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11/24/09 International Cooperation on Sustainable Development

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Title: 11/24/09 International Cooperation on Sustainable Development


1
11/24/09International Cooperation on Sustainable
Development
  • Dr. Kazi F. Jalal
  • Faculty, Harvard Extension School

2
Lecture outline
  • Why cooperation?
  • United Nations System
  • Civil Society Peoples Earth Charter
  • Private Sector Corporate Sustainability
  • Local Governments NGOs Case Studies

3
Global Sustainable Development Activities
FINANCING INSTITUTIONS
UN SYSTEM
COMMITTEES
CONFERENCES
OTHER
UNDP
FAO
PRIVATE ORGs
UNEP
NGOs
DIESA
Sustainable Development Concept, Operation,
Capacity Building, Coordination, Monitoring,
Financing, Advocacy
UNCSD
RCs
IACSD
WHO
GLOBAL CONFERENCES
WTO
IFAD
BILATERALS
RDBs
WORLD BANK
5
4
United Nations System
  • Complicated structure
  • Six principal organs
  • Many agencies and bodies

5
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6
Organizations and Entities Involved
  1. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program)
  2. UNDP (United Nations Development Program)
  3. FAO (Food Agriculture Organization)
  4. ILO (International Labor Organization)
  5. UNESCO (United Nations Education Scientific
    Cultural Organization)
  6. WHO (World Health Organization)
  7. WMO (World Meteorological Organization)
  8. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)
  9. WB (World Bank)

7
Organizations and Entities
  1. WTO (World Trade Organization)
  2. UN/DESA (United Nations Department of Economic
    Social Affairs)
  3. UNICEF (United Nations Childrens Fund)
  4. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of
    Nature)
  5. WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature)
  6. UNCSD (United Nations Commission for Sustainable
    Development)
  7. IACSD (Interagency Committee on Sustainable
    Development)
  8. Others RDBs / IFAD / Bilaterals / NGPs / Private
    Foundations

8
  • 191 Countries (out of 195)
  • 109 Heads of State/Government
  • 18000 Official Delegates
  • 50000? Total Delegates

PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS AUGUST
2002 www.johannesburgsummit.org
9
WSSD OUTCOME
  • UN Officials
  • Modestly Successful
  • NGO Activists
  • Glamour event without substance
  • There is not single shining outcome
  • Teetering between qualified success and outright
    failure
  • Lack of meaningful targets and commitments
  • One Head of State
  • Dialogue of the deaf

10
World Summit Negotiation ,2002
  • AFRICAN delegation did not know what FOOD meant
  • W.EUROPEAN. SHORTAGE..
  • E.EUROPEAN.. OPINION
  • MIDDLE EASTERN. SOLUTION
  • SOUTH AMERICAN.PLEASE
  • ASIAN GOVERNMENT..
  • AMERICAN REST OF THE WORLD
  • UNITED NATIONS. BRIEF.

11
Positive Outcomes
  • Entrenchment of concept
  • Improving global governance
  • Reiterating political will of governments
  • Target setting with technical and financial
    commitments
  • Type 1 agreements
  • Type 2 agreements

12
Outcome of WSSD
  • A political declaration
  • Support for democracy, rule of law human
    rights
  • Agreement to alleviate poverty environmental
    degradation
  • Commitment to food security, water availability
    and sanitation
  • Agree that private sector should ensure corporate
    responsibility
  • An action program on
  • Water sanitation energy human health
    agriculture biodiversity
  • Cross-cutting issues (phasing out all forms of
    subsidies global fund)

13
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14
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15
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16
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17
Reform Revitalization of Global Organizations
  1. UN Charter Change
  2. Use Trusteeship Council
  3. Use Security Council
  4. Create World Environment Organization (WEO)
  5. Revitalize World Trade Organization (WTO)
  6. Reform International Financing Institutions (IFI)
  7. Strengthen Coordination of existing organizations

17
18
Earth Charter (EC) A Civil Society Initiative
  • Our Common Future (1987) Concept
  • Earth Summit (1992) Framework
  • -Maurice Strong Mikhael Gorbachev with Dutch
    support (1994) Launched initiative
  • - EC Commission (1997) First draft
  • EC Commission (1999) Second draft
  • EC Commission (2000) Launched EC
  • EC recognized (2002) WCSD, Johannesburg
  • _____________________________________
  • www.earthcharterinaction.org

19
Peoples Earth Charter Principles
  • .Respect and Care for the Community of Life
  • 1. Respect Earth and life in all its diversity
  • 2. Care for the community of life with
    understanding, compassion, and love
  • 3. Build democratic societies that are just,
    participatory, sustainable, and peaceful.
  • 4. Secure Earths bounty and beauty for present
    and future generations

19
20
Peoples Earth Charter Principles
  • . Ecological Integrity
  • 5. Protect and restore the integrity of Earths
    ecological systems, with special concern for
    biological diversity and the natural processes
    that sustain life.
  • 6. Prevent harm as the best method of
    environmental protection and, when knowledge is
    limited, apply a precautionary approach.
  • 7. Adopt patterns of production, consumption, and
    reproduction that safeguard Earths regenerative
    capacities, human rights, and community
    well-being.
  • 8. Advance the study of ecological sustainability
    and promote open exchange and wide application of
    the knowledge acquired.

9
21
Peoples Earth Charter Principles
  • . Social and Economic Justice
  • 9. Eradicate poverty as a social and
    environmental imperative.
  • 10. Ensure that economic activities and
    institutions at all levels promote human
    development in an equitable and sustainable
    manner.
  • 11. Affirm gender equality and equity as
    prerequisites to sustainable development and
    ensure universal access to education, health
    care, and economic opportunity.
  • 12. Uphold the right of all, without
    discrimination, to a natural and social
    environment supportive of human dignity, bodily
    health, and spiritual well-being.

22
Peoples Earth Charter Principles
  • . Democracy, Non-Violence, and Peace
  • 13. Strengthen democratic institutions at all
    levels, and provide transparency and
    accountability in governance, inclusive
    participation in decision-making, and access to
    justice.
  • 14. Integrate into formal education and life-long
    learning the knowledge, values and skills needed
    for a sustainable way of life.
  • 15. Treat all living beings with respect and
    consideration.
  • 16. Promote a culture of tolerance, non-violence,
    and peace.

23
Private Sector Corporate Sustainability
  • Private sector has been playing a significant
    role in promoting sustainable development

24
Corporate Sustainability
  • Corporate sustainability is a business approach
    that creates long-term shareholder value by
    embracing opportunities and managing risks
    deriving from economic ,environmental and social
    developments (-Wikipedia)

25
CS program for industriesConstructed from The
Natural Step for Business (1999),p-16
Time horizon Corporate response Industry goals
lt 1970 Era of no action No goal
1970-80 Reactive/compliance Follow regulatory stds.
1980-90 Anticipatory Cost avoidance/ Impact reduction.
1990-2000 Proactive, social response added Profit maximization Eco-efficiency Social benefits
2000-2010 Integrated Peo/planet/profit
26
World Business Council for Sustainable
Development (WBCSD)
  • Founded in 1995 by Swiss businessman (Stephen
    Schmidheiny) under the patronage of the UN, WBCSD
    is a CEO-led ,global association of some 200
    international corporations throughout the globe.
    Among its members areGM,DuPont,3M, Deutsche
    Bank, Coca- Cola, Sony ,BP, Wall Mart, Royal
    Dutch Shell.
  • Council provides platform for companies to
    promote corporate sustainability.
  • A 2003 WB/IFC study found WBCSD as one of the
    most influential forums for companies on
    corporate sustainability issues
  • WBCSD disseminates ten messages to corporations
  • (i) business is good for sustainable development
    and vice-versa
  • (ii) business can not succeed in societies that
    fail
  • (iii) poverty is a key enemy to stable society
  • (iv) access to markets for all supports
    sustainable development
  • (v) good governance is needed to make business
    apart of the solution
  • (vi) accountability, ethics, transparency,
    environmental and social responsibility and
    trust are basic pre-requisites of successful
    business
  • (vii) innovation and technology development are
    crucial to sustainability of business
  • (viii) eco-efficiency doing more with less- is
    at the core of the business case for sustainable
    development
  • (ix) ecosystem in balance a prerequisite for
    business
  • (x) cooperation beats confrontation
    confrontation puts the solution at risk
    cooperation and creative partnership foster
    corporate sustainability

27
Ten steps to achieve CS
  • 1.Make sustainability as a company vision
  • 2.Formulate a sustainability strategy
  • 3.Embed sustainability in every part of business
  • 4.Walk the Talk (action speak over words)
  • 5.Set-up a powerful body
  • 6.Establish a code of conduct
  • 7.Join sustainability network
  • 8.Bring stakeholders on board
  • 9.Think beyond reporting
  • 10. Use peoples power
  • ______________________________________________
  • Corporate Sustainability- Its About
    Attitude(2008) www.enn.com/business/article/31186

28
CS Ranking of the SP500 companies(undertaken by
TSI)
  • Ranking criteria assumptions
  • 1. Customers deserve high quality products,
    complete information,remeadies for problems and
    respect
  • 2. Employees deserve dignity, fair and
    non-discriminatory wage, work in a safe
    environment and to associate freely
  • 3. Owners Investors deserve fair and
    competitive return, transparent operations an
    appropriate voice in corporate governance
  • 4. Suppliers deserve mutual respect
    long-term stability in turn for value, quality,
    competitiveness and employment practices that
    respect human dignity
  • 5.Competitors deserve fair respectful
    competition
  • 6. Communities deserve the support of
    public policies that promote human development
    and raise the standards of health and safety,
    education and economic and social well-being
  • 7. The Environment deserves protection
    improvement through sustainable business
    practices
  • 8. Fundamental duties In addition to
    measuring impact on seven specific stakeholders,
    the ranking methodology also address the
    fundamental duties of a company best captured by
    trust and transparency in terms of the companys
    adherence to international standards, its
    commitment to information dissemination, fair
    trade practices and ethical behavior.
  • 2/190-194

29
United Nations Global CompactUN Global Compact
is a framework for business that are committed to
align their operations and strategies with ten
principles in the areas of human rights, labor,
the environment and business malpractice. The
Global Compact is neither mandatory nor
regulatory. At the World Economic Forum in Davos
in 1999, the SG/UNchallenged the world business
leaders to embrace and enact the Global
Compact. UN Global Compact is a purely voluntary
initiative with two primary objectives
(1)Mainstream the ten principles into the
business practices around the globe and
(2)catalyze actions into the broader UN goals
  • TEN PRINCIPLES OF GLOBAL COMPACT
  • Human Rights
  • Support and respect for the protection of
    universal human rights
  • Refusal to participate or condone human rights
    abuses
  • Labor
  • 3 . Support of freedom of association and
    collective bargaining
  • Abolition of forced labor
  • Abolition of child labor
  • Elimination of discrimination in employment
  • Environment
  • Implementation of precautionary principle
  • Initiatives demonstrating environmental
    responsibility
  • Promotion of environmentally friendly
    technologies
  • Business malpractices
  • 10. Initiatives to counter all forms of
    corruption ,including extortion and bribery

30
Ten ways to green your brandby Matt Heinz
(2008) www.imediaconnection.comCorporate
America,in its quest for attracting more
customers and increase market share has jumped
into the green bandwagon in the recent years.
Matt Heinz author of several books on the subject
says there are 10 ways to keep companies green
  • Internal
  • Recycling (not only papers but also wastes and
    equipments)
  • Transportation (public transport, car pool,
    audio/video conferencing)
  • Power management (electricity, pc power, motion
    sensors)
  • Office guidelines (use soft copies, default all
    printers encourage all employees to go green )
  • Supplier Partner guidelines (require
    environment-friendly operating standards)
  • External
  • Community engagement activation (Encourage
    customers community to follow same guidelines
    as the company)
  • Community participation (Encourage community
    participation in environment-friendly activities
    allocate some budget)
  • Channel choices (choose green marketing channels
    such as trade show, community activities to
    demonstrate products services )
  • s) Competitive advantage (Encourage all
    departments of the company to follow green
    practices and mantras)
  • Endorsements associations (Partner with green
    businesses such as energy star, buy products with
    environmental reputation)

31
Green Business CertificationAs more corporations
aspire to display green flags, a whole set of
organizations are being formed to fill the
certification needs. However, they vary in their
rigor and depth there is no consistency and no
national authority in USA in-charge of setting
standard practice for green business certification
  • Some Recent Contenders
  • American Consumer Council (ACC) Green C
    certification program started in June 2008
    (President CEO Tom Hilton). It is a non-profit
    org. based in San Diego cost 3000-5000 for 3
    years RegionUS(2008), Worldwide (2009)
    Criteria (1) pollution, waste management waste
    prevention (2) energy and water use efficiency
    (3)employee,supplier and consumer education and
    societal impact Process application, review
    and on-site inspection
  • EarthRight Business Institute of Park City, Utah
    has just launched a EarthRight Eco-Friendly
    Business Certification Program Cost 1000 -
    40,000 depending upon company revenue annual
    review RegionUS
  • CriteriaCompliance with
    EIA,Sustainability plan, executive commitment,
    green team,monitoring program, meeting reduction
    targets for emissions and resources Process
    Application with supporting documentation,
    management employee interview, facility
    inspection
  • 3. Bay Area Green Business Program has a
    certification program Regionavailable only to
    companies located in San Francisco Bay area
    launched first in 1996 Cost Free Criteria
    regulatory compliance, pollution prevention,waste
    reduction, energy water conservation Process
    Application verified by a utility or regulatory
    agency.
  • www.greenbiz.com

32
Influence of CS on people
  • US 45
  • UK 42
  • Italy 35
  • France 34
  • Germany 28
  • Spain 26
  • ___________________________
  • Consumers who have chosen to buy product/service
    because of companys cs reputation (based on 1000
    sample survey per market). From A New Mindset
    for CS-a study co-sponsored by BT CISCO (2006)

33
Case studies on Sustainable Development
  • Examples from Asia
  • Sustainable development in Asia
  • ADB(2000) Smith Jalal

34
Rainwater Harvesting in Alwar, Rajasthan,
Indialargest mobilization of people for
environmental regeneration
  • Problem
  • Drought-stricken villages with dry wells and a
    low water table
  • Project
  • In the mid-1980s, Tarun Bharat Singh, a local
    voluntary organization, assisted a village in
    building 3 small rain water harvesting structures
    called check dams. Check dams store monsoon
    rains, irrigate fields, and allow water to
    percolate through the ground to increase water
    table.

Source Agarwal et al, 1999 Agarwal and Narain,
1999
35
Rainwater Harvesting in Alwar, Rajasthan, India
  • Progress
  • Now 3,000 water harvesting structures in 650
    villages.
  • Villagers and TBS regenerated 6,500 m2 of land.
  • Groundwater tables have increased by 6 m on
    average.
  • Forest cover increased by 33
  • 5 formerly seasonally dry rivers flow perennially
  • Agriculture is more productive and
    self-sustaining
  • Average annual per capita income increased by
    19.78
  • For every dollar invested in check dams, economic
    production in villages increased by 4.20.

Source Agarwal et al, 1999 Agarwal and Narain,
1999
36
Rainwater Harvesting in Alwar, Rajasthan, India
  • Social Impact
  • Project has helped reverse some of the negative
    social impacts associated with environmental
    degradation. As a result, there is
  • reduced migration
  • increased attendance in schools
  • reduced crime rates
  • increased participation of women in village
    decisions

Source Agarwal et al, 1999 Agarwal and Narain,
1999
37
Improved Cook-stoves Program in the Peoples
Republic of China
  • Background
  • Initiated in the early 1980s, covered almost 76
    of rural households after 15 years of
    implementation without any direct government
    subsidy.
  • Strategies
  • Work began in areas where people showed desire
    for improved cook-stoves.
  • Research and development were geared toward
    designing stoves to match local conditions of
    fuel, cooking, and heating needs.

Source Parikh et al, 1999 Yao, 1999 Natarajan
1999
38
Improved Cook-stoves Program in the Peoples
Republic of China
  • Strategies
  • Regular, systematic, and consistent monitoring
    and evaluation have been an integral part of the
    program since its inception.
  • Government contributions are small (about 15)
    and restricted to training, administration, and
    promotion
  • Flow of money between bureaucratic levels is
    minimal.
  • Production of the critical parts of the
    combustion chamber is centralized to ensure
    long-term, high-efficiency stove performance.

Source Parikh et al, 1999 Yao, 1999 Natarajan
1999
39
Corporate Synergy Systems in Taipei, China
  • Objective
  • To promote clean production in supply chains
    consisting of small and medium-sized enterprises
    using the corporate synergy system management
    approach.
  • Corporate synergy systems are initiated under
    leadership of large companies, where upstream
    suppliers and downstream buyers are organized to
    achieve common goals. Central firms of a CSS rank
    and reward the suppliers in the chain.

Source Chiu et al, 1999 van Berkel and Krygar,
1994
40
Corporate Synergy Systems in Taipei, China
  • CSS in Action
  • Cheng-Loong Paper Manufacturing Company organized
    CSS program with
  • 2 Central Firms
  • 10 upstream suppliers that provide waste paper,
    machinery, chemicals, energy, transportation
    services
  • 3 downstream buyers who are suppliers
  • 90 of participating firms were small and
    medium-sized enterprises

Source Chiu et al, 1999 van Berkel and Krygar,
1994
41
Corporate Synergy Systems in Taipei, China
  • Results
  • Cheng-Loong system implemented 868 clean
    production options in 13 months.
  • Participating firms invested 991,000 in clean
    production measures, resulting in annual benefit
    of 3.5 million.

Source Chiu et al, 1999 van Berkel and Krygar,
1994
42
Case Studies Lessons Learned
  • At the grassroots level, necessary conditions for
    SUSTAINABILITY of DEVELOPMENT are
  • Well targeted programs (in terms of area
    population)
  • Minimum bureaucracy
  • Supportive role of the government
  • Active role of the community, NGO, and private
    sector
  • Stakeholders responsibility and sense of
    ownership
  • Strategy for commercialization
  • Replication of success stories

43
Case Studies Results Achieved
  • People (particularly the marginalized groups)
    derived economic and environmental benefits
  • Investments are paid off over a short period of
    time
  • Occupational hazards were minimized
  • Cooperation and understanding between affected
    communities, NGOs, and private sector increased
  • Market and policy failures were minimized
  • Development became meaningful and sustainable.
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