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Ecology

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Title: Ecology


1
Ecology
  • Ecology is the study of interactions among
    organisms and between organisms and their
    environment.

2
Ecology Levels of Organization
Individual Population
Community Ecosystem
Biome Biosphere
3
Ecological Methods
  • Observing simple or complex first step in
    asking ecological questions
  • Experimenting test hypotheses in a lab or in the
    field
  • Modeling gain insight into complex phenomena
    (global warming)

4
Ecological Niche
  • Niche defines an animals
  • lifestyle
  • habitat
  • nutrition
  • foraging
  • territory
  • Niche includes everything
  • an animal does or uses in
  • order to survive.

5
Ecology Energy Flow
  • Every organism needs energy.
  • Sunlight is the main
  • energy source for life.
  • Less than 1 of sunlight is used by organisms.
  • Where does the rest of the sunlight go?

Photograph courtesy philip.greenspun.com
6
Ecology Energy Flow
  • photosynthesis use of light energy to produce
  • carbohydrates
  • autotrophs make their own food.
  • autotrophs are producers
  • Why?

7
Ecology Energy Flow
  • sunlight is not available to all organisms
  • chemosynthesis use of chemical energy to produce
    carbohydrates
  • most chemotrophs are bacteria and algae
  • are they autotrophs?

Deep sea hydrothermal vent worms
8
Ecology Energy Flow
  • autotroph produces its own food
  • heterotroph acquires energy from other organisms
  • What is a producer?
  • What is a consumer?
  • Are heterotrophs producers or consumers?
  • consumers
  • primary
  • secondary
  • tertiary
  • quaternary

9
Ecology Energy Flow
  • heterotrophs are consumers
  • herbivores eat plants
  • carnivores eat meat
  • omnivores eat plants and meat
  • insectivores eat _____________
  • detritivores feed on remains
  • decomposers break down organic matter
  • Where are decomposers in a food chain?

10
Ecology Feeding Relationships
  • Energy flows through an ecosystem in one
    direction (arrows) from the sun or inorganic
    compounds to producers to consumers.
  • Food chain diagram that shows simple feeding
    relationships.
  • Trophic level each step in a food chain
  • All food chains start with a producer.

11
Feeding Relationships
Food Chain
  • squid (tertiary consumer)
  • small fish (secondary consumer)
  • zooplankton (primary consumer)
  • algae (producer)

12
Students be careful!
  • Remember the arrow
  • shows the direction
  • energy flows in an
  • ecosystem.
  • In this example, the
  • Leopard seal eats the
  • penguin and as a result,
  • gets the energy.

13
Ecology Feeding Relationships
  • A food web is a network of complex feeding
    relationships that connects multiple food chains.
  • If one species is lost from a food web, all other
    species are affected.

14
Terrestrial Food Web

15
Aquatic Food Web

16
My Favorite Food Web
Matt Pendley, Buford High School, Buford, GA
17
Ecology Community Interactions
  • Competition when organisms try to use a resource
    in short supply at the same time and same place.

18
Ecology Community Interaction
  • Predation when one organism captures and eats
    another organism.

19
Ecology Community Interaction
  • Symbiosis any relationship in which two species
    live closely together.

20
Ecology Symbiosis
  • Mutualism when both
  • species benefit from the
  • interaction.
  • In this example, the sea
  • anemone is cleaned by
  • the clown fish, who in
  • turn is protected by the
  • anemones stinging
  • tentacles.

21
Ecology Symbiosis
  • Commensalism when
  • one species benefits
  • from the interaction
  • and the host species is
  • unaffected.
  • The leafy plant is an
  • epiphyte, growing on
  • another plant only for
  • support.

22
Ecology Symbiosis
  • Parasitism interaction
  • in which one organism
  • benefits and the other
  • organism (host) is
  • harmed.
  • Does the host die as a
  • result?

Asian tiger mosquito
23
Ecological Pyramids Energy Pyramid(energy flow
in a community)
  • each trophic level represents a different group
    of organisms in a food chain
  • about 10 of the energy available at each trophic
    level is transferred to organisms at the next
    trophic level
  • energy is lost as heat and in life processes

24
Ecological Pyramids Biomass Pyramid
  • biomass is the total amount of living tissue
  • expressed as grams of organic matter per unit
    area
  • biomass pyramid represents the potential amount
    of food available at each trophic level
  • normally the greatest biomass is at the base

25
Ecological Pyramids Numbers Pyramid
  • based on the numbers of individuals at each
    trophic level
  • some number pyramids look like biomass energy
    pyramids, some do not
  • in this example, the oak tree has a large amount
    of energy and biomass, but it is only one organism

26
Laws of Ecology
  • All things are interconnected.
  • Everything goes somewhere.
  • Theres no such thing as a free lunch.
  • Nature bats last.
  • Ecology A Pocket Guide by Ernest Callenbach
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