Mass Society in an Age of Progress - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Mass Society in an Age of Progress


1
Mass Society in an Age of Progress
FIFI
  • 1871 - 1894

2
Main Points
  • Era of significant material prosperity and
    progress
  • Second Industrial Revolution reinforces faith in
    materialism
  • Mass Society emerges with this broad urban,
    industrial and economic growth
  • Era of increased democracy and the triumph of
    liberalism
  • New ideas of mass politics, propaganda and mass
    press

3
Growth of Industrial Prosperity
  • After 1871, new technology and industrial
    developments triggered Second Industrial
    Revolution
  • First IR focused on textiles, coal, iron and RR
  • Second focused on steel, chemicals, electricity,
    and petroleum

4
New Products, New Markets
  • Substitution of steel for iron (Bessemer Process
    and Gilchrist Process)
  • Chemical production Germany surpasses GB (soap,
    paper, dyes, film)
  • Electricity
  • T. Edison (1847-1931) and Joseph Swan light
    bulb
  • A.G. Bell (1847-1922) telephone, 1876
  • G. Marconi (1874-1937) radio waves across the
    Atlantic, 1901
  • Transformation of factories to electrical power

5
New Products, New Markets
  • Internal combustion engine and petroleum power
  • Automobile and airplane
  • Daimler (1886) engine
  • H. Ford (1863-1947) mass production
  • Zeppelin airship, 1900
  • Wright brothers, 1903

6
Evolution of the Zeppelin
to a reallybigexplodingGermanZeppelin
From the very first Zeppelin
to the virile progenitors of heavy metal Zeppelin
to the Viagra-dependent Zeppelin!
7
New Products, New Markets
Marconis radio (1901) Daimlers internal
combustion engine in the first motorcycle (1885)
8
New Products, New Markets
  • New markets
  • Increased wages and elevated standard of living
  • Competition
  • Advertisement
  • Tariffs
  • Cartels (Rhenish Westphalian Coal Syndicate)
  • Precision tools/interchangeable parts and
    assembly line

9
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • Depression, 1873-1895 falling prices, business
    slump
  • Economic boom after 1895
  • La belle époque
  • German Industrial Leadership
  • Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader
    of Europe
  • New areas of manufacturing emphasis on
    scientific and technological education

10
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • Europes two economic zones Industrial and
    Agricultural
  • Advance industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium
    France, the Netherlands, Germany, western part of
    the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and northern Italy
  • Little industrial development in southern Italy,
    most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the
    Balkan kingdoms, and Russia
  • Development of world economy caused many
    agricultural areas to specialize due to an
    abundance of grain

11
Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914
12
Women and Work
  • Right to work
  • Ideal of domesticity/cult of domesticity vs.
    reality of financial need
  • Sweatshops and slopwork and factory
    restrictions
  • White-Collar Jobs
  • Increased white-collar jobs created shortage of
    male workers opening up opportunities for women
  • Secretaries, teachers, clerks, telephone
    operators, nurses
  • Freedom from domestic patterns
  • Prostitution
  • Contagious Diseases Acts of 1870s and 1880s
  • Government penalizes prostitutes, not Johns
  • Josephine Butlers Shrieking Sisters
  • Repeal of the acts in 1886

13
Women and Work
Female telephone operators French prostitutes
Why didnt they just wash the muff?
14
Organizing the Working Class
  • Growing numbers of workers they wanted their
    voices heard and developed labor unions and
    political parties
  • Socialist Parties in Germany
  • German Social Democratic Party (SPD) 1875 most
    prominent socialist party why in Germany?
  • Liebknecht and Bebel Marxist rhetoric
  • Socialist Parties in France
  • Variety of socialist parties
  • Jean Juares rejects Marxism in favor of model
    from French Revolution
  • Effects of the growth of socialist parties
    Belgium, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland,
    Romania and Russia
  • Second International (1889) and International
    Labor Day 5/1

15
Organizing the Working Class
  • Two divisive issues Revisionism and Nationalism
  • Evolutionary Socialism vs. Marxism
  • Bebel and Marxism
  • Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) and Revisionism
  • Nationalism
  • The working man has no country (?)
  • Many like Marx favored international approach but
    nationalism was a powerful force!

16
Organizing the Working Class
  • Formation of labor unions
  • Right to strike
  • Replacement of violent upheaval with collective
    bargaining
  • Strong ties to socialist parties why?
  • Anarchism
  • Initially a peaceful movement
  • Bakunins approach more violence
  • Use of assassination

17
Contrasting Political Viewpoints
Gradual change!
Destroy the state!
VIOLENT REVOLUTION!
And shoot someone!
Bebel We aim in the domain of politics at
republicanism in the domain of economics at
socialism in the domain of what is today called
religion, at atheism. Bernstein "The Communist
Manifesto was correctbutwe see the privileges
of the capitalist bourgeoisie yieldingto
democratic organizationsIn my judgmentsuccess
lies in a steady advancethan ina catastrophic
clash. Bakunin If there is a State, then there
is domination, and in turn, there is slavery.
18
Emergence of Mass Society
  • Population Growth
  • 270 mil to 460 mil from 1850-1910!
  • Decline in the death rate
  • Medical discoveries and environmental conditions
  • Improved publication sanitation
  • Improved nutrition
  • Increased emigration to urban areas and to US
  • Opportunity for employment
  • Need to escape persecution

19
  • Population Growth in Europe, 1820-1900

20
The Urban Environment
  • Growth of cities / Urbanization
  • Urban Reformers and Improved Living Conditions
  • Edwin Chadwick, Rudolf Virchow
  • Pointed to relationship between living conditions
    and disease
  • Boards of Health established
  • Buildings begin to be inspected for problems
  • Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain
  • Clean water into the city
  • Expulsion of sewage

21
Transformation of the Urban Environment
  • Housing Needs
  • Reformer-philanthropists focused on relationship
    of living conditions to political and moral
    health of the nation
  • Victor A. Huber, German reformer no more SLUMS!
  • Octavia Hill personal investment in housing
  • Lord Leverhulme Port Sunlight and his soap
    factory
  • Ebenezer Howard Letchward Garden City
  • Garden City Movement
  • Redesigning the cities British Housing Act of
    1890
  • Construct new buildings, reconfigure spaces
  • Cheap modern transportation urban sprawl,
    suburbs
  • Liberal principles of government dont hold true

22
Transformation of the Urban Environment
Slum housing Lord Levelhulmes houses for his
employees at Port Sunlight Village the visual
concept for the Garden City Movement
23
Social Structure of Mass Society
  • The Elite
  • 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to
    40 percent of wealth
  • Alliance of wealthy business elite and
    traditional aristocracy
  • Common bonds
  • The Middle Classes
  • Stratification Upper middle class, middle
    middle-class, lower middle-class
  • Professionals
  • White-collar workers
  • Middle class values came to dominate society and
    culture
  • The Lower classes
  • 80 percent of the European population
  • Agriculture
  • Urban working class stratification Skilled,
    semiskilled, unskilled workers

24
Social Structure of Mass Society
The elite, the urban poor and the rural poor
25
The Woman Question
  • There were increased job opportunities for women
  • However, many women still aspired to the ideal of
    femininity
  • Marriage was the only honorable and/or available
    career
  • Lord Tennysons The Princess
  • Man is the hunter woman is his gameThe sleek
    and shining creatures of the chase,We hunt them
    for the beauty of their skinsThey love us for
    it, and we ride them down.
  • Pt. V, l. 147-150.
  • Man for the field and woman for the hearthMan
    for the sword and for the needle sheMan with
    the head and woman with the heartMan to command
    and woman to obeyAll else confusion.
  • Pt. V, l. 427-431.

26
The Family and Family Life
  • Cult of Domesticity glorified
  • Before increased job opportunities, women had to
    marry out of financial necessity
  • Most women chose to marry, however lowering
    illegitimacy, but so did
  • Family Planning
  • Family size limited (contraception vulcanized
    rubber)
  • Dr. Aletta Jacob first birth control clinic in
    Amsterdam 1882
  • Those who could afford children used birth
    control those who could not often didnt
  • Many spoke out against birth control

27
The Middle Class Family
  • Family was a central institution
  • Men income
  • Women household, socials, needlepoint the
    more idle the better!
  • Domestic Servants housework/cooking
  • 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible
    to live on the husbands wages
  • Leisure time due to higher wages and reduced work
    week
  • Holiday traditions
  • Gender-based activities, toys for children

28
The Working Class Family
  • Wages improved to allow younger children NOT to
    work, and even more women were staying at home
    like middle class
  • Consumer goods sewing machines, stoves,
    bicycles provided goals to work toward
  • Saturday leisure
  • Compulsory education removed children from
    factories and put them in schools

29
Education and Leisure
  • Schools
  • Gymnasium (Secondary Schools)
  • Secondary (University) for wealthy and later,
    middle class
  • Needed compulsory education for informed voting
    public and national pride!
  • Germany had 1st public education system early
    19th century
  • By 1870s more school requirements
  • Impact on literacy
  • Growth of publications

30
Education and Leisure
  • Second IR decimated village life of past long
    holidays didnt mesh with industrial pace
  • Shorter work days/weeks more leisure!
  • Machines to do housework more leisure!
  • Rail travel to resorts and Tourism (Thomas Cook)
  • Music and dance halls
  • Organized sports
  • Amusement Parks

31
Early Days of Sport
Rugby in Britain Football (Soccer) in Genoa
32
Ferris Wheel Old School
Weeeee!
Life sucks for us!
33
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • With the exception of Spain and Italy,
    parliamentary control of the governments of
    western Europe were able to push for liberal
    reforms.
  • Great Britain and Gladstones Reforms
  • Reform Act of 1884
  • Redistribution Act
  • Salaries to members of the House of Commons

34
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • Irish Question
  • Act of Union 1801 and the impact of nationalism
  • Gladstones attempt at land reform
  • Failure of Home Rule Bills of 1886 and 1893
  • Irish Protestants in Ulster (N. Ireland) vs.
    Catholics

35
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • France in turmoil
  • Defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led to the
    downfall of Emperor Louis Napoleon III.
  • Bismarck required defeated France to choose their
    new government by UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE, though
    the French Republicans had set up a provisional
    government
  • Once put to vote, the French public rejected the
    republican government and elected a majority of
    monarchists for the new National Assembly!

36
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • France in turmoil
  • Radical republicans rebel Paris Commune
    established
  • National Assembly brutally puts down the commune
    after a month of nasty street fighting
  • Louise Michel and the role of women
  • Outcome broadened the rift between middle and
    working class already begun in 1848-9 revolutions

37
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • France in turmoil
  • Monarchists failure to choose a king
  • Ineffective leadership opens door for republic to
    prevail
  • By 1875, Third Republic born. 1st? 2nd?
  • Republicans come to dominate Chamber of Deputies
  • Resistance to the Third Republic and the
    Boulanger Affair

38
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • Spain and Italy
  • Spain remains conservative and brutally
    suppresses outbursts of socialists and anarchists
  • Italy, the Ethiopia humiliation, and the rift
    between industrialists and working class

39
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Germany
  • Established legislature as well as universal male
    suffrage, yet still remained an authoritarian and
    conservative regime
  • Bicameral legislature Bundesrat and Reichstag
  • Role of Chancellor and persistence of
    Junker-dominated military hierarchy

40
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Germany a power struggle
  • Bismarck
  • Kulturkampf and playing to liberals
  • Bismarcks conservative backlash in 1878
  • Outlawing SDP
  • Social Welfare Legislation (?)
  • Failure to curb growth of SDP and desire to use
    undemocratic, repressive measures to obliterate
    them
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Desire to rule alone
  • Role of Kaiser made secure by Bismarck
  • Dissatisfaction with Bismarcks failure to win
    over the workers and stop spread of SDP
  • Bismarcks dismissal in 1890

41
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Austria
  • Ausgleich created dual monarchy 1867 with
    constitution and parliament, but Emperor Francis
    Joseph undermined its authority
  • Ethnic minority problem
  • Edward von Taaffe as PM (1879-1893)
  • Concessions to minorities anger German-speaking
    bureaucracy
  • Francis Joseph used Catholicism to keep people
    together
  • Universal male suffrage 1907

42
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Hungary
  • More effective parliament but dominated by Magyar
    landowners
  • Forced Magyarization
  • Ethnic tensions

43
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Russia
  • No concessions or liberal democratic reforms
  • Assassination of Alexander II made his son
    Alexander III reactionary
  • Secret police, power of Zemstovs curtailed
  • Industrialization would force inevitable change

44
In Summary
  • This era the Second Industrial Revolution and
    the wealth it brought, brought with is great
    prosperity and a higher standard of living.
  • Education, the right to vote, higher pay, better
    healthcare and living conditions coupled with
    technological advancements gave people more
    leisure time, and with this, they took vacations,
    joined social clubs, attended performances, and
    played on teams.
  • A people participated more in government, they
    came to rely increasingly on the national state
    to take care of the population, and peoples
    pride in their national identity continued to
    grow, triggering a wave of intense nationalism
    and competitive international rivalries.
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Mass Society in an Age of Progress

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Title: Mass Society in an Age of Progress


1
Mass Society in an Age of Progress
FIFI
  • 1871 - 1894

2
Main Points
  • Era of significant material prosperity and
    progress
  • Second Industrial Revolution reinforces faith in
    materialism
  • Mass Society emerges with this broad urban,
    industrial and economic growth
  • Era of increased democracy and the triumph of
    liberalism
  • New ideas of mass politics, propaganda and mass
    press

3
Growth of Industrial Prosperity
  • After 1871, new technology and industrial
    developments triggered Second Industrial
    Revolution
  • First IR focused on textiles, coal, iron and RR
  • Second focused on steel, chemicals, electricity,
    and petroleum

4
New Products, New Markets
  • Substitution of steel for iron (Bessemer Process
    and Gilchrist Process)
  • Chemical production Germany surpasses GB (soap,
    paper, dyes, film)
  • Electricity
  • T. Edison (1847-1931) and Joseph Swan light
    bulb
  • A.G. Bell (1847-1922) telephone, 1876
  • G. Marconi (1874-1937) radio waves across the
    Atlantic, 1901
  • Transformation of factories to electrical power

5
New Products, New Markets
  • Internal combustion engine and petroleum power
  • Automobile and airplane
  • Daimler (1886) engine
  • H. Ford (1863-1947) mass production
  • Zeppelin airship, 1900
  • Wright brothers, 1903

6
Evolution of the Zeppelin
to a reallybigexplodingGermanZeppelin
From the very first Zeppelin
to the virile progenitors of heavy metal Zeppelin
to the Viagra-dependent Zeppelin!
7
New Products, New Markets
Marconis radio (1901) Daimlers internal
combustion engine in the first motorcycle (1885)
8
New Products, New Markets
  • New markets
  • Increased wages and elevated standard of living
  • Competition
  • Advertisement
  • Tariffs
  • Cartels (Rhenish Westphalian Coal Syndicate)
  • Precision tools/interchangeable parts and
    assembly line

9
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • Depression, 1873-1895 falling prices, business
    slump
  • Economic boom after 1895
  • La belle époque
  • German Industrial Leadership
  • Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader
    of Europe
  • New areas of manufacturing emphasis on
    scientific and technological education

10
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • Europes two economic zones Industrial and
    Agricultural
  • Advance industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium
    France, the Netherlands, Germany, western part of
    the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and northern Italy
  • Little industrial development in southern Italy,
    most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the
    Balkan kingdoms, and Russia
  • Development of world economy caused many
    agricultural areas to specialize due to an
    abundance of grain

11
Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914
12
Women and Work
  • Right to work
  • Ideal of domesticity/cult of domesticity vs.
    reality of financial need
  • Sweatshops and slopwork and factory
    restrictions
  • White-Collar Jobs
  • Increased white-collar jobs created shortage of
    male workers opening up opportunities for women
  • Secretaries, teachers, clerks, telephone
    operators, nurses
  • Freedom from domestic patterns
  • Prostitution
  • Contagious Diseases Acts of 1870s and 1880s
  • Government penalizes prostitutes, not Johns
  • Josephine Butlers Shrieking Sisters
  • Repeal of the acts in 1886

13
Women and Work
Female telephone operators French prostitutes
Why didnt they just wash the muff?
14
Organizing the Working Class
  • Growing numbers of workers they wanted their
    voices heard and developed labor unions and
    political parties
  • Socialist Parties in Germany
  • German Social Democratic Party (SPD) 1875 most
    prominent socialist party why in Germany?
  • Liebknecht and Bebel Marxist rhetoric
  • Socialist Parties in France
  • Variety of socialist parties
  • Jean Juares rejects Marxism in favor of model
    from French Revolution
  • Effects of the growth of socialist parties
    Belgium, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland,
    Romania and Russia
  • Second International (1889) and International
    Labor Day 5/1

15
Organizing the Working Class
  • Two divisive issues Revisionism and Nationalism
  • Evolutionary Socialism vs. Marxism
  • Bebel and Marxism
  • Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) and Revisionism
  • Nationalism
  • The working man has no country (?)
  • Many like Marx favored international approach but
    nationalism was a powerful force!

16
Organizing the Working Class
  • Formation of labor unions
  • Right to strike
  • Replacement of violent upheaval with collective
    bargaining
  • Strong ties to socialist parties why?
  • Anarchism
  • Initially a peaceful movement
  • Bakunins approach more violence
  • Use of assassination

17
Contrasting Political Viewpoints
Gradual change!
Destroy the state!
VIOLENT REVOLUTION!
And shoot someone!
Bebel We aim in the domain of politics at
republicanism in the domain of economics at
socialism in the domain of what is today called
religion, at atheism. Bernstein "The Communist
Manifesto was correctbutwe see the privileges
of the capitalist bourgeoisie yieldingto
democratic organizationsIn my judgmentsuccess
lies in a steady advancethan ina catastrophic
clash. Bakunin If there is a State, then there
is domination, and in turn, there is slavery.
18
Emergence of Mass Society
  • Population Growth
  • 270 mil to 460 mil from 1850-1910!
  • Decline in the death rate
  • Medical discoveries and environmental conditions
  • Improved publication sanitation
  • Improved nutrition
  • Increased emigration to urban areas and to US
  • Opportunity for employment
  • Need to escape persecution

19
  • Population Growth in Europe, 1820-1900

20
The Urban Environment
  • Growth of cities / Urbanization
  • Urban Reformers and Improved Living Conditions
  • Edwin Chadwick, Rudolf Virchow
  • Pointed to relationship between living conditions
    and disease
  • Boards of Health established
  • Buildings begin to be inspected for problems
  • Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain
  • Clean water into the city
  • Expulsion of sewage

21
Transformation of the Urban Environment
  • Housing Needs
  • Reformer-philanthropists focused on relationship
    of living conditions to political and moral
    health of the nation
  • Victor A. Huber, German reformer no more SLUMS!
  • Octavia Hill personal investment in housing
  • Lord Leverhulme Port Sunlight and his soap
    factory
  • Ebenezer Howard Letchward Garden City
  • Garden City Movement
  • Redesigning the cities British Housing Act of
    1890
  • Construct new buildings, reconfigure spaces
  • Cheap modern transportation urban sprawl,
    suburbs
  • Liberal principles of government dont hold true

22
Transformation of the Urban Environment
Slum housing Lord Levelhulmes houses for his
employees at Port Sunlight Village the visual
concept for the Garden City Movement
23
Social Structure of Mass Society
  • The Elite
  • 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to
    40 percent of wealth
  • Alliance of wealthy business elite and
    traditional aristocracy
  • Common bonds
  • The Middle Classes
  • Stratification Upper middle class, middle
    middle-class, lower middle-class
  • Professionals
  • White-collar workers
  • Middle class values came to dominate society and
    culture
  • The Lower classes
  • 80 percent of the European population
  • Agriculture
  • Urban working class stratification Skilled,
    semiskilled, unskilled workers

24
Social Structure of Mass Society
The elite, the urban poor and the rural poor
25
The Woman Question
  • There were increased job opportunities for women
  • However, many women still aspired to the ideal of
    femininity
  • Marriage was the only honorable and/or available
    career
  • Lord Tennysons The Princess
  • Man is the hunter woman is his gameThe sleek
    and shining creatures of the chase,We hunt them
    for the beauty of their skinsThey love us for
    it, and we ride them down.
  • Pt. V, l. 147-150.
  • Man for the field and woman for the hearthMan
    for the sword and for the needle sheMan with
    the head and woman with the heartMan to command
    and woman to obeyAll else confusion.
  • Pt. V, l. 427-431.

26
The Family and Family Life
  • Cult of Domesticity glorified
  • Before increased job opportunities, women had to
    marry out of financial necessity
  • Most women chose to marry, however lowering
    illegitimacy, but so did
  • Family Planning
  • Family size limited (contraception vulcanized
    rubber)
  • Dr. Aletta Jacob first birth control clinic in
    Amsterdam 1882
  • Those who could afford children used birth
    control those who could not often didnt
  • Many spoke out against birth control

27
The Middle Class Family
  • Family was a central institution
  • Men income
  • Women household, socials, needlepoint the
    more idle the better!
  • Domestic Servants housework/cooking
  • 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible
    to live on the husbands wages
  • Leisure time due to higher wages and reduced work
    week
  • Holiday traditions
  • Gender-based activities, toys for children

28
The Working Class Family
  • Wages improved to allow younger children NOT to
    work, and even more women were staying at home
    like middle class
  • Consumer goods sewing machines, stoves,
    bicycles provided goals to work toward
  • Saturday leisure
  • Compulsory education removed children from
    factories and put them in schools

29
Education and Leisure
  • Schools
  • Gymnasium (Secondary Schools)
  • Secondary (University) for wealthy and later,
    middle class
  • Needed compulsory education for informed voting
    public and national pride!
  • Germany had 1st public education system early
    19th century
  • By 1870s more school requirements
  • Impact on literacy
  • Growth of publications

30
Education and Leisure
  • Second IR decimated village life of past long
    holidays didnt mesh with industrial pace
  • Shorter work days/weeks more leisure!
  • Machines to do housework more leisure!
  • Rail travel to resorts and Tourism (Thomas Cook)
  • Music and dance halls
  • Organized sports
  • Amusement Parks

31
Early Days of Sport
Rugby in Britain Football (Soccer) in Genoa
32
Ferris Wheel Old School
Weeeee!
Life sucks for us!
33
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • With the exception of Spain and Italy,
    parliamentary control of the governments of
    western Europe were able to push for liberal
    reforms.
  • Great Britain and Gladstones Reforms
  • Reform Act of 1884
  • Redistribution Act
  • Salaries to members of the House of Commons

34
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • Irish Question
  • Act of Union 1801 and the impact of nationalism
  • Gladstones attempt at land reform
  • Failure of Home Rule Bills of 1886 and 1893
  • Irish Protestants in Ulster (N. Ireland) vs.
    Catholics

35
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • France in turmoil
  • Defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led to the
    downfall of Emperor Louis Napoleon III.
  • Bismarck required defeated France to choose their
    new government by UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE, though
    the French Republicans had set up a provisional
    government
  • Once put to vote, the French public rejected the
    republican government and elected a majority of
    monarchists for the new National Assembly!

36
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • France in turmoil
  • Radical republicans rebel Paris Commune
    established
  • National Assembly brutally puts down the commune
    after a month of nasty street fighting
  • Louise Michel and the role of women
  • Outcome broadened the rift between middle and
    working class already begun in 1848-9 revolutions

37
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • France in turmoil
  • Monarchists failure to choose a king
  • Ineffective leadership opens door for republic to
    prevail
  • By 1875, Third Republic born. 1st? 2nd?
  • Republicans come to dominate Chamber of Deputies
  • Resistance to the Third Republic and the
    Boulanger Affair

38
The National StateWestern Europe and the Growth
of Political Democracy
  • Spain and Italy
  • Spain remains conservative and brutally
    suppresses outbursts of socialists and anarchists
  • Italy, the Ethiopia humiliation, and the rift
    between industrialists and working class

39
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Germany
  • Established legislature as well as universal male
    suffrage, yet still remained an authoritarian and
    conservative regime
  • Bicameral legislature Bundesrat and Reichstag
  • Role of Chancellor and persistence of
    Junker-dominated military hierarchy

40
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Germany a power struggle
  • Bismarck
  • Kulturkampf and playing to liberals
  • Bismarcks conservative backlash in 1878
  • Outlawing SDP
  • Social Welfare Legislation (?)
  • Failure to curb growth of SDP and desire to use
    undemocratic, repressive measures to obliterate
    them
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • Desire to rule alone
  • Role of Kaiser made secure by Bismarck
  • Dissatisfaction with Bismarcks failure to win
    over the workers and stop spread of SDP
  • Bismarcks dismissal in 1890

41
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Austria
  • Ausgleich created dual monarchy 1867 with
    constitution and parliament, but Emperor Francis
    Joseph undermined its authority
  • Ethnic minority problem
  • Edward von Taaffe as PM (1879-1893)
  • Concessions to minorities anger German-speaking
    bureaucracy
  • Francis Joseph used Catholicism to keep people
    together
  • Universal male suffrage 1907

42
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Hungary
  • More effective parliament but dominated by Magyar
    landowners
  • Forced Magyarization
  • Ethnic tensions

43
The National StateCentral and Eastern Europe
and the Persistence of the Old Order
  • Russia
  • No concessions or liberal democratic reforms
  • Assassination of Alexander II made his son
    Alexander III reactionary
  • Secret police, power of Zemstovs curtailed
  • Industrialization would force inevitable change

44
In Summary
  • This era the Second Industrial Revolution and
    the wealth it brought, brought with is great
    prosperity and a higher standard of living.
  • Education, the right to vote, higher pay, better
    healthcare and living conditions coupled with
    technological advancements gave people more
    leisure time, and with this, they took vacations,
    joined social clubs, attended performances, and
    played on teams.
  • A people participated more in government, they
    came to rely increasingly on the national state
    to take care of the population, and peoples
    pride in their national identity continued to
    grow, triggering a wave of intense nationalism
    and competitive international rivalries.
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