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GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE

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Title: GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE


1
GLOBAL WARMING
AND CLIMATE
CHANGE
  • THE UNITED NATIONS ERBIL
    ÖZTAS
  • THE KYOTO PROTOCOL ERCÜMENT
    OKUR
  • THE EUROPEAN UNION ALISAN
    AKBULUT
  • NGOs
    BORA BAHADIR
  • TURKEY
    SERKAN POLAT

2
THE UN GLOBAL WARMING
  • The world mostly agrees that something needs to
    be done about global warming and climate change.
  • In 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
    Change (IPCC) was created by the United Nations
    Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World
    Meterological Organization (WMO) to assess the
    scientific knowledge on global warming.
  • The IPCC concluded in 1990 that there was broad
    international consensus that climate change was
    human-induced.

3
UN GLOBAL WARMING
  • That report led way to an international
    convention for climate change, the United Nations
    Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),
    signed by over 150 countries at the Rio Earth
    Summit in 1992.
  • The United States plus a few other countries, and
    many large corporations have been against climate
    change treaties due to the fear of the threat to
    their economy and profits if they have to make
    substantial changes.
  • It serves as a global forum for tourism policy
    issues and a practical source of tourism
    know-how.

4
UN GLOBAL WARMING
  • The Organization encourages the implementation
    ?of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, with a
    view to ensuring that member countries .
  • UNWTO is committed to the United Nations
    Millennium Development Goals, geared toward
    reducing poverty and fostering sustainable
    development.
  • UNWTO meeting on Excellence in Energy Efficiency
    for the Tourism Industry in the panel of Tourism
    Climate Change Solutions Improving
    sustainability and competitiveness.

5
UN GLOBAL WARMING
  • To stabilize atmospheric concentrations of
    greenhouse gases at a level that will block
    dangerous human interference with the climate
    system.
  • To reduce their combined greenhouse gas emissions
    by at least 5 per cent from 1990 levels by the
    period 2008-2012.
  • Member countries of the UN Framework Convention
    on Climate Change negotiate the Kyoto Protocol.

6
The Kyoto Protocol
  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan,
    in December 1997 and entered into force on 16
    February 2005.
  • So far 183 countries have ratified its Protocol
    to date
  • The main target is to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)
    emissions an average of 5 per cent against 1990
    levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
  • The GHG gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane
    (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20)

7
The five principal concepts of the Kyoto Protocol
are
  1. Commitments, The heart of the Protocol lies in
    establishing commitments for the reduction of
    greenhouse gases.
  2. Implementation, In order to meet the objectives
    of the Protocol countries are required to prepare
    policies and measures for the reduction of
    greenhouse gases.
  3. Minimizing Impacts on Developing Countries by
    establishing an adaptation fund for climate
    change.
  4. Accounting, Reporting and Review in order to
    ensure the integrity of the Protocol.
  5. Compliance, Establishing a Compliance Committee
    to enforce compliance.

8
The United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change agreed to a set of a "common but
differentiated responsibilities." The parties
agreed that
  • the largest share of historical and current
    global emissions of greenhouse gases has
    originated in developed countries
  • per capita emissions in developing countries are
    still relatively low
  • the share of global emissions originating in
    developing countries will grow to meet their
    social and development needs.

9
Turkey Kyoto
  • Turkey previously rejected signing the protocol,
    arguing that the country needed the opportunity
    to first complete its industrial development and
    also it could cause huge financial requirements
    for Turkey.
  • However, Turkey was under EU pressure to sign the
    Kyoto Protocol, since the environment is a
    chapter in accession negotiations. In 05.06.2008
    the process began formally.
  • Joining Kyoto is mainly a symbolic move for
    Turkey at this point, as it will have no
    quantified emissions requirements until 2012.

10
THE EU AND GLOBAL WARMING
  • The EU is one of the biggest political
    organisations in the world.
  • It comprises 27 member states and under its
    banner are close to 500 million people.
  • The GDP that the E.U generates accounts for
    roughly 30 of the world.
  • In terms of the world's environment, then, it is
    a chief player .

11
What is the European Union doing to combat global
warming and climate change? And are they
committed to the cause?
  • EU realized that a sustainable future is only
    possible with a growing conciousness and
    willingness on the part of the public to accept
    and encourage environmental policy and
    legislation.
  • The 'E.U Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS)'
    was established to answer exactly that question
  • So the E.U - acknowledging its role within the
    world's sphere - champions the importance of
    climate change as a global issue
  • Its method for achieving that aim is to work
    closely and extensively with the world's other
    governmental bodies.

12
What is the European Union doing to combat global
warming and climate change? And are they
committed to the cause?
  • The "Climate action and renewable energy
    package" the European Commission's legislative
    proposal to achieve agreed EU objectives in the
    fight against climate change
  • On 23 January 2008 the European Commission put
    forward package of proposals to fight climate
    change and promote renewable energy up to 2020
    and beyond
  • The EU is committed to reducing its overall
    emissions to at least 20 below 1990 levels by
    2020
  • It has also set itself the target of increasing
    the share of renewables in energy use to 20 by
    2020.

13
What is the European Union doing to combat global
warming and climate change? And are they
committed to the cause?
  • The European Union has long been at the forefront
    of international efforts to combat climate change
    and has played a key role in the development of
    the two major treaties addressing the issue, the
    1992 United Nations Framework Convention on
    Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol,
    agreed in 1997.
  • the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) was
    launched to to identify and develop all the
    necessary elements of an EU strategy to implement
    the Kyoto Protocol
  • EU leaders endorsed this vision in March 2007.
    They committed the EU to cutting its greenhouse
    gas emissions by 30 of 1990 levels by 2020
    provided other developed countries commit to
    making comparable reductions under a global
    agreement.

14
What is the European Union doing to combat global
warming and climate change? And are they
committed to the cause?
  • EU leaders set three key targets to be met by
    2020
  • a 20 reduction in energy consumption
  • an increase to 20 in renewable energies' share
    of total energy consumption
  • an increase to 10 in the share of petrol and
    diesel consumption
  • Austria, Britain, Denmark, Germany and Luxembourg
    are the five countries in the EU who must make
    the biggest cuts.

15
GLOBAL WARMING AND NGOs
  • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have
    historically taken an active role in the
    development and enforcement of environmental laws
    in an approach that some refer to as regulation
    by litigation. Given their concerns about global
    climate change, and the absence of legislative
    activity and enforcement, NGOs are calling for
    more unified and effective litigation tactics in
    an attempt to force action on climate policy.

16
GLOBAL WARMING AND NGOs
  • The majority of environmental NGOs are interested
    in areas such as the protection of nature
    biological diversity forests erosion sea and
    coasts. NGOs have a growing influence in struggle
    of protection of nature and must assume the
    responsibility of raising public awareness and
    improving legislation on environmental issues.
  • Civil society organizations have been taking
    increasingly important roles in creating public
    awareness on environmental problems of the world
    with their numbers growing here in recent years.

17
NUMBER OF ENVIROMENTTAL NGOs
  • The number of environmental organizations
    established between 1925 and 1995 was 136 this
    figure jumped to 439 in the 1995-2007 period
    which means the number of environmental
    organizations established in the last 12 years is
    three times greater than the number established
    in the 70 years previous to this period.

18
STUDIES OF NGOs
  • Greenpeace
  • It is an international non-governmental
    organization for the protection and conservation
    of the environment and for promoting peace.
    Greenpeace utilizes nonviolent direct action,
    lobbying and research to achieve its goals.
  • Greenpeace has a worldwide presence with national
    and regional offices in over 40 countries, which
    are affiliated to the Amsterdam-based Greenpeace
    International.

19
Project Hot Seat
  • Greenpeace has several projects for global
    warming and climate change. All these projects
    are directly or indirectly related to tourism.
    One of the recent projects is Greenpeace USA's
    Project Hot Seat.
  • This campaign aims to get a pro-climate
    protection majority in the US Congress.
    Greenpeace activists and grassroots groups are
    urging Congressmen and women across America, to
    sign up to the Safe Climate Act. They try to
    minimize the effect of global warming to many
    industries like tourism, agriculture and
    transportation.
  •  

20
STUDIES OF NGOs
  • Friends of the Earth
  • It is a group of committed people, established in
    1969, who fight daily for a healthy and just
    world.
  • They mainly focus on Cruise Ships and Pollution
    and Pollution of Fast Ferries
  • New Economic Foundation
  • NEF is an independent think-and-do tank that
    inspires and demonstrates real economic
    well-being.
  • they believe that increase use of air travel
    contrubutes to global warming. They look for
    alternatives for transportation in toursim.

21
NGOs in TURKEY
  • Training and public awareness activities in the
    field of prevention of climate change have gained
    an apparent momentum in Turkey as a result of
    harmonization with the EU. The Environmental Law
    amended recently, promotes expansion of
    environmental training activities and raising
    public awareness. NGOs are very important
    instruments in this process.
  • There are more than 350 NGOs in Turkey who deals
    with enviromental issues.

22
NGOs in TURKEY
  • TEMA is most known NGO dealing with global
    warming and climate change in Turkey.
  • TEMA has many projects in dealing process of
    global warming.
  • BisikleTEMA is one of these projects. One
    couple has started travel from America by a
    bicycle. This couple aims to reach Australia
    within 16 months passing through Turkey.

23
Current Situation
  • The most prominent feature of recorded changes
    proves to be the widespread increase in summer
    temperatures especially in the western and
    south-western parts of Turkey.
  • Precipitation decreases along the Aegean and
    Mediterranean coasts and increases along the
    Black Sea coast of Turkey.
  • Coastal erosion, flooding along Turkish
    shorelines are the problems of national
    significance.
  • Tourist and coastal cities are particularly under
    threat as a result the Tourism Sector is,too.

24
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25
Turkey is ready to undertake its commitments and
comply with the responsibilities embodied by the
Annex I countries to the Convention according to
its special circumstances. The specific
national conditions of Turkey in this respect
have to be considered. With 3.3 tonnes per
capita, Turkey possesses the lowest per capita
fossil fuel-based CO2 emissions amongst OECD
countries whose average is 11.1, the world
average is 4.0 and the EU 25 average is 9.0
2006.
26
In a study issued by the United Nations on
climate change, Turkey was reported to have
released 294 million metric tonnes of carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere annually. The
report said that Turkey recorded the fastest
growth of any country in levels of carbon dioxide
emissions, with a 74.4 percent increase between
1990 and 2007.
27
RD Studies and Related Projects
  • The National Energy Technologies Research
    Program started jointly by MENR, MoEF, EIE, TTGV
    and TUBITAK was completed in 2002. The resulting
    report contains a 10-year National Operation
    Program.
  • There are a number of studies, which may play an
    important role in the renewable energy sources in
    Turkey.

28
Adaptation
  • Turkey, being a coastal country, recognised the
    increasing number of problems in coastal zones
    and many precautions are being taken by several
    governmental institutions and agencies. For
    example, most of the protection areas declared by
    the Turkish government are located in the coastal
    zones such as
  • Fethiye-Gocek,
  • Gokova,
  • Patara,
  • Kekova,
  • Foca,
  • Datca-Bozburun
  • and Belek etc.
  • In respect to offsetting the increasing water
    scarcity problems and desertification, Developing
    techniques for non-traditional use of water
    resources, Improving and developing new plant
    species resistant to drought and salinity,
    Developing plant species that may yield quality
    products with low-quality water are recognised as
    adaptation measures.

29
NATIONAL LAWS
  • The 4856 numbered Law Of Establishment and
    Organization Of The Ministry of Environment and
    Forestry with the aim of providing
    environment services including conformity to EU
    environment rules.
  • The 5393 numbered Municipalities Law and
  • The 5216 numbered Metropolitan Municipalities Law
    charges the municipalities to apply the above
    mentioned laws and by-laws inside municipality
    borders.
  • The 2872 numbered Environment Law
  • The 1593 numbered Public Hygiene Law and 181
    numbered Legal Decision.
  • The 5442 numbered City Management Laws 9th
    article,

30
Global Environment Facility- GEF
Contributions
  • Turkey has become eligible for GEF assistance
    after becoming a party to the UNFCCC. Turkey as
    an Annex I country, contributed a total of
    23,326,400 to the GEF funding mechanism as
    annual fees. In the meantime, as a developing
    country. Turkey received 33,134,000 of funding
    in total 21,507,000 for national projects and
    11,627, 000 for regional projects.
  • The only project directly related to climate
    change is the Enabling Activity Project with a
    budget of 420,000.

31
Obligations under International Laws
Turkeys obligations under international law
stem from multi-lateral conventions and protocols
that it has been a party to. Turkey has
ratified over 50 international legal dispositions
in relation to the environment International
environmental declarations and agreements mainly
related to climate change that Turkey became a
party to include
32
  • The Agreement of International Energy Program,
    Paris 1974
  • UNECE Convention on Long-range Trans-boundary Air
    Pollution,1979
  • The International Air Pollution Contract, Geneva
    1984
  • The 1985 dated Vienna Agreement the protection of
    ozone layer
  • The Montreal Protocol about substances consuming
    ozone layer, 1987
  • The Frame Agreement about Climate Changes, UNFCCC
    1992
  • Rio Declaration on the Environment and
    Development and Agenda 21, 1992
  • Convention to Combat Desertification, 1995
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