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Solids, Liquids, and Gases States of Matter Dipole Forces All three types of forces other than bonds are similar based on electric attraction All are based on ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solids,%20Liquids,%20and%20Gases

Solids, Liquids, and Gases
  • States of Matter

Solids, Liquids, Gases
  • Solids - Atoms and molecules vibrate in a
    stationary spot
  • Liquids atoms and molecules move, but are still
    bound together
  • Gases atoms and molecules move freely and
    bounce off one another without sticking together

Forces that hold matter together
  • Matter is held together by forces of attraction
  • The forces of attraction must be strong enough to
    overcome the energy of atoms in motion
  • For a substance to go from solid to liquid, or
    liquid to gas, forces of attraction must be
    overcome by motion of particles
  • Higher melting and boiling points mean stronger

Forces of attraction
  • Strongest to weakest
  • Chemical bonds
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Dipole-dipole interactions
  • London dispersion forces

What makes a substance a solid, liquid, or gas?
  • Strength of bonds
  • Size of the molecule, if molecular
  • Temperature
  • Metallic substances and ionic substances (and
    some covalent substances) are bound together in
    large arrays with strong bonds solids under
    normal conditions

Dipole Forces
  • All three types of forces other than bonds are
    similar based on electric attraction
  • All are based on dipole moments a positive end
    and a negative end of an atom or molecule
  • Hydrogen Bonds are strongest
  • Then permanent dipoles
  • Then temporary dipoles London dispersion forces

  • Usually more dense than liquids
  • Often have particles in a particular arrangement
    a crystal formation
  • Crystals may be of many types
  • Governed by electric forces could be ions,
    dipoles, hydrogen bonds
  • Amorphous solids are those without a crystal

  • In a liquid, molecules, atoms and ions can move
    freely (fluid), but are still attached to others
  • The ease of flow is called viscosity
  • Most substances flow more easily as the particles
    get warmer
  • Surface tension is the force at the surface of
    the liquid

  • Gases are individual particles in motion, but not
    attached to others
  • When they hit another particle, they bounce off
  • The volume of the gas particles is small in
    relation to the total volume, so gases can be
    compressed, where solids and liquids cannot

Phase Change
  • When a substance is melted or boils, energy must
    be supplied
  • When a substance condenses or freezes, energy is
  • This energy is called
  • Heat of fusion (for melting and freezing)
  • Heat of vaporization (for boiling and condensing)

Deposition and sublimation
  • In some conditions a substance may go directly
    from a vapor state to a solid state, called
  • Going from a solid state to a vapor state is
    called sublimation
  • Vapor to solid is called deposition

Vapor Pressure
  • Even when below the boiling point, some molecules
    have enough energy to escape from a liquid
  • These molecules exert a pressure, called the
    Vapor Pressure