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Agricultural and Rural Land Use


Agricultural and Rural Land Use – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Agricultural and Rural Land Use

Agricultural and Rural Land Use
Origin of Agriculture
  • Most experts believe agriculture developed over
  • First agriculture is vegetative planting
  • Cutting off a stem of another plant or dividing
    roots of a plant
  • Seed agriculture came next where farming is done
    by planting seeds rather than part of the parent
  • Agricultural Hearths Carl Sauers theory says it
    started in SW Asia the diffused north and east to
    China and and Japan then west toward SW Asia,
    Africa and the Mediterranean

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Agricultural Revolutions
  • First Agricultural Revolution, sometimes called
    the Neolithic Revolution
  • Involved humans domestication of seeds and
  • 2nd Agricultural Revolution started in 1880s in
    North America with globalization of
    industrialized agriculture and new technologies
    that increased food supply like mechanized farm
    technology and chemical fertilizers
  • Impact of Industrialization with the third
    agricultural revolution, we now produce the raw
    material then move it to a factory to be changed
    into something that can be more easily sold at
  • Example milk
  • Agribusiness system of food production involving
    everything from development of seeds to marketing
    and sale of food products at market

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The Green Revolution
  • Began in 1940s as part of third agricultural
    revolution with development of hybrid seeds and
    fertilizers that increased output
  • Started with U.S. funding of charities to
    increase output in third world countries
  • Benefits have been huge in battling world hunger
  • Grain production increased 45 world wide from
  • Asia increased rice production by 66 by 1985
  • India became self-sufficient with rice by 1980s
  • Negatives of Green Revolution
  • Reduced number of workers needed on farms
  • Higher-yield crops are often more susceptible to
    viruses and bugs
  • Farmers in peripheral countries often cant
    afford technologies from the Green Revolution
  • Environmental problems like pollution and soil
    contamination are more common, water resources
    have been strained

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Subsistence Agriculture
  • Defined agriculture where farmers grow enough
    food consume but no surplus
  • Most commonly seen in peripheral and less
    developed countries
  • Three types shifting cultivation, intensive
    subsistence and pastoralism
  • Shifting cultivation farmers rotate field to
    allow soil to replenish nutrients rather than
    farming the same types of land over and over
  • Helps prevent leaching of soil nutrients
  • Common in tropical zones because of thin topsoil
  • Many farmers use slash-and-burn agriculture to
    prepare new plots of land called swidden
  • Can cause environmental problems because of large
    areas of land necessary
  • Used on nearly 25 of earths land

Intensive Agriculture
  • Type of subsistent agriculture
  • Happens when farmers cultivate small amounts of
    land very efficiently to produce food for their
  • Usually found in regions with high populations
    because of limited land availability
  • Rice is dominant intensive subsistence
    agriculture crop
  • Many intensive agriculture farmers practice
    double cropping where they grow more than one
    crop in a year

Final Subsistence Agriculture
  • Pastoralism breeding and herding of animals to
    produce food, shelter and clothing for survival
  • Usually practiced in climates with limited arable
  • Can be sedentary or nomadic
  • Usually practice transhumance (the movement of
    animal herds to cooler highland areas in summer
    and to warmer lowland areas in winter)
  • Practice is declining world wide
  • Mediterranean Agriculture
  • Primarily associated with area around
    Mediterranean climates because of long, dry
    summers and cool wet winters
  • Usually produces crops like wheat, vine and tree
    crops, olives and figs

Von Thunens Agricultural Location Theory
  • Von Thunen was 19th Century German economist who
    developed theory about where and why agricultural
    activities would take place around a city's
  • Model explains and predicts agricultural use
  • Basic patterns of Von Thunen
  • Central marketplace is surrounded by agricultural
    activity zones that are in concentric rings
    representing a different type of agricultural
    land use
  • Moving outward from citys central marketplace,
    the farming activities changed from intensive to
    more extensive

Von Thunens Model
Why use von Thunen?
  • Useful in comparing real situations to his
    theoretical farming situation-restricted to one
    variable, transportation costs
  • Shows the influence of distance as a factor in
    human location decisions
  • Settlement patterns in villages vary by culture
  • In Europe, villages were on hillside to leave
    flatlands for farming and near rivers
  • In Asia and Africa, villages were often round to
    protect cattle
  • Lets look at if Von Thunen is real!

Rural land use and Settlement patterns
  • Factors Affecting Farm Locations why do farms
    end up where they do?
  • Physical factors obviously, location on earth
    can be important but humans can modify the
    environment with innovations like irrigation,
    greenhouses, etc.
  • Soil evaluated by depth, texture, nutrient
    composition and acidity
  • Relief shape of potential field including slope
    and altitude, exposure to sun and access to water
  • Climate temperature and rainfall
  • Political-cultural factors certain factors can
    influence like Hindus holding cows sacred or
    Muslims not eating pig
  • In less-developed countries government usually
    encourage farmers to adopt more advanced
  • More-developed countries may pay farmers NOT to
    grow food
  • Economic factors farmers will try to grow crops
    that produce the most money
  • Example coffee in South America
  • Oft times land rent (price farmer pays for each
    acre of land) is important with cheaper land
    usually located further away from city center

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U.S. Agricultural Regions
Global land use patterns
Commercial Farming
  • Defined farming that produces crops to sell at
    the market place
  • Mixed crop and livestock involved growing crops
    and raising animals
  • Farmers use crops to feed animals, animal manure
    to fertilize crops with the animal products (like
    eggs or milk) as the primary money producer
  • Popular in Europe and North America, usually near
    large, urban areas
  • Ranching commercial grazing or raising of
    animals on a plot of land on which they graze
  • Usually requires large amounts of land
  • Common in North and South America
  • Dairying growth of milk-based products for the
    market place
  • Farms closer to market place usually produce milk
    while ones further from the market typically
    produce cheese and butter
  • Most are capital-intensive farms (use machinery)
    unlike labor-intensive farms (use human labor)

Global agricultural regions
More Commercial Farming
  • Large-scale grain production where grains are
    grown to be exported to other places for
  • Most common in Canada, U.S., Argentina,
    Australia, France, England and Ukraine
  • Many farms actually produce grains for animals,
    not humans
  • Plantation farming uses large-scale areas
    (called plantations or agricultural estates) that
    specialize in farming of one or two high-demand
    crops for export
  • Introduced by Europeans in tropical zones during
    colonial periods
  • Today, most commonly found in low-latitude areas
    of Africa, Asia and Latin America where companies
    own plantations that are close to coastal areas
    for easy export
  • Coffee, cocoa, sugar common goods produced

Globalization of Farming
  • Started with colonization and plantation system
  • In modern system, a neocolonial or postcolonial
    relationships has developed between former
    colonies and colonizers with colonies still
    producing raw products and colonizers
    manufacturing them
  • Truck farms when agricultural goods (example,
    flowers) are flown in from tropical zones for
    sell in core countries
  • Humans in developed world have been forced into
  • Humans in less-developed countries have been
    forced to sell their lands to MNC and grow food
    primarily for export

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World Food Production per Capita
Graph of agricultural exports
Global Food Availability
  • Defined using living organisms to produce or
    change plant or animal products
  • Often used with genetic modification-a form of
    biotechnology that uses scientific, genetic
    manipulation of crop and animal products to
    improve agricultural productivity and products
  • Creation of modern superplants that grow faster
    and have higher yield
  • Has moved into animals in recent years to produce
    more meat

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  • Hunger around world is not usually caused by
    humans ability to grow food but by distribution
    of food supply and peoples ability to access
    those food supplies
  • Under nutrition lack of sufficient calories or
  • Famine mass starvation resulting from prolonged
    under nutrition
  • Historically, women have higher rates of under
  • Nearly 25,000 people in world die each day
    because of under nutrition
  • Currently, biotechnology is looking for more
    sustainable yield crops

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Desertification and Soil Erosion
  • Soil erosion is caused when soil is not allowed
    enough time to recuperate between harvests
  • It takes 100 to 500 years to naturally regenerate
    half an inch of nutrient topsoil with some
    estimates saying soil erosion destroys 55 billion
    tons of topsoil each year
  • Desertification loss of habitable land to the
    expansion of deserts
  • Usually caused by cutting down rainforests like
    in Africa and the Sahara because cutting down the
    trees yields more immediate income than
    preservation of land
  • To fight this, some countries are using
    debt-for-nature swaps where international debt is
    forgiven in exchange for preservation of

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