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Fair, Local, and Organic Food vs. Industrialized Food

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Title: Fair, Local, and Organic Food vs. Industrialized Food


1
Fair, Local, and Organic Food vs. Industrialized
Food
  • Casey Davis and Laura Stephenson

2
First, a brief history review
  • Humans began as hunter-gatherers
  • Switched to agriculture for a few reasons
  • Able to feed many more people
  • Easier than moving around everyday
  • Easy to grow as a population
  • Women more fertile

3
Jared DiamondThe Worst Mistake in the History
of the Human Race
  • From the progressivist perspective on which I
    was brought
  • up to ask
  • "Why did almost all our hunter-gatherer ancestors
    adopt
  • agriculture?" is silly.
  • Of course they adopted it because agriculture is
    an efficient way to get more food for less work.
  • Planted crops yield far more tons per acre than
    roots and berries. Just imagine a band of
    savages, exhausted from searching for nuts or
    chasing wild animals, suddenly gazing for the
    first time at a fruit-laden orchard or a pasture
    full of sheep. How many milliseconds do you think
    it would take them to appreciate the advantages
    of agriculture?

4
Pros and Cons to Agriculture
  • Pros
  • Feed many people
  • Allow women to have more children (not constantly
    moving)
  • Settle in one place
  • Easier life
  • Cons
  • Concentrates people in one area
  • Spread of disease (public health implications)
  • Not as varied of a diet
  • Monocultureputting all your eggs in one basket
  • Wheat, rice, corn are all lacking in the
    essential aas

5
Agriculture todayFair, Local, and Organic Food
and Industrialized
  • Fair
  • Transparency
  • Workers Rights
  • Fair Trade
  • Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on
    dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks
    greater equity in international trade. It
    contributes to sustainable development by
    offering better trading conditions to, and
    securing the rights of, marginalized producers
    and workers especially in the South. Fair Trade
    Organizations, backed by consumers, are engaged
    actively in supporting producers, awareness
    raising and in campaigning for changes in the
    rules and practice of conventional international
    trade. Fair Trade products are produced and
    traded in accordance with these principles
    wherever possible verified by credible,
    independent assurance systems.
  • -According to FINE, an informal group of 4
    international fair trade networks
  •    

6
Smithfield Foods
  • The largest hog producer in the USA
  • Profits of 11.4 billion in 2006
  • Smithfield has been fined as much as 12.6
    million for violating Clean Water Act provisions
    by improperly dumping waste in waterways.
    coopamerica.com
  • Workers union just recently recognized
  • Monday (October 27, 2008) they settled a
    lawsuit related to the union's 10-year campaign
    to organize workers at Smithfield's Tar Heel,
    North Carolina, pork plant.-Reuters.com
  • Voices go unheard
  • In February 2005, Human Rights Watch released a
    report saying workers at the plants are
    frequently injured, then refused medical care or
    fired. The report also alleges that repetitive
    motion injuries are universal in the industry,
    unsanitary conditions sometimes leave employees
    covered in animal wastes, and that worker
    attempts to unionize are sometimes violently
    quashed.
  • -- Human Rights Watch, 02/18/2005

7
Smithfield continued
  • The drugs Smithfield administers to its pigs, of
    course, exit its hog houses in pig shit.
    Industrial pig waste also contains a host of
    other toxic substances ammonia, methane,
    hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, cyanide,
    phosphorous, nitrates and heavy metals. In
    addition, the waste nurses more than 100
    microbial pathogens that can cause illness in
    humans, including salmonella, cryptosporidium,
    streptocolli and girardia. Each gram of hog shit
    can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform
    bacteria.
  • Rolling Stone Magazine Porks Dirty Secret by
    Jeff Tietz
  • http//www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/1284074
    3/porks_dirty_secret_the_nations_top_hog_producer_
    is_also_one_of_americas_worst_polluters

8
And guess what?
  • According to the EPA, Smithfield's largest
    farm-slaughterhouse operation -- in Tar Heel,
    North Carolina -- dumps more toxic waste into the
    nation's water each year than all but three other
    industrial facilities in America.
  • Rolling Stone Magazine Porks Dirty Secret by
    Jeff Tietz
  • UNC contracts dining services to Campus Dining
    Services (CDS)
  • CDS buys all of its meat from Smithfield
  • According to 2000 census, 70 people lived in Tar
    Heel

9
But enough of this, whats organic?
  • Depends on who defines it
  • Originally
  • to imply that nature rather than the machine
    should supply the proper model for agriculture.
  • J. I. Rodale, editor of Organic Gardening and
    Farming
  • USDA Industrial Organic established as a result
    of the Farm Bill of 1990

10
USDAs definition of Organic
  • USDA Definition and Regulations
  • The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA), enacted
    under Title 21 of the 1990 Farm Bill, served to
    establish uniform national standards for the
    production and handling of foods labeled as
    organic. The Act authorized a new USDA National
    Organic Program (NOP) to set national standards
    for the production, handling, and processing of
    organically grown agricultural products. In
    addition, the Program oversees mandatory
    certification of organic production. The Act also
    established the National Organic Standards Board
    (NOSB) which advises the Secretary of Agriculture
    in setting the standards upon which the NOP is
    based. Producers who meet standards set by the
    NOP may label their products as USDA Certified
    Organic.
  • -USDA website

11
USDA defines organic
  • USDA National Organic Standards Board (NOSB)
    definition, April 1995
  • Organic agriculture is an ecological production
    management system that promotes and enhances
    biodiversity, biological cycles and soil
    biological activity. It is based on minimal use
    of off-farm inputs and on management practices
    that restore, maintain and enhance ecological
    harmony.
  • Organic agriculture practices cannot ensure that
    products are completely free of residues
    however, methods are used to minimize pollution
    from air, soil and water.
  • Organic food handlers, processors and retailers
    adhere to standards that maintain the integrity
    of organic agricultural products. The primary
    goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the
    health and productivity of interdependent
    communities of soil life, plants, animals and
    people.
  • This entire page is located on the USDA website

12
USDA
  • USDA Consumer Brochure Organic Food Standards
    and Labels The Facts
  • What is organic food? Organic food is produced
    by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable
    resources and the conservation of soil and water
    to enhance environmental quality for future
    generations.  Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and
    dairy products come from animals that are given
    no antibiotics or growth hormones.  Organic food
    is produced without using most conventional
    pesticides fertilizers made with synthetic
    ingredients or sewage sludge bioengineering or
    ionizing radiation.  Before a product can be
    labeled organic, a Government-approved
    certifier inspects the farm where the food is
    grown to make sure the farmer is following all
    the rules necessary to meet USDA organic
    standards.  Companies that handle or process
    organic food before it gets to your local
    supermarket or restaurant must be certified,
    too. Consumer Brochure, USDA National Organic
    Program, http//www.ams.usda.gov/nop/Consumers/bro
    chure.html

13
Example of Original Organic FarmPolyface
Farmshttp//www.polyfacefarms.com/
  • Located in Swoope, Va
  • Operated by Joal Salatin and family
  • 550 acres
  • Pastoral
  • Perennial Species
  • Polyculture/diversified produce
  • Solar Energy
  • Local fertility methods
  • NOT certified USDA organic

14
Fair and Organic, what next?
  • While Fair and Organic foods are two large
    parts of the solution, in order to be
    sustainable, food must also be Local
  • Along with Fair, the local aspect re-connects
    humans with humans.
  • Building relationships with those that produce
    our food

15
Other Local benefits
  • Supports local community
  • Farmers Markets in Carrboro, Raleigh, Durham
  • Supports local economy
  • Local jobs- not out-sourcing
  • Example NC, an extremely agriculturally viable
    state!

16
Localtransparency
  • Understanding where your food comes from
  • Knowing who grows your food
  • If factories had glass walls

17
FLO Foods helps decrease dependence on oil
  • Why?
  • Less transportation of food
  • Less reliance on fertilizers
  • A focus on organic farming principles, which use
    natural fertilizers

18
Fair, Local, and Organic Food today
  • Obstacles
  • Price
  • Food stamps
  • Industry
  • Big Oil
  • Corn-gtHigh Fructose Corn Syrup
  • Fertilizers
  • Strengths
  • Appealing to everyone who eats
  • Sustainable farming practices benefits
    environment, public health

19
Before the Green Revolution there was the
Haber-Bosch Process
  • 1910 German chemists Fritz Haber Carl Bosch
  • Nitrogen fixation reaction of N2 H2 under an
    iron catalyst to produce ammonia
  • Ammonia is responsible for sustaining 1/3 of
    worlds population
  • Process is essential for harnessing N2 because of
    its strong triple bond.
  • Haber won Nobel Prize in 1918 Bosch shared
    Nobel Prize in 1931

20
The Green Revolution
  • In the mid-20th century, agricultural
    transformation utilizing scientific research
    created high-yield, disease-resistant strains of
    crops
  • HYVs
  • Has allowed food production to keep pace with
    worldwide population growth, fighting world
    hunger and famine.

21
Norman Borlaug Father of the Green Revolution
  • Borlaug took up research project in Mexico to
    develop other strains of wheat and increase
    production.
  • Result high-yielding, disease-resistant,
    semi-dwarf wheat strain
  • By 1963, 95 of Mexicos wheat crops used the
    magic strain. That years harvest was 6 times
    larger than in 1944.

22
Green Revolution Spreads to other Nations
  • 1961 India was on brink of mass famine
  • Developed a semi-dwarf rice strain
  • Yielded 10 times more rice than traditional
    strain
  • Miracle Rice
  • India now major exporter of rice, and famine has
    not occurred since Green Revolution
  • Successful strains in Philippines and Pakistan as
    well in 1960s

23
Green Revolution in US
  • 1943 US imported half of its wheat
  • 1956 US became self-sufficient in wheat
    production
  • 1964 US exported half a million tons of wheat

24
Criticism What does Borlaug have to say about
all of this?
  • Awarded 1970 Nobel Peace Prize
  • For his contributions to world peace through
    increasing food supply credited for saving over
    a billion people from starvation
  • Of his work"a change in the right direction, but
    it has not transformed the world into a Utopia
  • Of environmental critics some of the
    environmental lobbyists of the Western nations
    are the salt of the earth, but many of them are
    elitists. They've never experienced the physical
    sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from
    comfortable office suites in Washington or
    Brussels. If they lived just one month amid the
    misery of the developing world, as I have for
    fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors
    and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be
    outraged that fashionable elitists back home were
    trying to deny them these things

25
The Borlaug Hypothesis
  • Increasing crop yields can curb deforestation
  • Using the best farmland to increase productivity
    helps control deforestation by reducing the need
    for new farmland
  • Besides increasing food supply, Borlaug
    encourages taking steps to decrease the rate of
    population growth to help prevent food shortages
    and famine

26
Local Food-not necessarily more environmentally
friendly
  • Transportation is only one component of the total
    environmental impact of food production and
    consumption
  • Study by Lincoln University in New Zealand
  • Result less energy to produce food in NZ and to
    transport to UK than to buy locally in the UK

27
Local Foods
  • The New York Times sometimes eating locally can
    increase carbon footprint rather than decrease
  • Lamb raised in NZ and shipped to Britain (11,000
    miles by boat) produced 1,520 pounds of CO2
    emissions per ton
  • British lamb produced 6,280 pounds of CO2
  • 4 times more energy efficient to for Londoners to
    buy lamb imported halfway around the world

28
Other Cons for Local
  • Cost to consumer is more expensive
  • Cannot provide as great a variety of food due to
    seasonal circumstances as well as climate
    limitations
  • The effect on exporting countries
  • Damages 3rd world economies

29
Organic Market
  • 11 billion industry- the fastest growing sector
    of the food economy
  • Organic market less of a movement and more of a
    big business
  • Local organic farming philosophies are invisible
  • Earthbound Farm Grimmway Farms 2 organic
    markets that dominate organic produce (Earthbound
    grows 80 of the organic lettuce sold in the US)
  • Michael Pollan found several ingredients in
    organic food are synthetic additives permitted
    under federal organic rules

30
Organic Corruption
  • USDA implemented National Organic Program in 1990
  • Organic labeling fraud is increasing
  • Commondreams.org Newscenter USDA reports August
    5th 2008 that 15 of the 30 accredited organic
    certifiers they recently inspected failed the
    USDA audit and will have 12 months to make
    corrections or lose their accreditation with the
    NOP
  • January of 2007 The Cornucopia Institute
    conducted checks of Wal Mart stores in 5
    different states and found labeling violations in
    all of the stores visited

31
Local does NOT equal Organic
  • FLO is hard to find
  • Products rarely have all 3 qualities
  • Tomatoes may be local, but not organic
  • Coffee may be organic, but not fair trade
  • Like organic labeling, Fair Trade labeling is
    also susceptible to fraud.

32
Conclusion
  • Without Industrialized Agriculture, would not
    have been able to support population today
  • Local Organic Agriculture also has
    disadvantages like Industrialized Agriculture and
    will not be able to support population today

33
Questions
  • Can we (as America) feasibly switch from
    industrialized to fair, local, and organic
    farming practices?
  • In your opinion, were the negative effects of the
    Green Revolution worth the overall outcome of
    fighting world hunger?
  • How does fair, local, and organic food relate to
    public health?
  • Adverse effects?
  • Benefits?

34
Sources
  • Cummins, Ronnie. USDA Report Indicates That
    Organic Labeling Fraud is Increasing. News
    Center Breaking News Views for the Progressive
    Community. August 8, 2008. lthttp//www.commondream
    s.org/archive/2008/08/08/10887.gt
  • Pollan, Michael. The Omnivores Dilemma A
    Natural History of Four Meals. The Penguin
    Press. New York, 2006.
  • McWilliams, James. "Food That Travels Well. The
    New York Times. August 6 2007.
  • Wong, Grace. Wal Mart Accused of Organic
    Fraud. CNN Money. January 17, 2007.
    lthttp//money.cnn.com/2007/01/17/news/companies/wa
    lmart_organic/index.htmgt
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Revolution
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haber_process
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_foodEnvironmen
    tal_impact
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