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Title: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and flavin nucleotide


1
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and flavin nucleotide
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2
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3
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  • 1??Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)????????????
  • 2??Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)???????????
  • 3??????(flavin nucleotide)

4
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Vitamin B2 ( Riboflavin)
  • Overview
  • Structure and chemistry character
  • Dietary Sources
  • Uses(Possible Interactions)
  • Supporting Research

7
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8
Overview
  • Vitamin B2, commonly called riboflavin, is one of
    eight water-soluble B vitamins. Like its close
    relative vitamin B1 (thiamine), riboflavin plays
    a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions,
    particularly the conversion of carbohydrates
    (?????)into sugar, which is "burned" to produce
    energy. Together, the eight B vitamins, often
    referred to as B complex vitamins, are also
    essential in the breakdown of fats and protein.
    In addition, B complex vitamins play an important
    role in maintaining muscle tone along the lining
    of the digestive tract and promoting the health
    of the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth,
    and liver.

9
Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency
  • fatigue(??) slowed growth(????) digestive
    problems(????) cracks and sores around the
    corners of the mouth swollen magenta tongue eye
    fatigue soreness of the lips, mouth and
    tongue(??) and sensitivity to light(????).
    Riboflavin is an important nutrient in the
    prevention of headache and some visual
    disturbances, particularly cataracts(???).

10
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FAD?FMN??????????
13
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14
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FAD ?FMN??????
15
  • FMN,FAD????????????????,?????B2??????????????,????
    ????????????????????
  • ??????????B2,??????????,???????????????????

16
The best sources of riboflavin include brewers
yeast(?????), almonds(??), organ meats(????),
whole grains(??), wheat germ(??), wild
rice(????), mushrooms(??), soybeans(??),
milk(??), yogurt(???), eggs(?), broccoli(??),
brussel sprouts, and spinach(??). Flours and
cereals(??) are often fortified with riboflavin.
Absorption of Vitamin B2 is best when it is
taken with meals.

17
Children and adult daily standard Vitamin B2
recommended dietary allowance (????????Vitamin
B2???)
  • Children
  • Infants birth to 6 months 0.3 mg (adequate
    intake)
  • Infants 7 to 12 months 0.4 mg (adequate intake)
  • Children 1 to 3 years 0.5 mg (RDA)
  • Children 4 to 8 years 0.6 mg (RDA)
  • Children 9 to 13 years 0.9 mg (RDA)
  • Males 14 to 18 years 1.3 mg (RDA)
  • Females 14 to 18 years 1 mg (RDA)
  • Adult
  • Males 19 years and older 1.3 mg (RDA)
  • Females 19 years and older 1.1 mg (RDA)
  • Pregnant females 1.4 mg (RDA)
  • Breastfeeding females 1.6 mg (RDA)

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18
Supporting Research
19
Supporting Research
  • Adelekan DA, Thurnham DI, Adekile AD. Reduced
    antioxidant capacity in paediatric patients with
    homozygous sickle cell disease. Eur J Clin Nutr.
    198943(9)609-614.
  • Antoon AY, Donovan DK. Burn Injuries. In Behrman
    RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson Textbook
    of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Pa W.B. Saunders
    Company 2000287-294.
  • Bell, IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief
    communication. Vitamin B1, B2, and B6
    augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant
    treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive
    dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr. 199211(2)159-163.
  • Bomgaars L, Gunawardena S, Kelley SE, Ramu A. The
    inactivation of doxorubicin by long ultraviolet
    light. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.
    199740(6)506-512.
  • Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and
    cataract the Blue Mountains Eye
    Study.Ophthalmology. 2000107(3)450-456.

20
  • De-Souza DA, Greene LJ. Pharmacological nutrition
    after burn injury. J Nutr. 1998128797-803.
  • Dreizen S, McCredie KB, Keating MJ, Andersson BS.
    Nutritional deficiencies in patients receiving
    cancer chemotherapy. Postgrad Med.
    199087(1)163-167, 170.
  • Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of
    vitamins in the prevention and control of
    anaemia. Review. Public Health Nutr.
    20003(2)125-150.
  • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.
    Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin,
    Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin
    B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.
    Washington, DC National Academy Press 1998.
  • Folkers K, Ellis J. Successful therapy with
    vitamin B6 and vitamin B2 of the carpal tunnel
    syndrome and need for determination of the RDAs
    for vitamins B6 and B2 for disease states. Ann NY
    Acad Sci. 1990585295-301.
  • Folkers K, Wolaniuk A, Vadhanavikit S. Enzymology
    of the response of the carpal tunnel syndrome to
    riboflavin and to combined riboflavin and
    pyridoxine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
    198481(22)7076-7078.

21
  • Gartside PS, Glueck CJ. The important role of
    modifiable dietary and behavioral characteristics
    in the causation and prevention of coronary heart
    disease hospitalization and mortality the
    prospective NHANES I follow-up study. J Am Coll
    Nutr. 199514(1)71-79.
  • Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, Shatenstein B,
    Morisset R. Nutritional factors in the aetiology
    of multiple sclerosis a case-control study in
    Montreal, Canada. Int J Epidemiol.
    199827(5)845-852.
  • Head KA. Natural therapies for ocular disorders,
    part two cataracts and glaucoma. Review.
    Altern Med Rev. 20016(2)141-166.
  • Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin
    synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 19976(Suppl
    1)S43-45.
  • Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, Hankinson SE, et al.
    Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related
    nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol.
    2001119(7)1009-1019.
  • Kirschmann GJ, Kirschmann JD. Nutrition Almanac.
    4th ed. New York McGraw-Hill199684-86.

22
  • Kuzniarz M, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Flood VM. Use
    of vitamin supplements and cataract the Blue
    Mountains Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol.
    2001132(1)19-26.
  • LaVecchia C, Braga C, Negri E, et al. Intake of
    selected micronutrients and risk of colorectal
    cancer. Int J Cancer. 199773525-530.
  • Lewis JA, Baer MT, Laufer MA. Urinary riboflavin
    and creatinine excretion in children treated with
    anticonvulsant drugs letter. Am J Dis Child.
    1975129394.
  • Mauskop A. Alternative therapies in headache. Is
    there a role? Review. Med Clin North Am.
    200185(4)1077-1084.
  • Meyer NA, Muller MJ, Herndon DN. Nutrient support
    of the healing wound. New Horizons.
    19942(2)202-214.
  • Mulherin DM, Thurnham DI, Situnayake RD.
    Glutathione reductase activity, riboflavin
    status, and disease activity in rheumatoid
    arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 199655(11)837-840.

23
  • Nutrients and Nutritional Agents. In Kastrup EK,
    Hines Burnham T, Short RM, et al, eds. Drug Facts
    and Comparisons. St. Louis, Mo Facts and
    Comparisons 20004-5.
  • Omray A. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters
    of tetracylcine hydrochloride upon oral
    administration with vitamin C and vitamin B
    complex. Hindustan Antibiot Bull.
    198123(VI)33-37.
  • Parks OW. Photodegredation of sulfa drugs by
    fluorescent light. J Assoc Off Anal Chem.
    198568(6)1232-1234.
  • Pinto JT, Rivlin RS. Drugs that promote renal
    excretion of riboflavin. Drug Nutr Interact.
    19875(3)143-151.
  • Ramu A, Mehta MM, Leaseburg T, Aleksic A. The
    enhancement of riboflavin-mediated
    photo-oxidation of doxorubicin by histidine and
    urocanic acid. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol.
    200147(4)338-346.
  • Rock CL, Vasantharajan S. Vitamin status of
    eating disorder patients Relationship to
    clinical indices and effect of treatment. Int J
    Eating Disord. 199518257-262.

24
  • Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness
    of high-dose riboflavin in migraneprophilaxis. A
    randomized controlled trial. Neurology.
    199850466470.
  • Silberstein SD, Goadsby PJ, Lipton RB. Management
    of migraine an algorithmic approach. Review.
    Neurology. 200055(9 Suppl 2)S46-52.
  • Takacs M, Vamos J, Papp Q, et al. In vitro
    interaction of selegiline, riboflavin and light.
    Sensitized photodegradation of drugs in
    Hungarian Abstract. Acta Pharm Hung.
    199969(3)103-107.
  • Wolf E. Vitamin therapy helps fight CTS. Occup
    Health Saf. 198756(2)67.

25
If you are currently being treated with any of
the following medications, you should not use
vitamin B2 supplements without first talking to
your healthcare provider.
  • Antibiotics, Tetracycline(???)
  • Riboflavin should not be taken at the same
    time as the antibiotic tetracycline because it
    interferes with the absorption and effectiveness
    of this medication. Riboflavin either alone or in
    combination with other B vitamins should be taken
    at different times from tetracycline. (All
    vitamin B complex supplements act in this way and
    should therefore be taken at different times from
    tetracycline.)
  • In addition, long-term use of antibiotics can
    deplete vitamin B levels in the body,
    particularly B2, B9, B12, and vitamin H (biotin),
    which is considered part of the B complex.

26
  • Antidepressant Medications(?????)
  • Tricyclic(???) antidepressants (such as
    imipramine(???), desimpramine, amitriptyline(?????
    ), and nortriptyline(????) also reduce levels of
    riboflavin in the body. Taking riboflavin may
    improve levels of the vitamin and improve the
    effectiveness of these antidepressants,
    especially in elderly patients.

27
  • Anti-malarial Medications(?????)
  • Riboflavin may reduce the effectiveness of
    anti-malarial medications such as chloroquine and
    mefloquine.
  • Antipsychotic Medications(????)
  • Antipsychotic medications called
    phenothiazines (such as chlorpromazine) may lower
    riboflavin levels.
  • Birth Control Medications
  • Poor dietary habits in combination with birth
    control medications can interfere with the body's
    ability to use riboflavin.

28
  • Doxorubicin(??????????)
  • In the presence of daylight, riboflavin may
    deactivate doxorubicin, a medication used for the
    treatment of certain cancers. In addition,
    doxorubicin may deplete levels of riboflavin and,
    therefore, increased amounts of this nutrient may
    be recommended during chemotherapy (????)using
    this drug. Your doctor will guide you on whether
    this is necessary or not.
  • Methotrexate(?????????)
  • Methotrexate, a medication used to treat
    cancer, can prevent the body from making
    riboflavin (as well as other essential vitamins).
  • Phenytoin(????????)
  • Phenytoin, a medication used to control
    epileptic seizures, may affect riboflavin levels
    in children.

29
  • Probenecid(???)
  • This medication used for gout may decrease the
    absorption of riboflavin from the digestive tract
    and increase the excretion in the urine.
  • Selegiline
  • Similar to its effects on doxorubicin, riboflavin
    may deactivate selegiline, a medication used to
    treat Parkinson's disease, in the presence of
    daylight.
  • Sulfa-containing Medications
  • Riboflavin may reduce the effectiveness of
    sulfa-containing medications, such as certain
    antibiotics (for example, trimethoprim-sulfamethox
    azole) used to treat bacterial infections.
  • In addition, as stated earlier, long-term
    use of antibiotics can deplete vitamin B levels
    in the body, particularly B2, B9, B12, and
    vitamin H (biotin), which is considered part of
    the B complex.
  • Thiazide Diuretics(????)
  • Diuretics that belong to a class known as
    thiazides, such as hydrochlorothiazide, may
    increase the loss of riboflavin in the urine.

30
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31
  • ???B2?????(riboflavin),???????6,7??????????
    ,????????????????????B2??????????
  • ???B2???????????,???????????,??,??????????
    ???,?????????????????????
  • ???B2????????????,?????????
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