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ROMAN MILITARY ACHIEVMENTS AND LEADERS

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ROMAN MILITARY ACHIEVMENTS AND LEADERS By: Matt Bacon, David Stone, and Julian Autar – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ROMAN MILITARY ACHIEVMENTS AND LEADERS


1
ROMAN MILITARY ACHIEVMENTS AND LEADERS
  • By Matt Bacon, David Stone, and Julian Autar

2
Geography
  • The Roman Empire was full of many terrains, many
    of which were rough.
  • In order for armies to go from one battle to
    another roads were built to accommodate them.
  • The geography of Rome was transformed through
    roads, which helped for transportation.

3
Social Impacts By The Military
  • For a long time, most military personnel could
    not marry because they were in the military.
  • Military conquest allowed many different cultures
    to mix in Rome.
  • Resulting from this, Rome was seen as the center
    of the Mediterranean.

4
Economics
  • Wars created great revenue for Rome because when
    they won the battles they gained land and spoils
    of war (money from the land acquired).
  • The stated of Rome , which were acquired had to
    pay taxes to Rome to fuel the economy.
  • Most the soldiers enlisted in the Roman army
    because they had no jobs before.
  • Therefore, the military created job for the
    unemployed.

5
Political
  • Generals were politically involved in the
    government of Rome.
  • Some generals overthrew the government through
    civil war (e.g. Julius Caesar)
  • In fact, overthrew Pompeys government through
    civil war using his army.

6
Religion
  • Aries was the roman god of war.
  • The Romans thought Mars, also another god
    representing war, was very important.
  • It was said that he was the father of Romulus
    and Remus, the founders of Rome.

Statue of Aries
7
Technology
  • The first ancient pieces of artillery were
    non-torsion bolt throwers.
  • The Onager (catapult) was specifically designed
    for siege warfare. It could be used to bombard
    enemy walls and artillery, or to hurl large
    stones or missiles at oncoming forces.

8
Roman Soldiers and Tactics
9
Different Types of Soldiers
  • The first Roman soldiers were just ordinary Roman
    citizens like farmers, blacksmiths, merchants and
    businessmen.
  • The average age of a legionary was between 17 and
    46 years old, every citizen might of been asked
    to join the army.
  • The army was divided into legions, each
    containing about 6,000 men, there was four lines
    of soldiers.
  • The front line was made up of Velites, these men
    throw spears at the enemy, behind them were the
    Hastatus and the Princeps, these men did most of
    the fighting.
  • Hastatus and Princeps had light armour and used
    swords, in the last line were the Triarius, these
    men wore heavy armour.
  • It was these legions that began the expansion of
    Rome by capturing other cities.

10
Roman Tactics
  • The Romans used 3 main battle formations to fight
    with
  • The first was the Tortoise formation. Used as
    protection against sustained enemy archery and
    other projectiles.
  • Generally speaking, this formation was used as a
    last attempt in holding off the enemy, if the
    Roman line broke or if they got surrounded by
    enemy troops.
  • This is a more complex formation designed to
    repel enemy cavalry but very effective.
  • The Romans also used many other different
    formations such as the Skirmish formation, the
    Wedge and the Fake Retreat

11
Basic Roman Soldier Equipment
  • A Roman soldier had a helmet to protect his head
  • A metal jacket to protect to protect his chest
  • A shield to form a line of defense when working
    with other soldiers
  • A pilum which is a kind of spear
  • Sometimes a javelin to throw at the enemy
  • And a sword
  • Also sometimes a dagger just in case

12
Military Leaders
Caesar
13
JULIUS CAESAR HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  • 102/100 BCE Gaius Julius Caesar was born
  • His family had noble, patrician roots, although
    they were neither rich nor influential in this
    period.
  • 85 BCE at age 18 he married Cornelia, the
    daughter of a prominent member of the Popular
    faction she later bore him his only legitimate
    child, a daughter, Julia.
  • When the Optimate dictator, Sulla, was in power,
    he ordered Caesar to divorce her when Caesar
    refused, Sulla proscribed him (listed him among
    those to be executed), and Caesar went into
    hiding. Caesar's influential friends and
    relatives eventually got him a pardon.

14
JULIUS CAESAR HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  • 79 BCE Caesar, on the staff of a military
    legate, was awarded the civic crown (oak leaves)
    for saving the life of a citizen in battle.
  • His general sent him on an embassy to Nicomedes,
    the king of Bithynia, to obtain a fleet of ships
    Caesar was successful, but subsequently he became
    the butt of gossip that he had persuaded the king
    (a homosexual) only by agreeing to sleep with him
  • When Sulla died in 78, Caesar returned to Rome
    and began a career as a orator/lawyer

15
JULIUS CAESAR MAJOR EVENTS
  • 75 - Pirates capture Caesar
  • 73 - Caesar is elected Pontifex
  • 69 - Cornelia, the wife of Caesar, dies
  • 67 - Caesar marries Pompeia
  • 65 - Caesar is elected Aedile
  • 63 - Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus 62 -
    Caesar divorces Pompeia

16
JULIUS CAESAR MAJOR EVENTS
  • 61 - Caesar becomes Governor of Further Spain
  • 60 - Caesar is elected Consul and forms the
    Triumvirate
  • 59 - Caesar is elected Consul
  • 58 - Caesar defeats the Helvetii and Germans
  • 55 - Caesar crosses the Rhine and invades Britain
  • 54 - Caesar's daughter, who is also Pompey's
    wife, dies
  • 53 - Crassus is killed

17
JULIUS CAESAR MAJOR EVENTS
  • 52 - Clodius is murdered Caesar defeats
    Vercingetorix
  • 49 - Caesar crosses the Rubicon - Civil War
    begins
  • 48 Caesar defeats Pompey
  • 45 - Caesar is declared dictator for life
  • 44 - Ides of March, Caesar is assassinated

18
JULIUS CAESAR Untimely Death
  • Julius Caesar had many men conspiring against
    him, among these 60 men were 16 senators,
    including Cassius, Casca, Cimber and Brutus.
    Thei'r motives were obvious -- personal gain
    they masked it as a nobly patriotic cause. On the
    15th of Martiae, 710 AUC, the Senate held a
    meeting in the hall adjoining the theater Pompey
    had built 11 years previously. A man named Cimber
    knelt at Caesar's feet to plead for his brother's
    recall from banishment. When Caesar irritably
    refused him, Cimber yanked Julius' toga down from
    his neck and the other conspirators began to stab
    Caesar. When they were finished, Caesar lay dead
    with 23 wounds.

19
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
  • 56-12 B.C
  •  Agrippa was a renowned Roman general and close
    friend of Octavian (Augustus)
  • As general, Agrippa defeated the forces of Mark
    Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium

20
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • The Romans had appointed Cincinnatus dictator for
    six months so he could defend the Romans against
    the neighboring Aequi who had surrounded the
    Roman army and the consul Minucius in the Alban
    Hills.
  • gave up the title of dictator sixteen days after
    it had been granted.
  • and promptly returned to his farm

21
Horatius
  • late 6th C. B.C
  • Horatius was an heroic leader of the Roman forces
    against the Etruscans
  • He deliberately stood alone against the Etruscans
    on a bridge which the Romans were destroying from
    their side. In the end, when the bridge was
    destroyed, Horatius jumped into the Tiber and
    swam armed to safety.

22
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  • Sulla was a Roman general who vied successfully
    with Marius for leadership of the command against
    Mithridates VI of Pontus
  • In the following civil war Sulla defeated the
    followers of Marius, had the soldiers of Marius
    killed
  • had himself declared dictator for life in 82 B.C

23
DECISIVE ROMAN BATTLES
24
TIMELINE OF DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE ROMAN
EMPIRE
  • 496 BC Battle of Lake Regillus - A legendary
    early Roman victory, won over either the
    Etruscans or the Latins
  • 305 BC - Battle of Bovianum - Roman consuls M.
    Fulvius and L. Postumius decisiviely defeat the
    Samnites to end the Second Samnite War .
  • 295 BC - Battle of Sentinum - Romans under
    Fabius Rullianus and Publius Decimus Mus
    decisively defeats the Samnites and their
    Etruscan and Gallic allies, forcing the
    Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians to make peace .
  • 280 BC - Battle of Heraclea - First engagement
    of Roman and Greek armies
  • 242 BC - Battle of the Aegates Islands - Roman
    sea victory over the Carthaginians, ending the
    First Punic War .
  • 216 BC First Battle of Nola - Roman general
    Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by
    Hannibal.
  • 208 BC - Battle of Baecula - Romans in Spain
    under P. Cornelius Scipio the Younger defeats
    Hasdrubal Barca, who was a Carthagian general.
  • 207 BC -Battle of the Metaurus - Hasdrubal is
    defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army.

25
TIMELINE OF DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • 202 BC - Battle of Zama - Scipio Africanus Major
    decisively defeats Hannibal in North Africa,
    ending the Second Punic War .
  • 197 BC - Battle of Cynoscephalae - Romans under
    Flamininus decisively defeats Philip V in
    Thessaly.
  • 191 BC - Battle of Thermopylae - Romans under
    Manius Acilius Glabrio defeat Antiochus III the
    Great and force him to evacuate Greece .
  • 190 BC Battle of Magnesia - (near Smyrna) Romans
    under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother
    Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the
    Great leading to a decisive victory of the war .
  • 168 BC Battle of Pydna - Romans under Lucius
    Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus defeat and capture
    Macedonian King Perseus, ending the Third
    Macedonian War .
  • 146 BC Battle of Corinth - Romans under Lucius
    Mummius defeat the Achaean League forces of
    Critolaus , who is killed. Corinth is destroyed
    and Greece comes under direct Roman rule.
  • 146 BC Battle of Carthage - Scipio Africanus
    Minor captures and destroys Carthage, ending the
    Third Punic War
  • 89 BC Battle of Asculum - Roman army of C.
    Pompeius Strabo decisively defeats the rebels in
    the Social War.

26
TIMELINE OF DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • 86 BC - Battle of Chaeronea - Roman forces of
    Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat the Pontic forces
    of Archelaus in the First Mithridatic War.
  • 58 BC June - Battle of the Arar (Saone) - Caesar
    defeats the migrating Helvetians
  • 58 BC - Battle of Bibracte - Caesar again
    defeats the Helvetians, this time decisively.
  • 58 BC - Caesar decisively defeats the forces of
    the Germanic chieftain Ariovistus near modern
    Belfort.
  • 52 BC - Battle of Alesia - Caesar defeats the
    Gallic rebel Vercingetorix, completing the Roman
    conquest of Transalpine Gaul.
  • 48 BC - Battle of Pharsalus - Caesar decisively
    defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
  • 47 BC - Battle of the Nile - Caesar defeats the
    forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
  • 47 BC - Battle of Zela - Caesar defeats
    Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where
    he famously said Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I
    saw, I conquered.)
  • 45 BC - Battle of Munda - In his last victory,
    Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus
    Labienus and Pompey the Younger in Spain.
    Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger
    Pompey captured and executed.

27
TIMELINE OF DECISIVE
BATTLES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi - Triumvirs
    Marc Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive
    battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and
    Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony
    defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
  • 43 AD- Battle of Medway - Claudius and general
    Aulus Plautius defeat a confederation of British
    Celtic tribes. Roman invasion of Britain begins.
  • 50 AD- Battle of Caer Caradock - British
    chieftain Caractacus is defeated and captured by
    the Romans under Ostorius Scapula.
  • 101 AD - Battle of Tapae Roman emperor Trajan
    defeats Decebalus, ending the Dacian Wars
  • 268 AD- Battle of Naissus - Emperor Gallienus
    and his generals Claudius and Aurelian decisively
    defeat the Goths.
  • 268 AD Battle of Fano - Aurelian defeats the
    Alemanni, who begins to retreat from Italy .
  • 273 AD- Battle of Chalons (273) - Aurelian
    defeats the Gallic usurper Tetricus,
    reestablishing central control of the whole
    empire.

28
PRINCIPLE BATTLES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • 312 AD - Battle of Milvian Bridge - Constantine
    I defeats Maxentius and takes control of Italy.
  • 324 AD - Battle of Chrysopolis - Constantine
    decisively defeats Licinius, establishing his
    sole control over the empire.
  • 394 AD- - Battle of Frigdus - Christian Roman
    Emperor Theodosius defeats and kills the pagan
    usurper Eugenius and his Frankish general
    Arbogast.
  • 451 AD- in June - Battle of Chalons - An army of
    Visigoths, under king Theodoric, and Romans,
    under general Aëtius, repulses the attack of
    Attila the Hun. Theodoric is killed in the
    battle.

29
AGUSTUS was the Title of the Roman emperor, used
first by Julius Caesar (27 BC- 14 AD)
30
Work Cited List
  • Websites
  • http//www.exovedate.com/ancient_timeline_one.html
  • http//www.pbs.org/empires/romans/special/index.ht
    ml
  • http//ancienthistory.about.com/od/romebattles/
  • http//www.geocities.com/caesarkevin/caesar_11.htm
    lMunda
  • http//oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/classics/st
    udents/dave/ROMAN/battles.html
  • http//www.unrv.com/military/roman-battle-index.ph
    p
  • http//www.vroma.org/bmcmanus/caesar.html
  • http//ancienthistory.about.com/cs/rome/p/romanmil
    itldrs.htm
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