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Title: Telecommunications,%20the%20Internet%20and%20Wireless%20Technology


1
7
Chapter
Telecommunications, the Internet and Wireless
Technology
2
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
The Business Telecommunications Environment
  • Telecommunications environment provides
    connectivity by providing communication channels
    for text, voice, and video images.
  • The network infrastructure for a large
    corporation consists of many different kinds of
    networks for both data and voice communication.
  • Most of these different kinds of networks are
    moving towards a common Internet foundation.

3
  • Firms used two fundamentally different types of
    networks telephone networks and computer
    networks.
  • Both voice and data communication networks have
    become more powerful more portable and less
    expensive.
  • Broadband connections provided by telephone and
    cable companies running at 1 million bits per
    second
  • Japan has the highest speed and the lowest cost
    per megabit per second in the countries surveyed.

4
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
  • A networking and communications revolution led by
    Internet-based technologies
  • More than 1 billion instant messages per day
  • 4 billion e-mails each day
  • 65 million music files downloaded

5
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
  • Estimated 3.9 billion photos sent over the
    Internet
  • 769 billion spent in the United States on
    telecommunications equipment and services
  • Today, networking and the Internet are synonymous
    with doing business.

6
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
Corporate Network Infrastructure
7
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
Networking and Communications Trends
  • The seven major trends in telecommunications
  • Rapid technological innovation has resulted in a
    proliferation of new hardware devices and new
    alternatives for business communications.
  • Continuing telecommunications deregulation has
    encouraged competition and created many
    alternatives.

8
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
Networking and Communications Trends (Continued)
  • Distinctions between telephone, cable television,
    Internet, and satellite telecommunication are
    blurred.
  • Growing dominance of Internet technologies in
    voice, video, and data communications
  • Rapid growth in last-mile high-speed broadband
    connections to homes and businesses

9
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING IN TODAYS
BUSINESS WORLD
Networking and Communications Trends (Continued)
  • Rapid growth in wireless telephone, wireless
    computer networks, and mobile Internet devices
  • Growing scope of communication-intense services
    and products

10
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Networks and Corporate Infrastructure
  • A network consists of two or more connected
    computers.
  • Each computer on the network contains a network
    interface device called a network interface card
    (NIC).
  • The connection medium for linking network
    components can be a telephone wire, coaxial
    cable, or radio signal in the case of cell phone
    and wireless local area networks.

11
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Networks and Corporate Infrastructure (Continued)
  • The network operating system (NOS) routes and
    manages communications on the network and
    coordinates network resources.
  • Networks also contain a switch or a hub acting as
    a connection point between the computers.
  • Hubs are very simple devices that connect network
    components, sending a packet of data to all other
    connected devices.

12
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Networks and Corporate Infrastructure (Continued)
  • A switch has more intelligence than a hub and can
    filter and forward data to a specified
    destination. Switches are used within individual
    networks.
  • A router is a special communications processor
    used to route packets of data through different
    networks, ensuring that the message sent gets to
    the correct address.

13
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Components of a Simple Network
14
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Key Digital Networking Technologies
  • Client/Server Computing
  • Packet Switching
  • TCP/IP and Connectivity

15
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Client/Server Computing
  • Client/server computing is a distributed
    computing model in which much of the processing
    power is located within small, inexpensive client
    computers.
  • The powerful clients are linked to one another
    through a network that is controlled by a network
    server computer.
  • The server sets the rules of communication for
    the network and provides every client with an
    address so others can find it on the network.

16
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Packet Switching
  • In packet-switched networks, messages are first
    broken down into small bundles of data called
    packets.
  • These packets are sent along different
    communication paths and then the packets are
    reassembled once they reach their destinations.

17
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Packet Switching (Continued)
  • Packet switching makes more efficient use of the
    communications capacity of a network.
  • The packets include information for directing the
    packet to the right address and for checking
    transmission errors along with the data.

18
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Packed-Switched Networks and Packet
Communications
19
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
TCP/IP and Connectivity
  • TCP/IP is the communications protocol used by the
    Internet and all Internet devices.
  • TCP/IP provides for breaking up digital messages
    into packets, routing them to the proper
    addresses, and then reassembling them into
    coherent messages.
  • TCP/IP uses a suite of protocols TCP and IP.

20
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Handles the movement of data between computers
  • Establishes a connection between the computers,
    sequences the transfer of packets, and
    acknowledges the packets sent

21
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Responsible for the delivery of packets
  • Includes the disassembling and reassembling of
    packets during transmission

22
The Corporate Telecommunications System
Features of Contemporary Telecommunications
Systems
  • TCP/IP Four-Layer Reference Model
  • Application layer Communication between
    applications and other layers
  • Transport layer Acknowledging and sequencing
    packets to/from application
  • Internet layer Addressing, routing, packaging
    data packets
  • Network interface layer Placing packets on and
    receiving them from network medium

23
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
The TCP/IP Reference Model
24
PURPOSES AND FUNCTIONS OF A TELECOMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEM
  • Telecommunications Communication of information
    by electronic means
  • Includes digital data transmission as well as
    voice transmission
  • Establish interface between sender and the
    receiver
  • Route messages along most efficient paths
  • Performs elementary processing of information
  • Performs editorial tasks on data
  • Converts message speed or format
  • Controls flow of information

How do they do that?
25
Types of Signals Analog and Digital
  • Analog signal
  • Continuous waveform
  • Passes through communications medium
  • Used for voice communications

26
Types of Signals Analog and Digital
  • Digital signal
  • Discrete waveform
  • Transmits data coded into two discrete states as
    1-bits and 0-bits
  • Used for data communications
  • Modem
  • Translates computers digital signals into analog
    and vice versa

27
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Functions of the Modem
28
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Physical Transmission Media
The different kinds of physical transmission
media used by the networks are
  • Twisted Wire
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Fiber Optics and Optical Networks
  • Wireless Transmission

29
The Corporate Telecommunications System
Transmission Media
  • Twisted wire
  • Copper wire twisted in pairs
  • Older analog transmission medium
  • Can be used for digital signals
  • Modems used for translating between digital and
    analog
  • Coaxial cable
  • Insulated copper wire
  • Faster, more interference-free than twisted pair
  • Difficult to install

30
The Corporate Telecommunications System
Transmission Media
  • Fiber optics
  • Strands of clear glass fiber bound into cables
  • Data sent as pulses of light
  • Faster, lighter, more durable
  • Difficult to install more expensive
  • Used in high-capacity optical networks
  • Currently slowed by need to convert back and
    forth to electrical data
  • Can use multiplexing allows one channel to carry
    several transmissions

31
The Corporate Telecommunications System
Transmission Media
  • Wireless Transmission
  • Use electromagnetic spectrum
  • Microwave and infrared use high-frequency radio
    signals
  • Paging systems, cellular telephones, PDAs, mobile
    data networks
  • Wireless communication requires compatible
    standards
  • Security/privacy issues

32
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33
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Types of Networks
34
The Corporate Telecommunications System
Transmission Media
  • Transmission Speed
  • bps bits per second
  • baud rate rate of signal changes
  • bps baud rate how many bits encoded in one
    signal status
  • Bandwidth max freq. min. freq., i.e., Range
    of frequencies accommodated on a particular
    channel
  • The Higher the bandwidth, the Faster the
    transmission speed

35
The Corporate Telecommunications System
Transmission Media
  • Transmission Speed

Twisted wire Up to 100 Mbps Low cost
Microwave Up to 200 Mbps
Satellite Up to 200 Mbps
Coaxial cable Up to 200 Mbps
Fiber-optic cable Up to 6 Tbps High cost
36
Communications Networks
Local Area Networks
  • Connects computers and other digital devices
    within 2000 ft radius
  • Cabling or wireless technology links computers,
    network interface cards, and software
  • Network Operating System (NOS)-Windows, Linux,
    Novell
  • Ethernet- dominant LAN standard
  • Client/server or peer-to-peer architecture
  • Star, bus, and ring topologies

37
Communications Networks
A local area network (LAN)
Figure 8-7
38
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Network Topologies
  • Star Network All computers and other devices are
    connected to a central host computer
  • Bus Network Links a number of computers by a
    single circuit
  • Ring Network All computers are linked by a
    closed loop

39
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Network Topologies
40
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks
(WANs)
  • Wireless LANs
  • Wi-Fi (802.11b) standard Up to 11 Mbps, low
    cost, high-speed mobile Internet access, links
    work groups (also 54g)
  • Bluetooth standard Up to 720 Kbps, small
    personal area networks
  • WiMax making headway

41
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks
(WANs)
  • Wide Area Networks (WANs)
  • Span large geographical distance
  • Consist of variety of cable, satellite, and
    microwave technologies
  • Switched lines, dedicated lines

42
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Network Services and Broadband Technologies
  • Value-Added Networks (VANs)
  • Private, multipath, data-only, third-party-managed
    network
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • Uses public infrastructure
  • Allows secure connections
  • Accenture model

43
THE INTERNET
Technically, the Internet is a global information
system defined by three characteristics
  • A network composed of computers and other devices
    that are logically linked together by a unique
    address space based on the Internet Protocol

44
THE INTERNET
  • A network where network devices are able to
    support communications using TCP/IP or other
    compatible protocols
  • A network that provides high-level services
    layered on a communication and network
    infrastructure

45
CONTEMPORARY NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE
Broadband Network Services and Technologies
  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Series of
    technologies for high-capacity transmission over
    copper wire
  • Cable modem Service for high-speed transmission
    of data over cable TV lines that are shared by
    many users
  • T lines Dedicated lines for high-speed secure
    data transmission and Internet connection

46
THE INTERNET
Internet Addressing, Architecture, and Governance
The Domain Name System
Every device connected to the Internet has a
unique 32-bit numeric IP address.
  • A Domain Name System (DNS) converts IP addresses
    to English-like domain names.
  • The domain name is the name that corresponds to
    the unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each
    computer connected to the Internet.

47
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
THE INTERNET
Internet Addressing, Architecture, and Governance
(Continued)
The Domain Name System
  • DNS servers maintain a database containing IP
    addresses mapped to their corresponding domain
    names.
  • To access a computer on the Internet, users need
    only specify its domain name.

48
INTERNET ADDRESSING
  • IP Address
  • 32-bit number, four strings
  • 207.46.250.119
  • Domain Name Service (DNS)
  • Converts IP to domain names
  • www.microsoft.com
  • .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .net, .org
  • .biz, .info

49
THE INTERNET
The Domain Name System
50
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
THE INTERNET
Limitations on IP Addresses IPv4 and IPv6
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) A 32-bit
    string of numbers organized into four sets of
    numbers ranging from 0 to 255 contains up to 4
    billion addresses
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) 128-bit
    addresses, contains over a quadrillion possible
    unique addresses

51
THE INTERNET
Internet Architecture
Internet Network Architecture
52
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
THE INTERNET
Internet Governance
No one owns the Internet, however, worldwide
Internet policies are established by the
following organizations
  • Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
    Numbers (ICANN)

53
THE INTERNET
Internet Governance (Continued)
  • Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC)
  • Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
  • Internet Society (ISOC)
  • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

54
THE INTERNET
Major Internet Services
  • E-mail Person-to-person messaging document
    sharing
  • Usenet newsgroups Discussion groups on
    electronic bulletin boards
  • LISTSERVs Discussion groups using e-mail mailing
    list servers
  • Chatting and instant messaging Interactive
    conversations

Table 8-6
55
THE INTERNET
Major Internet Services (Continued)
  • Telnet Logging on to one computer system and
    doing work on another
  • FTP Transferring files from computer to computer
  • World Wide Web Retrieving, formatting, and
    displaying information (including text, audio,
    graphics, and video) using hypertext links

Table 8-6 (Continued)
56
THE INTERNET
Client/server Computing on the Internet
57
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
THE INTERNET
The Internet and Business Value
  • The World Wide Web
  • Hypertext
  • Web servers
  • Searching for information on the Web

58
THE INTERNET
Searching and Finding Information on the Internet
  • The Internet lowers search costs
  • Search engines
  • Intelligent agents and shopping bots
  • Broadcast and push technology
  • The semantic Web

59
THE INTERNET
Intranets and Extranets
  • Intranets
  • An intranet is an internal organizational network
    that provides access to data across a business
    firm.
  • Extranets
  • Allow authorized vendors and customers to have
    limited access to its internal intranet

60
TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION AND
E-BUSINESS
  • E-Mail
  • Chatting and Instant Messaging
  • Electronic Discussion Groups

61
TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION AND
E-BUSINESS
Internet Telephony
  • Internet telephony Enable companies to use
    Internet technology for telephone voice
    transmission over the Internet or private
    networks
  • Voice over IP (VoIP) technology Uses the
    Internet Protocol (IP) to deliver voice
    information in digital form using packet
    switching
  • Unified messaging systems Combine voice mail,
    e-mail, and faxes so they can all be obtained
    from one system

62
Management Information Systems Chapter 8
Telecommunications, Networks, and the Internet
TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION AND
E-BUSINESS
How IP Telephony Works
63
TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION AND
E-BUSINESS
Virtual Private Networks
  • A virtual private network based on the Internet
    Protocol provides a secure connection between two
    points across the Internet, enabling private
    communications to travel securely over the public
    infrastructure

64
TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS FOR COMMUNICATION AND
E-BUSINESS
A Virtual Private Network using the Internet
65
Communications Networks
Wireless Networks Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
  • Use radio waves to connect stations
  • 802.11b Current standard 54 Mbps in 2.4 GHz
    range
  • Infrastructure mode Wireless devices communicate
    with wired LAN via access points
  • Ad-hoc mode Peer-to-peer mode wireless devices
    communicate with each other directly

66
Communications Networks
An 802.11 wireless LAN
Figure 8-9
67
Communications Networks
Wireless Networks Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
  • Hot spot Geographic location in which an access
    point provides public Wi-Fi network service
  • Bluetooth Standard for wireless personal area
    networks that can transmit up to 722 Kbps within
    10-meter area

68
Wireless Networks
  • Personal Area Network (PAN)
  • Bluetooth 802.15
  • Connect close devices
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Wi-FI 802.11
  • Connect users to larger networks
  • Metropolitan Area Networks
  • WiMax 802.16
  • Used for rural areas 31 mile radius
  • Wide Area Network (WAN) proposed
  • EV-DO - combination
  • Wireless access through cell phone

69
Challenges of Wireless
  • Integrating wireless into the firms
    infrastructure
  • Maintaining Security and Privacy of wireless

70
Wireless
  • Still in its infancy
  • Explosion of mobile phones
  • Phones not just for talking
  • Delivering and sending digital data/pictures
  • Anytime/anywhere access
  • Can cut costs, increase flexibility

71
Business Value of Wireless
  • Increase communication throughout and between
    organizations
  • More flexibility in work area
  • Easy to change work arrangements
  • Increased productivity-not tied to LAN line
  • Provides new services and products
  • GPS phones, auto

72
Wireless Applications in the Enterprise
  • Customer Relationship Management
  • Mobile support for sales and service
  • Field service workers have real-time access to
    company information
  • Send orders directly from point of sale
  • Sears Repairman connected to parts department
    and technical information
  • Update customer accounts and deal information to
    update customer database instantaneously
  • Receive alerts to important events
  • Enter, perform, and update transactions and
    product information

73
Wireless Applications in the Enterprise
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Uses RFID better than barcodes, more data
  • Improves accuracy of product information
  • Parts replacement
  • Healthcare patient/drug information
  • Captures movement of goods through the supply
    chain
  • Active sends signal
  • EZPass
  • Passive uses reader
  • Walmart all pallets RFID by 2006
  • Use in warehousing picking, packing, shipping

74
MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, AND
SOLUTIONS
Management Opportunities
  • Wireless technology offers
  • Flexible business processes (New Orleans and
    Hurricane Katrina)
  • Business processes not limited by time or space
  • New channel for communicating with client
  • Source of new products and services

75
Wireless Challenges
  • Creating and integrating wireless technologies
    into firms infrastructure
  • What applications are best
  • Organizational change requirements
  • Security and Privacy
  • Wireless networks still not very secure
  • RFID can be another intrusion to privacy
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