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Latin America

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Latin America WWI & Its Impact Populism, Marxism, and Ideology Economic Impact Previously, economic boom w/ resource specialization Import substitution ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Latin America


1
Latin America
  • WWI Its Impact
  • Populism, Marxism, and Ideology

2
Economic Impact
  • Previously, economic boom w/ resource
    specialization
  • Import substitution industrialization
  • Lack of capital, low technology, limited internal
    markets
  • War false economic stimulation
  • Population growth
  • Massive urban migration
  • Accompanying social problems

3
Economic Impact
  • Elimination of European sources
  • Manufacturing spurt
  • Beginning of economic independence
  • Emergence of US as economic power in Latin America

4
Political Impact
  • Land-owning elite opened up to allow middle class
    in govt
  • Critques
  • Export-import capitalism
  • Growing industrial urban govt voice
  • Immigration
  • Unionization
  • Growing nationalism
  • New ideologies (anarchy on)

5
Latin American Ideology
  • Growth of Socialist Communist ideologies
  • Establish own
  • Roman Catholic Church
  • Populism
  • Corporatism
  • Fascism

6
Social Reform
  • Came to a fore w/ 1929 world economic crash
  • Land reform
  • Populism

7
Whats up in Mexico?
  • Previously, Diaz
  • False sense of prosperity
  • Foreign economic control
  • Hacienda system
  • Repressed workers
  • 1910-1920 revolution
  • Workers united NPancho Villa, S Zapata

8
Whats up in Mexico?
  • Revolution
  • Zapata Tierra y Libertad peasant-based
  • United joined by middle class
  • Soldaderas
  • US intervention
  • 1920, end of WW1 Mex. Rev, Obregon new pres
    consolidated power strengthen country
  • New constitution

9
Whats up in Mexico? (global context)
  • Boxer Rebellion
  • 1911 Chinese Revolution
  • 1905 Russian Revolution
  • 1917 Russian Revolution
  • What was the foreign economic role in these
    rebellions/revolutions?
  • What was the role of the world banking crisis?
  • What was the role of growing nationalism?

10
Whats up in Mexico?
  • Nationalism and indigenism (arts literature)
  • indianize the country
  • Corridos
  • New elite attracted to Marxism
  • Diego Rivera (painter)
  • Jose Clementa Orozco (painter)
  • Frida Kahlo (painter)
  • Mariano Azuela (novelist)

11
Diego Rivera, The Agitator, 1926, Autonomous
University of Chapingo
12
Diego Rivera, Epic of the Mexican People - Mexico
Today and Tomorrow, 1934-35, Palacio Nacional,
Mexico City
13
Diego Rivera, Pan-American Unity, 1940, 2/10
transportable panels
14
Jose Clemente Orozco, The Trench, 1926, National
Preparatory School, Mexico City
15
Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait Dedicated to Leon
Trotsky (Between the Curtains), 1937
16
Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas, 1939
17
Corridos
  • http//www.corridos.org/Default.asp?LanguageE
  • Convey themes of social justice
  • Unify the culture around cultural issues

18
American response to Mexican nationalism
  • Elite attracted to Marxism
  • Fear of new government
  • Nationalism of petroleum led to decline of
    economic dependence

19
Cuba
  • Former Spanish sugar colony
  • 1868, achieved independence
  • North Americans flooded in
  • 1896, US purchased 87 of Cuban exports

20
Cuba
  • Continuation of racial segregation
    discrimination
  • White supremacy
  • Interracial marriage illegal
  • Created 2 Cubas
  • Spanish cultural ancestor
  • African cultural ancestor
  • African-Cubans began to unite around cultural
    heritage
  • 1890, El Partido Revolucionario Cubano

21
Cuba
  • 1890, El Partido Revolucionario Cubano
  • Women joined independence movement
  • Rebellion widespread
  • Racial divide
  • US fear of spread, occupied 1899-1902
  • Self-governing protectorate
  • Repair destruction improve infrastructure
  • Absorb Cuba into US economic sphere of influence

22
Cuba
  • Rural masses impoverished
  • Factories mills run by imported labor
  • 1905, 1st elections, presidents dependent upon
    the US
  • whitening of Cuba
  • Workers unionized
  • Widespread critique of US economic involvement

23
Cuba
  • WW1 Cuba
  • Sugar boom bust
  • Labor shortage
  • Brought in other laborers
  • By 1919, ½ of sugar mills under control of US
    companies (Coca-Cola, Hersheys, Hires)
  • 1916, sugar 4 cents a pound (exporting 3
    million tons)
  • May 1920, 22.5 cents a pound
  • December 1920, 3.75 cents a pound
  • Defaulted on bank loans

24
Cuba
  • University students (1/4 women) entered
    political arena
  • 1922 began demonstrations
  • Pressed for equal rights, particularly for women

25
Cuba
  • Machado, 1925-1933 (president)
  • Close links to US
  • Neglected womens suffrage promise
  • 1925, strikes stopped with violence
  • Communist leader
  • Continued economic crisis mirrored in political
    unrest
  • 8/12/1933, exiled

26
Cuba
  • Revolution of 1933
  • Sugar workers joined w/ university students,
    Communist
  • Fulgencio Batista overthrew govt ( others)
  • Grau Interlude
  • Labor reform
  • 8 hour day
  • Children from low to university
  • Womens suffrage
  • Land to peasants

27
Cuba
  • Grau Interlude
  • Social impact
  • 7 women congressional representatives
  • 12-week maternity leave
  • Employer provided childcare
  • Illegal to fire women for getting married
  • Alienated US
  • Populist Interlude, 1938-1952

28
Cuba
  • Populist Interlude
  • Batista ruled through puppet presidents then
    himself for 4 years
  • 1940 constitution
  • Protect labor
  • Women equal rights
  • Limited property rights vs. public property

29
Cuba
  • Continuities
  • Economy closely linked to sugar throughout
  • Cycle of corrupt, good ol boy presidents
  • Increasing dissatisfaction

30
Cuba
  • Fidel Castro
  • 1953, led rebels against Batista dictatorship
  • history will absolve me.
  • Women revolutionaries?Mariana grajales
  • Fled in 1956
  • Led guerillas from a distance
  • Batista fled, 1959
  • Prime minister, 1959, 1st secretary of Communist
    party
  • 1960, purged moderates established friendly
    relationships w/ USSR (sugar!)

31
Further Latin American Case Studies
  • Peru
  • Torre, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
    (ARPA)
  • Emulate Mexican Revolution, socialism,
    nationalism, fascism?anti-imperialism,
    nationalistic, nationalize land industries
  • Middle-class support
  • POPULISM?nationalist, anti-establishment

32
Further Latin American Case Studies
  • Brazil
  • Coffee-export economy
  • Crashed in 1929
  • Vargas
  • 1937, new constitution Estado Novo
  • Authoritarian regime
  • Limiting immigration
  • Eliminating opposition parties/regimes

33
Further Latin American Case Studies
  • Brazil
  • Vargas
  • Tried to secure arms trade agreements
  • State-run economy corporatist
  • Nationalized petroleum
  • Joined allies in WW2

34
Further Latin American Case Studies
  • Argentina
  • Dependent on foreign markets investments
  • 1929, economy collapsed, military coup
  • 1943, new coup nationalists
  • Industrialize modernize
  • Peron
  • Sympathy w/ Axis powers
  • Alliances between workers, industrialists,
    military
  • Nationalized RR, telephones, petroleum
  • Radicalized, anti-Catholic church
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