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Effective Implementation,

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Title: Effective Implementation,


1
  • Effective Implementation,
  • Strong Leadership,
  • Successful Schools
  • Sue Szachowicz
  • Principal, Brockton High School
  • Senior Advisor, International Center for
  • Leadership in Education
  • WISCONSIN, NOVEMBER 2009

2
TODAYS AGENDA
  1. Implementing the Literacy Initiative Across the
    Curriculum
  2. What Gets Monitored Is What Gets Done
  3. All Means ALL Strategies for Special Education
    Students
  4. Building Relationships with Faculty, Students,
    and Parents

3
  • INTRO Who am I and why am I here?
  • WHO Empowering a team
  • WHAT Our mission LITERACY for ALL
  • HOW Instructional Leadership
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring (next session)
  • AND SO Results

4
  • SO,
  • Who is this woman, and why is she here?????

5
  • Brockton High SchoolBrockton, Massachusetts
  • School of Champions

6
  • BROCKTON HIGH SCHOOL
  • Comprehensive 9 12
  • Enrollment over 4,300
  • Poverty Level 72
  • Minority population 71
  • 30 different languages represented
  • 38 do not speak English as their primary
    language
  • Approximately 12 in Transitional Bilingual Ed.
  • Approximately 11 receive Special Education
    Services

6
7
  • Student Population
  • 55.5 Black - includes African-American, Cape
    Verdean, Haitian, Jamaican, and others
  • 27.3 White
  • 14 Hispanic
  • 2.7 Asian
  • .5 American Indian

7
8
  • SO,
  • Thats who she is, but why is she here?????

9
  • Heres what we faced (still do!)
  • State mandates High Stakes Testing (MCAS)
  • Federal mandates NCLB, AYP
  • Local mandates Graduation requirements

10
State MandatesWe faced
  • MCAS 1998
  • Failure
  • ELA 44
  • (Sped 78)
  • MATH 75
  • (Sped 98)
  • MCAS 1998
  • AdvancedProficient
  • ELA 22
  • MATH 7

10
11
  • And we had empires
  • Brockton High
  • The Medieval Feudal System

12
  • But even worse We faced a flawed belief system
  • Students have a
  • right to fail.
  • Former BHS Principal

13
  • Success at Brockton High then

14
Success at Brockton High???

15
  • Success at Brockton High now

16
  • MCAS 1998
  • Failure
  • ELA 44
  • MATH 75
  • MCAS 2009
  • Failure
  • ELA 5
  • MATH 15

16
17
  • MCAS 1998
  • AdvancedProficient
  • ELA 22
  • MATH 7
  • MCAS 2009
  • AdvancedProficient
  • ELA 78
  • (matches the state)
  • MATH 60

17
18
  • MCAS??? So you think its easy???

19
  • SAMPLE MCAS QUESTION
  • Life of Henry V Act IV, Scene III (ll. 1-80)
  • Open Response question
  • Explain how the excerpt shows that the king is an
    effective leader. Use relevant and specific
    information from the excerpt to support your
    answer.
  • (Question is looking for language and style
    analysis, not simply content).

19
20
  • SAMPLE MCAS QUESTION
  • Excerpt from Don Quixote (pp 58-60)
  • Open Response Question
  • Explain how the author creates a humorous tone
    in the excerpt. Use relevant and specific
    information from the excerpt to support your
    answer.
  • (Question is looking for language analysis, not
    simply content).

20
21
  • SAMPLE MCAS MATH QUESTION Jason launched a model
    rocket from the ground. The formula below can be
    used to determine the height of the rocket above
    the ground at any time during the rockets
    flight.
  • h 16t(7 t)
  • In the formula, h and t are defined as follows
  • t the time, in seconds, that has elapsed
    since the rocket was launched
  • h the height, in feet, of the rocket above
    the ground at time t
  • Use the formula to answer the following
    questions.
  • a. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 1
    second after it was launched? Show your work.
  • b. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 6
    seconds after it was launched? Show your work.
  • c. The value of h was 0 when the rocket hit the
    ground. How many seconds after the rocket was
    launched did it hit the ground? Show your work.
  • d. How many seconds after the rocket was launched
    was the height of the rocket 160 feet? Show your
    work.

21
22
  • SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION
  • Corn snakes show variety in their skin color
    pattern. While the complete genetics of corn
    snake color are complex, the most common colors
    on normal corn snakesred and blackare each
    coded by one gene.
  • For the red gene, the allele for the presence of
    red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for
    the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive.
    Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the
    presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the
    allele for the absence of black pigment (b) is
    recessive.
  • Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake
    that is homozygous dominant for the red color
    with a snake that is heterozygous for the red
    color. What percentage of the offspring is
    expected to have red pigment in their skin?
  • b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two
    snakes that are heterozygous for the black color.
    What percentage of the offspring are expected to
    have black pigment in their skin?
  • c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are
    heterozygous for black color are both homozygous
    recessive for the red gene. Each parent has
    genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this
    information, what percentage of their offspring
    are expected to lack both the red and black
    pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning.

23
  • SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION
  • Corn snakes show variety in their skin color
    pattern. While the complete genetics of corn
    snake color are complex, the most common colors
    on normal corn snakesred and blackare each
    coded by one gene.
  • For the red gene, the allele for the presence of
    red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for
    the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive.
    Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the
    presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the
    allele for the absence of black pigment (b) is
    recessive.
  • Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake
    that is homozygous dominant for the red color
    with a snake that is heterozygous for the red
    color. What percentage of the offspring is
    expected to have red pigment in their skin?
  • b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two
    snakes that are heterozygous for the black color.
    What percentage of the offspring are expected to
    have black pigment in their skin?
  • c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are
    heterozygous for black color are both homozygous
    recessive for the red gene. Each parent has
    genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this
    information, what percentage of their offspring
    are expected to lack both the red and black
    pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning.

c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are
hetero-zygous for black color are both homozygous
recessive for the red gene. Each parent has
genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this
information, what percentage of their offspring
are expected to lack both the red and black
pigments in their skins. Explain your reasoning.
24
  • 2008
  • TERM 1
  • 1299 STUDENTS
  • (4300 students)
  • 1998
  • TERM 1
  • 859 STUDENTS
  • (4400 students)

Honor Roll Statistics
24
25
  • THEN
  • Students have a right to fail.
  • BHS Principal
  • NOW
  • There is no such right!
  • High Standards,
  • High expectations,
  • No excuses!
  • BHS Principal

25
26
Turnaround at Brockton High
Emphasis on literacy brings big MCAS improvement
Principal Susan Szachowicz, shown chatting at
lunch with Yiriam Lopez, is in many ways the
schools biggest cheerleader. (Essdras M Suarez/
Globe Staff) By James Vaznis Globe Staff /
October 12, 2009
BROCKTON - Brockton High School has every excuse
for failure, serving a city plagued by crime,
poverty, housing foreclosures, and
homelessness. Almost two-thirds of the students
qualify for free or reduced-price lunches, and 14
percent are learning to speak English. More than
two-thirds are African-American or Latino -
groups that have lagged behind their peers across
the state on standardized tests. But Brockton
High, by far the states largest public high
school with 4,200 students, has found a success
in recent years that has eluded many of the
states urban schools MCAS scores are soaring,
earning the school state recognition as a symbol
of urban hope.
27
  • OK, so some good things happened at Brockton
    High, BUT
  • WHAT did you do,
  • and HOW did you
  • do it???

28
  • For Whole School Reform Its ALL about the 3 Rs
  • Rigor
  • Relevance
  • Relationships

29
  • Eight Components of School Reform
  • Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
  • Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
  • Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and
    Innovate
  • Clarify Student Learning Expectations
  • Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
  • Address Organizational Structures
  • Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
  • Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

30
  • RIGOR HIGH standards, HIGH expectations for ALL
    students
  • It all started with that!

31
  • Eight Components of School Reform
  • Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
  • Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
  • Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and
    Innovate
  • Clarify Student Learning Expectations
  • Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
  • Address Organizational Structures
  • Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
  • Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

32
  • EMPOWERING A TEAM
  • WHY start
  • with that???

33
The Importance of Empowerment
34
Whack-a-Mole
35
  • Empowering a Team
  • How do I
  • get the right people on the bus, the wrong
    people off the bus, and the right people into the
    right seats? Jim Collins, Good to Great

36
  • Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and
    Innovate
  • Essential Groups
  • Restructuring Committee, our think tank
  • Administrative Leadership Team
  • Data Analysis Team
  • Steering Committees in every Department

37
Empowerment Building a Leadership Team
  • How do I select the team?
  • Getting the right people on the bus
  • Restructuring Committee our think tank
  • Every department represented with a mix of
    teachers and administrators
  • Balance of new teachers and veterans, new voices
    and voices of experience

38
  • Empowerment Building a Leadership Team
  • Getting the right people on the bus
  • Administrative Leadership Team
  • Qualifications
  • Professional Strengths
  • Personal Qualities
  • (Humor, Trust Its all
  • about the relationships)

39
Empowerment Building a Leadership Team
  • Getting the right people on the bus
  • Data Analysis Team
  • Led by Associate Principal for CI
  • Eight-ten members teachers admin.
  • Target area depts. represented (Testing areas,
    Sped, Bilingual)

40
Empowerment Building a Leadership Team
  • Getting the right people on the bus and
    Getting the right people in the right seats
  • Restructuring Committee Mission
  • FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS!!!!

41
  • YOUR TURN EMPOWERMENT
  • Think about someone on your staff who you think
    has the disposition to lead but has not been
    involved. How can you bring that person in?

42
  • RIGOR, RELEVANCE, RELATIONSHIPS
  • For us, two goals
  • Increase student academic achievement
  • Personalize the educational experience for
    every student

43
  • We had to look in the mirror We HAD to think
    differently and ask ourselves a new set of
    questions

44
  • WHAT are we teaching?
  • HOW are we teaching it?
  • HOW do we know our students are
    learning it?

45
  • What can we control, what cant we
    control?
  • What do we have now that we can use
    differently?

46
  • What will my BEST teachers think?
  • Whats best
  • for our kids?

47
  • And, our favorite
  • QUESTION
  • WHY do we do it this way???
  • ANSWER
  • Because weve ALWAYS done it this way!!!

48
  • Eight Components of School Reform
  • Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
  • Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
  • Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and
    Innovate
  • Clarify Student Learning Expectations
  • Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
  • Address Organizational Structures
  • Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
  • Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

49
  • Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
  • Confront the brutal facts.
  • Jim Collins in Good to Great
  • For us 76 Failure!!! Below the state average
    on EVERY open response (writing) question
  • PICK ONE THING!!! (We started with
    literacy/writing!)

50
  • Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
  • Clarify Student Learning Expectations
  • FOUNDATION LEARNING
  • What are the NON-negotiable
  • skills and knowledge that ALL
  • students must master?
  • Our school wide Literacy Initiative

51
  • The WHAT
  • LITERACY for ALL
  • Reading, Writing,
  • Speaking, Reasoning

52
  • Two pronged approach
  • 1. Literacy skills for ALL
  • NO EXCEPTIONS!!!
  • 2. Safety nets and interventions for stuggling
    learners (More later on that)

53
How did we determine our focus? Literacy Skills
Drafted
53
54
Our Mission LITERACY
55
How we communicated our literacy focus
  • ENGAGING THE FACULTY
  • Interdisciplinary discussion groups on the drafts
    using 3 guiding questions
  • In each of the four areas of Reading, Writing,
    Speaking and Reasoning, have we included what is
    required for students to be successful in your
    class/your content area?
  • Is the skill stated clearly so that all teachers
    and students can understand it?
  • Is the skill applicable to ALL content areas?

56
  • Lessons Learned the Hard Way Tip
  • Put all your negative folks together in a group
    so they dont spread their toxic fumes.

57
How we communicated our focus- MCAS scores
listed on the top of all materials- Newsletter
reporting discussion results
  • - So which of these kids is
  • not going to graduate???

58
  • Clarify Student Learning Expectations
  • For us Our Literacy Initiative
  • Clearly defined objectives for ALL students in
    Reading, Writing, Speaking, Reasoning
  • Rubrics for those Literacy Objectives

59
Our Mission LITERACY
60
  • Eight Components of School Reform
  • Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
  • Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
  • Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and
    Innovate
  • Clarify Student Learning Expectations
  • Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
  • Address Organizational Structures
  • Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
  • Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis

61
  • How did we implement our focus?
  • Using data to guide the process
  • Help the faculty understand the assessment
  • At BHS all teachers examined the MCAS test
  • Key question What did you notice?

62
  • FOCUS, FOCUS,
  • FOCUS!!!
  • We started with writing!

63
  • Why writing???
  • We examined the test. Asked
  • What did you notice?
  • AND We needed a WIN!!! Pick something measurable.

64
We started with writing. FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS!!!
64
65
Faculty Meetings became Literacy Workshops
66
  • Our Professional Development Model
  • Development of Scripts
  • Train the Trainer
  • Interdisciplinary and Dept.
  • workshops
  • Implementation calendar
  • Assessing with rubric
  • Monitoring/collecting
  • student work

66
67
OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. READ QUESTION
CAREFULLY. 2. CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS. 3.
RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVING BLANKS). 4.
READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY. 5. TAKE NOTES THAT
RESPOND TO THE QUESTION. BRAINSTORM MAP
OUT YOUR ANSWER. 6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS. 7.
WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR MAP AS
A GUIDE. 8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM
THESIS IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END
SENTENCE. 9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE. 10. REREAD
AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.
68
  • Our Professional Development Model
  • Development of Scripts
  • Train the Trainer
  • Interdisciplinary and Dept.
  • workshops
  • Implementation calendar
  • Assessing with rubric
  • Monitoring/collecting
  • student work

68
69
  • Implementation according to a specific timeline
  • Example...

70
As a follow up to this activity, I am requiring
Department Heads to collect from each teacher at
least one student sample from each of the
teachers classes. The student samples should
include Student Name Teacher
Name Date Course Name and Level Period A copy
of the reading selection and question Evidence
of the students active reading All pre-writing
work that the student has done, e.g. webs A copy
of the written open response The new scoring
rubric and completed assessment   After you have
collected the samples from each teacher and have
had the opportunity to review them for quality
and completeness, please send them to me in a
department folder with a checklist of your
teachers. Again, please be sure that your
teachers clearly label their student samples.
The Open Response calendar of implementation for
2009 is as follows Jan. 1216 Social Science,
Social Science Biling. Jan. 2023 Wellness,
JROTC Jan. 26-30 Final Exams /Beginning of
Term Feb. 2-6 Beginning of Term 3 Feb.
9-13 Science, Science Bilingual Feb.
16-20 VACATION Feb. 23-27 Business, Technology
and Career Ed. March 2-6 Math, Math
Bilingual March 9-13 Foreign Lang, Special Ed,
ESL Bilingual Mar. 16-20 Family Cons. Science,
Project Grads Mar. 23-27 Music, Art
71
  • So, HOW do we know our students are
    learning it?
  • One method
  • School wide rubrics

72
  • Assessment using our specific Open Response
    Writing Rubric
  • Example...

73
CONTENT FORM
8 Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4 Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material. Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
6 Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant but general textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3 Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1 Easy to read 0 Difficult to read
4 Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question. Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2 Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought.
2 Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question. Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1 Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1 Sufficient 0 Insufficient
0 Response is incorrect. Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material. Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0 Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects no organization. Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient 8-10 Needs
Improvement 0-7 Failing





74
CONTENT FORM
8 Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4 Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material. Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
6 Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant but general textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3 Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1 Easy to read 0 Difficult to read
4 Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question. Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2 Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought.
2 Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question. Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1 Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1 Sufficient 0 Insufficient
0 Response is incorrect. Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material. Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0 Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects no organization. Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
CONTENT 8 Response contains a clear thesis
and insightfully answers all parts of the
question. Response provides relevant and specific
textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are
clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior
understanding of the material. 6 Response
contains a clear thesis and adequately answers
all parts of the question. Response provides
relevant but general textual evidence. Explanation
s of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and
demonstrate good understanding of the material.
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient 8-10 Needs
Improvement 0-7 Failing





75
CONTENT FORM
8 Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4 Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material. Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
6 Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant but general textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3 Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1 Easy to read 0 Difficult to read
4 Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question. Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2 Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought.
2 Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question. Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1 Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1 Sufficient 0 Insufficient
0 Response is incorrect. Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material. Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0 Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects no organization. Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
FORM 4 Response contains sophisticated and
effective use of transitions and strategic
repetition indicating complete control of the
material. Response is logically and effectively
organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and
sequencing of examples. Response contains clear
sentence structure with few or no
errors. 3 Response contains adequate but
simplistic use of transitions and strategic
repetition. Response is organized in its thesis,
paragraphing, and sequencing of
examples. Response contains clear sentence
structure with no distracting errors.
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient 8-10 Needs
Improvement 0-7 Failing





76
CONTENT FORM
8 Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and demonstrate superior understanding of the material. 4 Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic repetition indicating complete control of the material. Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
6 Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all parts of the question. Response provides relevant but general textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and demonstrate good understanding of the material. 3 Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples. Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors. LEGIBILITY 1 Easy to read 0 Difficult to read
4 Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the question. Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited understanding of the material. 2 Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of thought.
2 Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the question. Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate textual evidence. Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate minimal understanding of the material. 1 Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or sequencing of examples. Response contains major errors in sentence structure. LENGTH 1 Sufficient 0 Insufficient
0 Response is incorrect. Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding of the material. Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content. 0 Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition. Response reflects no organization. Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient 8-10 Needs
Improvement 0-7 Failing
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient 8-10 Needs
Improvement 0-7 Failing





77
  • What gets monitored is what gets done!!!
  • For the students AND the teachers
  • (More on this in next session)

78
MATH
78
79
  • Oral
  • Presentation
  • Rubric

80
(No Transcript)
81
81
82
  • Line Graphs
  • Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable
    is plotted along an axis. A line graph has a
    vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for
    example, if you wanted to graph the height of a
    ball after you have thrown it, you could put time
    along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height along
    the vertical, or y-axis.

As I mentioned before, each type of graph has
characteristics that make it useful in certain
situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs
are that - They are good at showing specific
values of data, meaning that given one variable
the other can easily be determined. - They show
trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly
show how one variable is affected by the other
as it increases or decreases. -They enable the
viewer to make predictions about the results of
data not yet recorded. Unfortunately, it is
possible to alter the way a line graph appears to
make data look a certain way. This is done by
either not using consistent scales on the axes,
meaning that the value in between each point
along the axis may not be the same, or when
comparing two graphs using different scales for
each. It is important that we all be aware of how
graphs can be made to look a certain way, when
that might not be the way the data really is.
Let's take a look at an example. In a few
years, you might be interested in getting some
kind of part-time job. You find the following
line graph, which plots the minimum wage versus
time from October, 1938, to September, 1997. What
kinds of things might you be able to tell from
it?
83
  • Line Graphs
  • Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable
    is plotted along an axis. A line graph has a
    vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for
    example, if you wanted to graph the height of a
    ball after you have thrown it, you could put time
    along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height along
    the vertical, or y-axis.
  • They are good at showing specific values of data,
    meaning that given one variable the other can
    easily be determined.
  • They show trends in data clearly, meaning that
    they visibly show how one variable is affected by
    the other as it increases or decreases.
  • -They enable the viewer to make predictions
    about the results of data not yet recorded.

As I mentioned before, each type of graph has
characteristics that make it useful in certain
situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs
are that - They are good at showing specific
values of data, meaning that given one variable
the other can easily be determined. - They show
trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly
show how one variable is affected by the other
as it increases or decreases. -They enable the
viewer to make predictions about the results of
data not yet recorded. Unfortunately, it is
possible to alter the way a line graph appears to
make data look a certain way. This is done by
either not using consistent scales on the axes,
meaning that the value in between each point
along the axis may not be the same, or when
comparing two graphs using different scales for
each. It is important that we all be aware of how
graphs can be made to look a certain way, when
that might not be the way the data really is.
Let's take a look at an example. In a few
years, you might be interested in getting some
kind of part-time job. You find the following
line graph, which plots the minimum wage versus
time from October, 1938, to September, 1997. What
kinds of things might you be able to tell from
it?
84
Teaching Students How to Interpret Line
Graphs Step One Students should read the title
and write what a graph is describing in their
own words using complete sentences. Step Two
Students should then explain what is being
described by each axis in complete sentences.
They should find the label and the unit of
measure on the horizontal axis (x-axis), and on
the vertical axis (y-axis). Be sure to use the
appropriate vocabulary with the students. If the
label or unit of measurement is not apparent,
the student needs to use the information in the
title and/or any descriptions provided to
determine this information. Be sure that
students can identify the type of measurement
units that are being used for each axis (days,
weeks, number, of people, etc.) Marks on each
axis must be evenly spaced and represent the
same number of units between each line that is
marked along the axis. Because the numbers on
axes do not always start at 0, you will
sometimes see a 0 followed by a zig- zag line
which indicates a missing potion of the
graph. Step 3 Students must mark data points
with visible dots. These dots can then be
labeled as an ordered pair (x-value,
y-value). Step 4 Students should be able to
create their own questions related to the
graph. Ultimately the students need to be able
to interpret and explain a line graph by
identifying The title The horizontal axis The
vertical axis Relationship between the axes
85
Teaching Students How to Interpret Line
Graphs Step One Students should read the title
and write what a graph is describing in their
own words using complete sentences. Step Two
Students should then explain what is being
described by each axis in complete sentences.
They should find the label and the unit of
measure on the horizontal axis (x-axis), and on
the vertical axis (y-axis). Be sure to use the
appropriate vocabulary with the students. If the
label or unit of measurement is not apparent,
the student needs to use the information in the
title and/or any descriptions provided to
determine this information. Be sure that
students can identify the type of measurement
units that are being used for each axis (days,
weeks, number, of people, etc.) Marks on each
axis must be evenly spaced and represent the
same number of units between each line that is
marked along the axis. Because the numbers on
axes do not always start at 0, you will
sometimes see a 0 followed by a zig- zag line
which indicates a missing potion of the
graph. Step 3 Students must mark data points
with visible dots. These dots can then be
labeled as an ordered pair (x-value,
y-value). Step 4 Students should be able to
create their own questions related to the
graph. Ultimately the students need to be able
to interpret and explain a line graph by
identifying The title The horizontal axis The
vertical axis Relationship between the axes
Step 4 Students should be able to create their
own questions related to the graph. Ultimately
the students need to be able to interpret and
explain a line graph by identifying The
title The horizontal axis The vertical
axis Relationship between the axes
86
Labels and Titles Numerical Correctness
Visual Presentation
4 Points Graph is titled appropriately Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units 8 Points Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values). Answers to interpretive questions are correct and complete.
3 Points Graph is titled appropriately Most labels are correct and placed appropriately Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in most cases. 6 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in most cases. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values). Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct and complete. 2 Points Graph is neat and legible Reader is able to find values by looking at the graph. Interpretive questions are written neatly and in complete sentences.
2 Points Graph is not titled Some labels are correct and appropriately placed. Interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in some cases. 4 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in some cases. Graph scaling is attempted Answers to some interpretive questions are correct and complete.
1 Point Graph is not titled Most labels are incorrectly or inappropriately placed. Interpretive questions are labeled with incorrect units in the majority of cases. 2 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph incorrectly in most cases. Graph scaled incorrectly. Answers to most interpretive questions are incorrect and incomplete. 1 Point Neatness and legibility are lacking, but the graph is readable. Reader will have some difficulty finding values on the graph. Answers to interpretive questions need to be neater and complete sentences must be written
0 Points Graph is not titled. Labels are not present. No units are given with answers on interpretive questions. 0 Points No data placed on graph. Graph not scaled at all. Answers to interpretive questions entirely incorrect or missing
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient Comments 8-10
Needs Improvement _________Total Score

0-7 Failing
87
Labels and Titles Numerical Correctness
Visual Presentation
4 Points Graph is titled appropriately Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units 8 Points Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values). Answers to interpretive questions are correct and complete.
3 Points Graph is titled appropriately Most labels are correct and placed appropriately Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in most cases. 6 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in most cases. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in values). Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct and complete. 2 Points Graph is neat and legible Reader is able to find values by looking at the graph. Interpretive questions are written neatly and in complete sentences.
2 Points Graph is not titled Some labels are correct and appropriately placed. Interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in some cases. 4 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in some cases. Graph scaling is attempted Answers to some interpretive questions are correct and complete.
1 Point Graph is not titled Most labels are incorrectly or inappropriately placed. Interpretive questions are labeled with incorrect units in the majority of cases. 2 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph incorrectly in most cases. Graph scaled incorrectly. Answers to most interpretive questions are incorrect and incomplete. 1 Point Neatness and legibility are lacking, but the graph is readable. Reader will have some difficulty finding values on the graph. Answers to interpretive questions need to be neater and complete sentences must be written
0 Points Graph is not titled. Labels are not present. No units are given with answers on interpretive questions. 0 Points No data placed on graph. Graph not scaled at all. Answers to interpretive questions entirely incorrect or missing
4 Points Graph is titled appropriately Graph is
labeled correctly and appropriately
placed Answers to interpretive questions are
labeled with correct units
8 Points Numerical data is placed correctly on
the graph. Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward
jumps in values). Answers to interpretive
questions are correct and complete.
3 Points Graph is titled appropriately Most
labels are correct and placed appropriately Answer
s to interpretive questions are labeled with
correct units in most cases.
6 Points Numerical data is placed on the graph
correctly in most cases. Graph scaled
appropriately (no awkward jumps in
values). Answers to interpretive questions are
mostly correct and complete.
Evaluated by Self Peer
Teacher (Circle One) SCORING 13-14
Advanced 11-12 Proficient Comments 8-10
Needs Improvement _________Total Score

0-7 Failing
88
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89
  • Reading Workshop on TOVANIS
  • I Read It But I Dont Get It
  • and
  • Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?

90
90
91
  • FOUNDATION LEARNING Training ALL students
  • STUDY SKILLS LESSONS through the LITERACY
    OBJECTIVES
  • Reading Active Reading Strategies- Previewing a
    text Using visuals to preview a chapter
  • Writing Note-taking Summarizing
  • Speaking Street talk vs. school talk speaking
    in complete sentences - Listening
  • Reasoning Time management, Organizational
    strategies, Study strategies

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Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and
Quick-Writes
  • Follow-up to presentation by
  • Lin Kuzmich
  • Faculty Meeting
  • April 2, 2009

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Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and
Quick-Writes
  • Content Objectives
  • To be able to use a foldable to demonstrate
    understanding of a concept and organization of
    information
  • To be able to demonstrate understanding and use
    of a quick write in order to increase our
    students understanding of a concept.
  • Literacy Objectives
  • To take notes
  • To generate a response to what one has read,
    viewed, or heard.

94
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and
Quick-Writes
  • Activities
  • Review the assessment graphic as it relates to
    formative assessment and ways to change
    instruction.
  • Create a foldable.
  • Take notes on a foldable in response to questions
    to demonstrate understanding of a quick-write.
  • Respond to a quick-write prompt.
  • Apply how a quick-write can be used to a new
    situation.

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Graphic Organizers/Foldables
  • The best
  • worksheet
  • is a
  • blank piece of paper.

97
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
  • What is a quick-write?

98
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
  • How can I use a quick-write?

99
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
  • What are the benefits of a quick-write?

100
Quick-Writes
  • Writing is to Thinking Fluency
  • As
  • Phonics is to Reading Fluency

101
Writing Matters Writing IS Thinking
  • Writing supports assembly and binding in the
    brain because
  • Writing uses multiple parts of the brain
    simultaneously.
  • Writing increases performance in every content
    area.
  • Writing is a multi-sensory rehearsal for the
    brain.
  • Writing is highly correlated to increased
    performance on assessments.

Kuzmich 2007
102
What Does the Evidence Really Say?
  • Effective performance assessment REQUIRES writing
  • More writing reduces coverage of standards and
    curriculum
  • Less coverage with MORE writing does NOT hurt
    multiple choice scores

Kuzmich 2007
103
Writing and Social Studies ScoresVirginia
Department of Education, 1998
R .87
Data Source Center for Performance Assessment
Kuzmich 2007
104
Writing and Math ScoresVirginia Department of
Education, 1998
R .88
Data Source Center for Performance Assessment
Kuzmich 2007
105
Writing and Science ScoresU. S. Department of
Education, 1998
R .86
Data Source Center for Performance Assessment
Kuzmich 2007
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Quick-Writes
  • 1 to 3 minutes
  • Diagnostic
  • Not for grading
  • Allows teacher to check for understanding, adjust
    pacing and emphasis, offer assistance to those
    who need additional help or extension of learning

Kuzmich 2007
107
Quick-Writes
  • Prompt
  • Define global warming and explain three
    factors that contribute to it.

108
Quick-Writes
  • How can I use quick writes?
  • Assessment Tool
  • GOT IT
  • GOT SOME OF IT
  • HASNT A CLUE

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Quick-Writes
  • How can I use quick writes?
  • Follow-up to Assessment
  • Address individual learning needs of students
    through grouping
  • Tailor assignments to specific group
  • Assist students who need help

110
Why is Writing so Powerful?
Cognitive Effect - Writing allows students to
show what they know. Teaching Effect -
Student writing provides teachers with valuable
diagnostic information. Conclusion - We must
recognize the power of writing across the
curriculum and the vital role it plays in student
success!
Kuzmich 2007
111
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and
Quick-Writes
  • How might I use quick-writes in my classes?

112
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables and
Quick-Writes
  • THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU

113
  • Professional Development Literacy Workshops
  • Open Response Writing Previewing a Table of
    Contents
  • Analyzing Graphs Charts Using Summarizers
  • Teaching Multiple Choice Oral Presentations
  • Strategies Vocabulary in Context
  • Using Visuals to Preview Teaching Non-fiction
    Reading
  • a Chapter Active Reading Strategies
  • Thinking About Words ELL /SIOP Strategies
  • Assessment Checking for Using Quick Writes
  • Understanding Foldables /Graphic Organizers

114
  • What gets monitored is what gets done!!!
  • For the students AND the teachers

115
  • So, HOW do we know our teachers are
    implementing this?
  • Formal and informal evaluation, and collection of
    student work (Specifics in the next session)

116
RECAP
  • Empowering a team
  • Using the data to inform decisions
  • Literacy for ALL NO exceptions
  • A Professional Development Model that trained ALL
    teachers in literacy strategies
  • Monitoring, monitoring, monitoring

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  • RESULTS
  • What can the results be for the students when the
    school takes action?
  • (HINT, HINT GOOD THINGS!!!)

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Proficiency Index ELA - Mass. Urbans
District Grade Band Sub Grp  ELA 2003  ELA 2004  ELA 2005  ELA 2006  ELA 2007  ELA 2008 Gain
Brockton Grd 10 Agg 76.4 78.1 79.2 84.0 83.2 88 11.6
Lynn Grd 10 Agg 70.5 70.7 73.0 77.2 78.1 82.7 12.2
Worcester Grd 10 Agg 67.9 68.6 71.8 75.3 79.3 82.6 14.7
Boston Grd 10 Agg 64.4 67.7 69.7 76.5 78.1 82.3 17.9
Lowell Grd 10 Agg 69.8 74.2 73.6 76.4 78.9 81.4 11.6
Fall River Grd 10 Agg 69.8 71.7 72.1 72.6 81.4 79.2 9.4
New Bedford Grd 10 Agg 66.1 69.1 70.5 74.3 74.5 78.2 12.1
Springfield Grd 10 Agg 62.1 65.6 66.7 67.3 69.7 76.7 14.6
Brockton Grd 10 SPED 51.3 50.2 54.0 61.8 63.3 70.4 19.2
Lawrence Grd 10 Agg 59.9 58.3 63.6 61.4 61.9 69.2 9.3
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CLOSING THE GAP! ELA MCAS Scores Ratio of State Average for Whites CLOSING THE GAP! ELA MCAS Scores Ratio of State Average for Whites CLOSING THE GAP! ELA MCAS Scores Ratio of State Average for Whites CLOSING THE GAP! ELA MCAS Scores Ratio of State Average for Whites CLOSING THE GAP! ELA MCAS Scores Ratio of State Average for Whites
Brockton Scores Asian Black Hispanic White Other
8th grade in 2006 .85 .80 .85 .97 .77
10th grade in 2008 1.01 .94 .94 1.08 .89
Source Ron Ferguson, Achievement Gap
Initiative, Harvard University
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  • But its not just about the numbers!!!

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121
  • I am proud of this school
  • Total in Agreement Disagree
  • 97 0

Source WE Lead Survey, ICLE
122
  • Changing Attitudes
  • Everyone is responsible
  • for every student
  • Believing that every
  • student CAN and MUST
  • Our responsibility
  • to figure out how to help

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  • JOHN ABIGAIL ADAMS SCHOLARSHIP 2009
  • 246 Recipients 25
  • African American 32
  • Asian 7
  • Hispanic 6
  • MultiRace/NonHispanic-2
  • Native American lt1
  • White 53
  • Low Income 34
  • W/ Disability 3

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  • Massachusetts Compass School
  • Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory
    Schools Making Progress
  • International Center for Leadership in Education
    Model School
  • 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
  • U.S. Department of Education National High School
    Summit
  • National School Change Award 2006
  • Harvard Achievement Gap Initiative 2009
  • NASSP/CSSR Secondary School
  • Showcase 2010

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Brockton High School Brockton School
DistrictPlymouth County 470 Forest
AvenueBrockton, Massachusetts(508)580-7633
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  • Dr. Susan E. Szachowicz, Principal
  • Brockton High School
  • 470 Forest Avenue
  • Brockton, MA 02301
  • 508-580-7633
  • susanszachowicz_at_bpsma.org
  • Senior Advisor International Center for
  • Leadership in Education
  • www.leadered.com

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Leadership AcademyJanuary 29-31, 2010New Orleans
www.LeaderEd.com
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