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Absolutism in Eastern Europe


Absolutism in Eastern Europe Austria, Prussia, and Russia Monarchs were in control up to 1918 These monarchs will have a powerful impact on culture Architecture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Absolutism in Eastern Europe

Absolutism in Eastern Europe
(No Transcript)
Austria, Prussia, and Russia
  • Monarchs were in control up to 1918
  • These monarchs will have a powerful impact on
  • Architecture
  • Arts

Unlike the West
  • Powerful Nobility
  • Unlike the West- Nobles were able to suppress the
  • Weak Middle Class
  • Oppressed Peasants-serfs

Lords and Peasants in Eastern Europe
Serfdom increases in the East
  • Lords created laws that restricted the free
    movement of peasants run-a-ways in Prussia had
    their ears nailed to a post and given a knife to
    cut themselves free
  • Landlords took more and more of their land and
    increased labor obligations
  • Local lords were judge and jury

Consolidation of Serfdom
  • Poland Lords could inflict death
  • Prussia (1653 ) Hereditary subjugation
  • Russia (1649) 9 year time limit on runaways was

Increase in Agriculture
  • As European economy expanded, the price of food
  • More peasants meant a surplus of local products
    were sold to foreign markets
  • Was it simply to develop of export markets?

No effective Central Government
  • Political rather than economic factors were the
    difference in the status of serfs.
  • Identical developments caused opposite results in
    the west.
  • Local nobles held more power over weaker kings
    and increased their political demands
  • A king in the east was the first among equals
  • Nobles undermined cities power. Products were
    sold directly to foreign capitalists
  • Importance of urban middle class declined no
    more did town air make one free.

East as least and West as Best
  • Because of social inequalities and harsher
    economic conditions, the west perceived the east
    as barbaric and uncivilized.
  • Therefore the east was considered morally
    inferior which was eventually tied to ethnicity
  • The Ottomans

The Rise of Austria and Prussia

Toward a Central Government
  • Monarchs gained power in three key areas
  • Imposed and collected taxes without consent
  • Created standing armies
  • Conducted relations with foreign states as they

Austria and the Ottoman Turks
  • Devastated by the Thirty Years War
  • The loss made them turn inward
  • Established direct rule over Bohemia
  • The robot 3 days a week of unpaid labor
  • Protestants were stamped out
  • 1683 Ottomans are in retreat to the east the
    Habsburgs take Hungary

The Pragmatic Sanction1713
  • Habsburg land was divided into three fragile
    political entities
  • Austria
  • Bohemia
  • Hungary
  • Rakoczy- Revolt
  • Defeated 1703
  • All would be passed to a single heir.
  • Hapsburgs . Hungary accepts Habsburg ruler but is
    never fully integrated into the Empire.

Prussia in the 17th Century
  • The Elector of Brandenburg had prestige to
    elect the Holy Roman Emperor, but no military
  • Estates of princes were weakened by the Thirty
    Years War
  • Frederick William the Great Elector
  • Comes to power 1640

Frederick William The Great Elector r.1640-1688
The Junkers
  • Landowning nobles that had dominated Prussia
  • Frederick was not resisted in his drive toward
    absolutism by the nobles they barked but did not
  • Different than England which had moved to

Frederick the Great Elector
  • Introduced permanent taxes without consent
  • Paid for a standing army
  • The size of the army grew ten-fold
  • Two major reasons for success
  • The invaders to the east demanded a consolidation
    of forces
  • Allowed the nobles to continue their rights and
    privileges over the peasants, but the royal
    authorities could tax the townspeople

Frederick the Ostentatious1688-1713
  • Weak in mind and body
  • Man crush on Louis XIV
  • Luxury and petty tyranny

Frederick William I The Soldier King1713-1740
  • Prussian war psychology- cult of the military-
    with the Junkers as officers
  • Best and strongest soldiers
  • Dog eat dog view of world politics
  • Violent temper immediate and severe punishments
  • Obsession for tall soldiers

The Prussian Military
  • Grows from 38,000 to 83,000
  • Amazing discipline and precision
  • Although ready for war, he was usually at peace
  • Tall males were recruited

Replaces the Estates with bureaucracy
  • Frederick was austere which made his country
    economically conscientious
  • Ministers were honest and fair

  • It is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an
    enigma Winston Churchill

The Mongol Yoke
  • Russia was forced to pay tribute
  • The Greatest prince was the one that paid the
    most money
  • Ivan I money bags(r1328-1341)
  • Collects taxes for the Mongols
  • Ivan III (r 1462 1505) Muscovite princes gain
  • Ivan III stops acknowledging Mongols
  • Fall of Constantinople holy Russia 1480

Ivan the Terrible(IV)
  • R. 1533-1584
  • Turns west against the Poland and Lithuanian
  • Destroys leading Boyars with secret police
  • Purges many other elements of society
  • Greater oppression of the serfs
  • All were servants of the Prince
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