
    colonial New England, particularly men and women
    of the middle class.
  • His portraits were innovative in that they tended
    to portray their subjects with artifacts that
    were indicative of their lives.
  • Portrait of Copley by
    Gilbert Stuart.

48
John Singleton Copley
  • Portrait of Samuel Adams
  • Portrait of Paul Revere
  • Portrait of the Copley family, 1776

49
National Literature
  • After War of Independence and War of 1812 new
    wave of nationalism
  • Knickerbocker Group New York a
    group of writers who were intent on distancing
    themselves from European traditions.

50
Washington Irving Born 3-Apr-1783
Died 28-Nov-1859
  • "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
  • "Rip van Winkle"
  • He and James Fenimore Cooper were the first
    American writers to earn acclaim in Europe.
  • Noted for speaking against the mistreatment of
    Native American tribes by Europeans and
    Americans.

51
James Fenimore Cooper Born 15-Sep-1789
Died 14-Sep-1851
  • Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels
    featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by
    European settlers as "Leatherstocking," and by
    the Native Americans as "Pathfinder,"
    "Deerslayer," or "Hawkeye".
  • Best known of the series is The Last of the
    Mohicans

52
Transcendentalism
  • New ideas in literature, religion, culture, and
    philosophy
  • Emerged in New England
  • Began as a protest against the general state of
    culture and society at the time
  • Ideal spiritual state that transcends the
    physical and empirical and is only realized
    through the individuals intuition, rather than
    the senses
  • Look within yourself, rather than outward with
    your senses, for meaning

53
Ralph Waldo Emerson Born 25-May-1803
Died 27-Apr-1882
  • Author, poet, philosopher
  • 1836. Nature.
  • 1837. "The American Scholar".
  • 1841 The Transcendentalist
  • 1844. Essays Second Series.
  • 1856. Representative Men on Plato, Swedenborg,
    Montaigne, Shakespeare, Napoleon, and Goethe.
  • '1856. English Traits.
  • 1860. The Conduct of Life
  • 1862. "Thoreau" a eulogy for Henry David
    Thoreau.

54
Henry David Thoreau Born 12-Jul-1817
Died 6-May-1862
  • Author, critic, naturalist, transcendentalist,
    pacifist, abolitionist, tax resister and
    philosopher.
  • Walden, a reflection upon simple living amongst
    nature
  • Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual
    resistance to civic government as moral
    opposition to an unjust law.
  • Philosophy had tremendous influence on leaders
    like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.

55
Nathaniel Hawthorne Born 4-Jul-1804
Died 19-May-1864
  • 19th century American novelist and short story
    writer.
  • Key figure in the development of American
    literature.
  • The Scarlet Letter and House of the Seven Gables
  • Neighbors included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry
    David Thoreau.

56
Herman Melville Born 1-Aug-1819
Died 28-Sep-1891
  • American novelist, essayist and poet.
  • Moby-Dick is Melville's most famous work and is
    often considered one of the greatest American
    novels. It was dedicated to his friend Nathaniel
    Hawthorne.

57
Henry Wadsworth LongfellowBorn 27-Feb-1807
Died 24-Mar-1882
  • American poet
  • The Song of Hiawatha, Paul Revere's Ride, A Psalm
    of Life and Evangeline.
  • Member of a group of poets known as the Fireside
    Poets Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, John
    Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and
    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., who were the first
    American poets whose popularity rivaled that of
    British poets

58
James Russell Lowell Born 22-Feb-1819
Died 12-Aug-1891
  • Romantic poet, critic, satirist, writer,
    diplomat, and abolitionist.
  • Helped found a literary journal, The Pioneer. It
    opened the way to new ideals in literature and
    art, and to as yet unknown writers such as
    Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson,
    Whittier, Edgar Allan Poe.

59
Walt Whitman Born 31-May-1819
Died 26-Mar-1892
  • Poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist, and
    considered one of America's best and most
    influential poets.
  • Leaves of Grass
  • The book did not attract the attention of the
    reading public until a letter from Ralph Waldo
    Emerson to the poet, in which the volume was
    characterized as the "most extraordinary piece of
    wit and wisdom that America has yet contributed",
    was published in the New York Tribune.

60
Louisa May Alcott Born 29-Nov-1832(in
Germantown, PA) Died 6-Mar-1888
  • American novelist.
  • Best known for the novel Little Women, which she
    wrote in 1868.
  • Moved to Boston with her family in 1844, where
    her father established an experimental school and
    joined the Transcendentalist Club with Emerson
    and Thoreau

61
Edgar Allan Poe Born 19-Jan-1809
Died 7-Oct-1849
  • Poet, short story writer, editor, and one of the
    leaders of the American Romantic Movement. Best
    known for his tales of the macabre.
  • Though born in Mass., was raised in Va. and is
    considered a southern writer.
  • An early American practitioner of the short story
    and a progenitor of detective fiction and crime
    fiction.
  • His poem "The Raven" became a popular sensation.

62
Stephen Foster Born 4-Jul-1826
Died 13-Jan-1864
  • Birthplace Lawrenceville, PA
  • Pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of
    the 19th century
  • Sometimes known as the "father of American
    music.
  • "Oh! Susanna", "Camptown Races", "My Old Kentucky
    Home", "Old Black Joe", "Beautiful Dreamer" and
    "Old Folks at Home" ("Swanee River")

63
P. T. Barnum (Phineas T. Barnum) Born
5-Jul-1810 Died 7-Apr-1891
  • American showman
  • Best remembered for founding the circus that
    eventually became Ringling Brothers and Barnum
    and Bailey Circus.
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