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Chapter 2 Classification of Matter

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Chapter 2 Classification of Matter Objectives: Define and give examples of 3 states of matter Distinguish between substances and mixtures Understand what elements are – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Classification of Matter


1
Chapter 2 Classification of Matter
  • Objectives
  • Define and give examples of 3 states of matter
  • Distinguish between substances and mixtures
  • Understand what elements are
  • Distinguish between metals, nonmetals and
  • metalloids
  • Define compounds and diatomic molecules

2
What is Matter?
  • Anything that has mass and occupies space
    (volume)
  • Composed of atoms
  • Exists in three states on earth
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Exists in fourth state in space
  • Plasma (An electrically neutral,
  • highly ionized gas state)

3
Solids
  • Definite shape and volume
  • Particles tightly packed in a lattice pattern
  • Crystalline salt, sugar, quartz
  • Amorphous solids no regular, geometric pattern
    eg. Glass, plastic, gel

4
Liquids
  • Definite volume
  • Not a definite shape (Takes shape of container)
  • Particles have more energy
  • Particles can move freely

5
Gases
  • Indefinite volume
  • No definite shape
  • Particles have high energy level
  • Particles move independently of one another

6
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7
Classfication Flowchart
MATTER
yes
no
Can it be physically separated?
Compound
Heterogeneous Mixture (mechanical)
Homogenous Mixture (solutions)
Element
8
Substances and Mixtures
  • Pure Substance a particular kind of matter with
    a definite, fixed composition
  • Elements (copper, gold, oxygen)
  • Compounds (sugar, salt, water)
  • Mixture a blend of two or more pure substances
  • NOT chemically combined

9
Types of Mixtures
  • Heterogeneous mixtures
  • Visibly different parts
  • Eg. Chocolate chip cookies granite
  • Two or more phases (usually)
  • Homogeneous mixtures
  • Different parts not visible (uniform throughout)
  • One phase
  • Eg. Sea water, air

10
Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Also known as solutions
  • very small particles (0.2 2.0 nm)
  • no Tyndall effect (particles dont scatter light)
  • particles dont settle
  • Eg rubbing alcohol, air,
  • brass alloy

11
Colloids
  • Homogeneous or heterogenous? Difficult to
    say
  • medium-sized particles
  • (2.0 1000 nm)
  • Tyndall effect
  • particles dont settle
  • Eg milk

12
Suspensions
  • large particles (gt1000 nm)
  • Tyndall effect
  • particles settle
  • Eg fresh-squeezed lemonade

13
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Mechanical
  • Several components mixed and visible
  • Eg Raisin Bran

14
Pure Substances
  • Elements
  • A substance that cannot be separated into simpler
    substances
  • Compound
  • Two or more elements combined through a chemical
    reaction
  • Different properties than elements which compose
    it

15
Elements
  • Classificiation
  • Metal
  • Nonmetal
  • Metalloid

16
Elements
  • Metals
  • Usually solid at room temp
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity
  • High luster (shiny)
  • Ductile easily pulled into wires
  • Malleable easily beaten into thin sheets
  • High melting point high density
  • Usually dont combine with each other
  • Readily combine with nonmetals

17
Elements
  • Nonmetals
  • Solids (C, P, S, Se, I2) Liquid (Br2) Gases
    (all others)
  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity no
    luster
  • Low melting point low density
  • Will combine with each other (CO2)
  • Will combine with metals or metalloids
  • Some found uncombined in nature (noble gases)

18
Elements
  • Metalloids
  • Have properties of both metals and nonmetals
  • Some used for semiconductors in electronics
  • Eg Silicon, Germanium

19
Compounds
  • Two or more elements chemically combined
  • New properties
  • Definite proportions
  • Can be chemically separated
  • Molecular (covalent) or Ionic

20
Compounds
  • Molecular
  • Held together with covalent bonds
  • Molecule smallest uncharged individual unit of
    a compound
  • Eg. Water, carbon dioxide

21
Compounds
  • Ionic
  • Ion positively or negatively charged atom or
    group of atoms
  • Cation positive
  • Anion negative
  • Held together by ionic bond attraction between
    positive and negative charges

22
Diatomic Molecules
  • Always exist as 2 atoms
  • 7 naturally occurring
  • Hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine,
  • bromine, iodine, nitrogen,
  • chlorine
  • H2, O2, F2, Br2, I2, N2, Cl2
  • Memory tool HOFBrINCl pronounced
    Hoffbrinkle

23
Chemical Formulas
  • Subscript indicates of atoms present
  • H2O has 2 Hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen atom
  • H2SO4 has
  • NaOH has
  • C6H12O6 has

2 hydrogen atoms, 1 sulfur atom, 4 oxygen atoms
1 sodium atom, 1 oxygen atom, 1 hydrogen atom
6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and
6 oxygen atoms
24
Separating Mixtures
  • Do NOT cause chemical changes
  • Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Filtration

25
Separating Mixtures
  • Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Distillation

26
Separating Mixtures
  • Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Chromatography

27
Separating Mixtures
  • Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Crystallization
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