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Ecosystems and Communities

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Title: Ecosystems and Communities


1
Chapter 4
  • Ecosystems and Communities

2
The Role of the Climate
  • What is climate?
  • The average, year after year conditions of
    temperature and precipitation in a particular
    region
  • What is weather?
  • The day to day condition of the earths
    atmosphere at a particular time and place

3
What Causes Climate?
  • The trapping of heat by the atmosphere
  • The latitude
  • Winds and ocean current (carry heat)
  • Amount of precipitation

4
The Greenhouse Effect
  • What is the greenhouse effect?
  • The natural situation in which heat is retained
    by the layer of greenhouse gases
  • What are greenhouse gases?
  • Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few
    other atmospheric gases that trap heat energy and
    maintain the Earths temperature

5
The Greenhouse Effect
Sunlight
Some heat escapes into space
Greenhouse gases trap some heat
Atmosphere
6
Latitudes Effect on the Climate
  • Earth is tilted on its axis so different areas
    get a a different amount of solar radiation at
    different times of the year
  • Differences of latitude and this angle result in
    3 main climate zones Polar, Temperate, and
    Tropical

7
The Three Main Climate Zones
  • Polar Zones
  • Cold
  • Located at the North and South Poles
  • Temperate Zones
  • Temperature ranges from cold to hot
  • Located between the polar zones
  • Tropical Zone
  • Climate almost always warm
  • Near equator

8
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
  • The Earth is heated unevenly, so this drives
    winds and ocean currents
  • The wind and ocean currents help balance this
    unequal heating

9
Quiz 4-1
  • What are the 3 main climate zones?
  • What are the main factors that determine climate?
  • What is the greenhouse effect?
  • Bonus
  • What is the difference between weather and
    climate?

10
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Remember an ecosystem includes all living and
    nonliving factors
  • Biotic factors are the living factors in the
    community example birds, mushrooms, trees,
    grass.
  • Abiotic Factors are the nonliving factors that
    shape an ecosystem example soil, water,
    sunlight, space, wind.

11
Name the Biotic and Abiotic Factors
12
Shaping an Ecosystem
  • The biotic and abiotic factors determine the
    survival and growth of an organism and the
    productivity of the ecosystem in which the
    organism lives
  • Together these factors determine if an ecosystem
    is a suitable habitat for an organism

13
Habitats and Niches
  • What is a habitat?
  • The area in which the organism lives which
    includes the biotic and abiotic factors
  • Address
  • What is a niche?
  • The full range of physical and biological
    conditions in which an organism lives and the way
    the organism uses those conditions
  • Job

14
Habitat Versus Niche
  • Habitat
  • A gopher tortoise needs pine flatwoods with sandy
    soil
  • Niche
  • A gopher tortoise eats herbaceous plants and
    creates homes in which other organisms live in

15
Habitat Versus Niche
  • A niche will include all aspects of how that
    organism interacts and effects the ecosystem in
    which it lives in
  • Examples Its place in the food web, when it
    reproduces, what biotic and abiotic factors it
    needs to survive, etc

16
Niches and Competition
  • No two species can share the same niche in the
    same habitat (can have similar niches but not the
    same)
  • When this occurs there will be competition

17
Competition
  • Competition occurs when organisms (same or
    different species) attempt to use the same
    resource at the same time and same place
  • What is a resource?
  • Any necessity of life

18
Competition
  • The lion is competing with the vulture for the
    carcass
  • The plants are all competing for space, water,
    sunlight, and nutrients

19
The Competitive Exclusive Principle
  • No two species can occupy the same niche at the
    same time and the same place
  • If this occurs they will compete until there is a
    winner and a loser

20
Types of Relationships in Ecosystems
  • Predation
  • Symbiosis
  • Mutualism
  • Commensalism
  • Parasitism

21
What is Predation?
  • An interaction in which an organism captures and
    feeds on another organism
  • Example Bear eating a fish

22
What is Symbiosis?
  • Any relationship in two species live closely
    together
  • 3 main types
  • Mutualism
  • Commensalism
  • Parasitism

23
Symbiosis
  • Mutualism- Both Benefit
  • Example Bees flowers, ants and aphids
  • Commensalism- One Benefits and the other does
    not benefit
  • Example Moss growing on trees
  • Parasitism- One benefits while the other species
    is harmed
  • Example tapeworm, mosquitoes, fleas

24
Quiz 4-2 A
  • What is the difference between an abiotic factor
    and a biotic factor?
  • What is a niche?
  • What happens if two species have the same niche
    in the same place? (Hint The Competitive
    Exclusive Principle)
  • What are 3 types of symbiosis?
  • Bonus
  • Give an example of mutualism

25
Ecological Succession
  • The gradual change in living communities that
    follows a disturbance
  • The only thing that is constant is change!

26
Ecological Succession
  • A community will gradually change over time
    through a predictable series of changes until it
    reaches a stable point called the climax
    community

27
Ecological Succesion
  • Two types
  • Primary Succession
  • Secondary Succession

28
Primary Succession
  • The development of a community that occurs on
    bare rock or where no soil exists (Volcanic
    eruptions)
  • When you start there is no soil
  • The first species to populate the area are called
    pioneer species
  • These are usually lichen

29
Primary Succession
30
Secondary Succession
  • The sequential replacement of species that
    follows a disturbance
  • Disturbances can include fires, floods, logging,
    a fallen tree
  • Disturbance can be good!
  • Disturbances open up resources for other plants
    or organisms to use

31
Importance of Fire in Florida
  • The majority of Florida is made up of pine
    forests
  • Pine trees need lots of light
  • Disturbances will kill off competing vegetation
    and allow pine trees to reproduce

32
Importance of Fire in Florida
  • Prescribed fires help prevent wildfires
  • Promotes biodiversity
  • Kills pests (ticks, etc)
  • REMEMBER Fire a natural part of our ecosystem

33
Biomes
  • What is a biome?
  • A group of ecosystems that have the same climate
    and dominant communities
  • Organisms are adapted to live in certain biomes

34
What Creates a Biome?
  • The climate
  • The soil
  • The communities that inhabit it

35
Organisms Tolerance
  • Many organisms are adapted to the conditions of
    the biome
  • They have tolerance
  • Ability to survive and reproduce under conditions
    that differ from their optimal conditions

36
The Major Biomes
  • Tropical rain forest
  • Tropical dry forest
  • Tropical savanna
  • Desert
  • Temperate grassland
  • Temperate woodland and shrubland
  • Temperate forest
  • Northwestern coniferous forest
  • Boreal forest
  • Tundra

37
Questions?
  • No problem can be solved by the same
    consciousness that created it. We need to see the
    world anew.
  • Albert Einstein

38
Quiz 4.2B
  • What is the difference between primary and
    secondary succession?
  • What is a pioneer species?
  • What is tolerance?
  • Bonus
  • Why is fire important to Florida?
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