The greenhouse effect and global warming - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The greenhouse effect and global warming PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 70034e-MmU4Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The greenhouse effect and global warming

Description:

The greenhouse effect and global warming What are they? The causes, effects, impacts and responses ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:263
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: Lind3181
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The greenhouse effect and global warming


1
The greenhouse effect and global warming
  • What are they?
  • The causes, effects, impacts and responses

2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
(No Transcript)
5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
THE NATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in
    tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by
    the Earth.
  • To make sure that the Earth's temperature remains
    constant, the balance of these gases in the
    atmosphere must not be upset.

8
The GREENHOUSE GASES are very important and are
mainly
  • water vapouroccurs naturally in the atmosphere.
  • carbon dioxideproduced naturally when people and
    animals breathe. Plants and trees absorb carbon
    dioxide to live. Volcanoes also produce this gas.
    Carbon dioxide is not the same as carbon monoxide
  • methanecomes from cattle as they digest their
    food. The gas also comes from fields where rice
    is grown in paddy fields.
  • nitrous oxidewhen plants die and rot, nitrous
    oxide is produced.
  • ozoneoccurs naturally in the atmosphere.

9
THE ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • Because there are more and more greenhouse gases
    in the atmosphere, more heat is trapped which
    makes the Earth warmer. This is known as global
    warming.
  • A lot of scientists agree that man's activities
    are making the natural greenhouse effect
    stronger. If we carry on polluting the atmosphere
    with greenhouse gases, it will have very
    dangerous effects on the Earth.

10
What are the causes of rises in Greenhouse gases
11
THE ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • Some of the activities of man also produce
    greenhouse gases. These gases keep increasing in
    the atmosphere. The balance of the greenhouse
    gases changes and this has effects on the whole
    of the planet.
  • Burning fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas
    - releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
    Cutting down and burning trees also produces a
    lot of carbon dioxide.
  • A group of greenhouse gases called the
    chlorofluorocarbons, - which are usually called
    CFCs, because the other word is much too long! -
    have been used in aerosols, such as hairspray
    cans, fridges and in making foam plastics. They
    are found in small amounts in the atmosphere.
    They are dangerous greenhouse gases because small
    amounts can trap large amounts of heat.

12
Some greenhouse gases
Methane is x 30 more effective than CO2 Where
does methane come from? (3 places)
X 300 more effect on global warming than CO2
Man-made sources of nitrous oxide include nylon
and nitric acid production, the use of
fertilisers in agriculture, cars with catalytic
converters and the burning of organic matter.
13
CO2 and temperature rise
14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
Two ways of looking at causes
17
  • The effects

18
Global Warming some effects
  • Since 1970, rise in Decrease in
  • Global surface temperatures NH Snow extent
  • Tropospheric temperatures Arctic sea ice
  • Global Sea Surface Temperatures Glaciers
  • Global sea level Cold temperatures
  • Water vapor
  • Rainfall intensity
  • Precipitation extratropics
  • Hurricane intensity
  • Drought
  • Extreme high temperatures
  • Heat waves

19
Global mean temperatures are rising faster with
time
Warmest 12 years 1998,2005,2003,2002,2004,2006,20
01,1997,1995,1999,1990,2000
Period Rate Years ?/decade
20
Global mean temperatures are rising faster with
time
Period Rate Years ?/decade
21
Global mean temperatures are rising faster with
time
Period Rate Years ?/decade
22
Land surface temperatures are rising faster than
SSTs
Sea Surface T Land
Annual anomalies of global average SST and land
surface air temperature
23
Land precipitation is changing significantly over
broad areas
Smoothed annual anomalies for precipitation ()
over land from 1900 to 2005 other regions are
dominated by variability.
24
Proportion of heavy rainfalls increasing in most
land areas
Regions of disproportionate changes in heavy
(95th) and very heavy (99th) precipitation
25
Projected Patterns of Precipitation
Change 2090-2100
Precipitation increases very likely in high
latitudes Decreases likely in most subtropical
land regions This continues the observed patterns
in recent trends
26
Sea level is rising from ocean expansion and
melting glaciers
  • Since 1993
  • Global sea level
  • has risen 41 mm
  • (1.6 inches)
  • 60 from
  • expansion as ocean temperatures rise,
  • 40 from melting glaciers
  • Steve Nerem

27
Evidence for reality of climate change
Glaciers melting
Muir Glacier, Alaska
1909 Toboggan Glacier Alaska 2000
1900 2003 Alpine glacier, Austria
28
Global mean temperatures are rising faster with
time
Period Rate Years ?/decade
29
The impacts
30
Impacts on living things
  • If the sea-levels are rising then what might
    the effects be? And on people and the ecosystems?
  • If there are more climatic hazards what might
    they be? What is the impact? Where might be
    affected the most?
  • Changes in rainfall what might be the effects
    on the earth? On the human welfare?
  • Rises in temperature what would be the effects?
    What are the impacts on the different groups?
    That is the sea as well? Warming seas with more
    CO2 in ( that is an acid by the way)?

31
Impacts on living things
  • Ecosystem changes
  • which would be most affected?
  • What would be the impacts on the world as a
    whole?
  • On people?
  • On ecosystem populations?
  • Agricultural production all bad or maybe some
    good?

32
One of the impacts is on human health why?
33
Responses to climate change
34
On an international level
  • Countries get involved in UN inspired activities
    (more about them next term)
  • KYOTO
  • IPCC
  • Copenhagen
  • They sign up to the agreements made there
    unlike the USA and Australia which did not sign
    up to KYOTO
  • Individual countries make international
    agreements to mitigate against increased
    greenhouse gas emissions

35
Norway Offer Brazil 1 Billion to Save the Amazon
  • by Alan Harten September 17, 2008
  • The prime minister of Norway, Jens Stoltenberg,
    has announced a donation of 1 Billion by 2015 to
    the International Fund for the preservation of
    the Amazon, created in August by Brazilian
    President da Silva.
  • The Norwegian government has decided to
    contribute 1 Billion to the Amazon Fund, over
    the next few years, and payments will begin this
    year, explained the Norwegian prime minister.
  • Successive contributions will depend on results
    in reducing Amazon deforestation. One
    pre-condition is that will be able to see clearly
    documented evidence that deforestation is
    actually being reduced.
  • Norway and the UK have also promised 50 million
    a-piece to the Congo for a similar project with
    similar rules they are using satellite tracking
    to ensure their investment is well-spent

36
National activities
  • As a result of Kyoto, many MEDCs (excluding USA
    and Australia) have committed to reducing
    emission by increasing the efficiency of the use
    of fossil fuels in vehicles and changing the fuel
    source for energy generation either by
    renewables and/or nuclear power, that some say
    must form an essential element if they are to
    succeed in making the cuts.
  • They are also committed to improving the
    standards of house building to reduce heat loss,
    and paying a feed-in tariff for smaller
    providers of renewable energy.

37
National activities
  • Car emissions are reduced by legislation and
    clean electric cars get a variety of good
    deals.
  • Congestion charging started in London is also
    seen as a green initiative. If a city is clogged
    with slow moving petrol/devisal cars stuck
    interminably in low gear, the emissions are much
    more concentrated and more damaging. Get people
    on the buses and the damage is far less.

38
Local activities
  • Too much international trade involves boats and
    planes, when the goods could be produced locally.
    Buy locally, you support your local community and
    the food or goods have not travelled so far
    fewer emissions! Farmers markets are gaining in
    popularity all over the world.
  • Farmers are increasing getting a premium both in
    terms of the value of their goods that result
    from greener production methods and grants from
    the EU/government to maintain the biodiversity
    and reduce inputs in terms of fertilizers and
    pesticides.
About PowerShow.com