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Ecology

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Ecology Ch. 3-4 Ecology is the study of homes! What is Ecology? Ecos , or oikos = logos = So ecology is the study of living organisms in their homes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology


1
Ecology
  • Ch. 3-4

2
What is Ecology?
  • Ecos, or oikos
  • logos
  • So ecology is the study of living organisms in
    their homes, or environments.

3
Remember, there are levels of homes!
4
What does an ecologist study?
  • Ecologists study the role of organisms in their
    environment
  • their interactions with biotic and abiotic
    factors
  • the organisms NICHE!

5
The Niche
  • The ecological niche of an organism is the role
    that it plays in the big scheme of the ecosystem.
  • Do mosquitoes have a niche? I know I hate them!

6
What Organisms Want
  • To Eat!
  • To Avoid Being Eaten!
  • To Reproduce!

7
The First Law of Thermodynamics states.
  • that neither matter, nor energy can be created or
    destroyed.
  • It can, however change form.

8
The Flow of Energy in the Biosphere
  • The sun is the source of all energy in the
    biosphere.

9
  • In the biosphere, energy is passed from organism
    to organismby food

10
Producers
  • The foundation of all ecosystems
  • Harvest solar energy and convert it to chemical
    energy.
  • Called producers because
  • These are the autotrophs ____- ________
  • Green plants and the algae make up the largest
    portion of individuals in any ecosystemwhy?

11
Consumers
  • Heterotrophs
  • _____ -________
  • Any organism which feeds off of another organism
    is a heterotroph.
  • There are many levels of consumers

12
Different levels of consumers
13
Different Types of Consumers
  • Herbivores consumers that eat ________.
  • Are, by definition________ consumers
  • Carnivores consumers that eat ______.
  • Are, by definitionat least ________consumers
  • Omnivores consumers that eat ______.
  • Detritovores consumers that eat ______.
  • Are, by definition________ consumers!
  • Worms, beetles, termites
  • Decomposers consumers that eat everyone!
  • Bacteria, fungi

14
Trophic Levels
  • Trophos ___
  • Feeding levels
  • Each step in a food chain is one trophic level

15
Why?
  • One of these food webs is fundamentally
    incorrect

16
The Ten Percent Ruleand Ecological Pyramids
  • Only 10 of the energy at each trophic level is
    available to the nextthe rest is lost largely as
    _________ energy

Numbers pyramid
Energy pyramid
Biomass pyramid
17
The Ten Percent Rule in Action
18
So, How Many Calories Are Available at Each Level?
18,500 Cal.
19
So, How Many Kilograms Are Needed to Support the
Next Level?
25,140 kg
20
Carrying Capacity
  • Every ecosystem has a carrying capacity for the
    populations that live there.

21
Competition in the Ecosystem
  • Competition is ALWAYS based upon some resource
  • Examples
  • The Competitive Exclusion Principle states that
    no two species can occupy exactly the same niche
    at the same time in the same place!

22
Symbiotic Relationships
  • sym
  • bio
  • Relationships in which two organisms live
    together

23
  • Three different types of symbiotic relationships
  • Mutualism both species benefit from the
    relationship EX
  • Commensalism One species benefits and the other
    is unaffected EX
  • Parasitism One species benefits and the other
    is harmed EX

24
Succession
25
Ole Mose and his lunch date!
26
Ocean Food Web
27
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28
  • Cycles video

29
Predation
  • There are predators
  • And there is prey!

30
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31
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32
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33
Environmental Factors
  • Biotic factors
  • Examples
  • Abiotic factors
  • Examples///
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