Agricultural and Rural Land Use - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 36
About This Presentation
Title:

Agricultural and Rural Land Use

Description:

Agricultural and Rural Land Use – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:120
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: AmieH7
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Agricultural and Rural Land Use


1
Agricultural and Rural Land Use
2
Origin of Agriculture
  • Most experts believe agriculture developed over
    time
  • First agriculture is vegetative planting
  • Cutting off a stem of another plant or dividing
    roots of a plant
  • Seed agriculture came next where farming is done
    by planting seeds rather than part of the parent
    plant
  • Agricultural Hearths Carl Sauers theory says it
    started in SW Asia the diffused north and east to
    China and and Japan then west toward SW Asia,
    Africa and the Mediterranean

3
(No Transcript)
4
Agricultural Revolutions
  • First Agricultural Revolution, sometimes called
    the Neolithic Revolution
  • Involved humans domestication of seeds and
    animals
  • 2nd Agricultural Revolution started in 1880s in
    North America with globalization of
    industrialized agriculture and new technologies
    that increased food supply like mechanized farm
    technology and chemical fertilizers
  • Impact of Industrialization with the third
    agricultural revolution, we now produce the raw
    material then move it to a factory to be changed
    into something that can be more easily sold at
    market
  • Example milk
  • Agribusiness system of food production involving
    everything from development of seeds to marketing
    and sale of food products at market

5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
The Green Revolution
  • Began in 1940s as part of third agricultural
    revolution with development of hybrid seeds and
    fertilizers that increased output
  • Started with U.S. funding of charities to
    increase output in third world countries
  • Benefits have been huge in battling world hunger
  • Grain production increased 45 world wide from
    1945-1990
  • Asia increased rice production by 66 by 1985
  • India became self-sufficient with rice by 1980s
  • Negatives of Green Revolution
  • Reduced number of workers needed on farms
  • Higher-yield crops are often more susceptible to
    viruses and bugs
  • Farmers in peripheral countries often cant
    afford technologies from the Green Revolution
  • Environmental problems like pollution and soil
    contamination are more common, water resources
    have been strained

8
(No Transcript)
9
(No Transcript)
10
Subsistence Agriculture
  • Defined agriculture where farmers grow enough
    food consume but no surplus
  • Most commonly seen in peripheral and less
    developed countries
  • Three types shifting cultivation, intensive
    subsistence and pastoralism
  • Shifting cultivation farmers rotate field to
    allow soil to replenish nutrients rather than
    farming the same types of land over and over
  • Helps prevent leaching of soil nutrients
  • Common in tropical zones because of thin topsoil
  • Many farmers use slash-and-burn agriculture to
    prepare new plots of land called swidden
  • Can cause environmental problems because of large
    areas of land necessary
  • Used on nearly 25 of earths land

11
Intensive Agriculture
  • Type of subsistent agriculture
  • Happens when farmers cultivate small amounts of
    land very efficiently to produce food for their
    families
  • Usually found in regions with high populations
    because of limited land availability
  • Rice is dominant intensive subsistence
    agriculture crop
  • Many intensive agriculture farmers practice
    double cropping where they grow more than one
    crop in a year

12
Final Subsistence Agriculture
  • Pastoralism breeding and herding of animals to
    produce food, shelter and clothing for survival
  • Usually practiced in climates with limited arable
    land
  • Can be sedentary or nomadic
  • Usually practice transhumance (the movement of
    animal herds to cooler highland areas in summer
    and to warmer lowland areas in winter)
  • Practice is declining world wide
  • Mediterranean Agriculture
  • Primarily associated with area around
    Mediterranean climates because of long, dry
    summers and cool wet winters
  • Usually produces crops like wheat, vine and tree
    crops, olives and figs

13
Von Thunens Agricultural Location Theory
  • Von Thunen was 19th Century German economist who
    developed theory about where and why agricultural
    activities would take place around a city's
    marketplace
  • Model explains and predicts agricultural use
    patterns
  • Basic patterns of Von Thunen
  • Central marketplace is surrounded by agricultural
    activity zones that are in concentric rings
    representing a different type of agricultural
    land use
  • Moving outward from citys central marketplace,
    the farming activities changed from intensive to
    more extensive

14
Von Thunens Model
15
Why use von Thunen?
  • Useful in comparing real situations to his
    theoretical farming situation-restricted to one
    variable, transportation costs
  • Shows the influence of distance as a factor in
    human location decisions
  • Settlement patterns in villages vary by culture
  • In Europe, villages were on hillside to leave
    flatlands for farming and near rivers
  • In Asia and Africa, villages were often round to
    protect cattle
  • Lets look at if Von Thunen is real!

16
Rural land use and Settlement patterns
  • Factors Affecting Farm Locations why do farms
    end up where they do?
  • Physical factors obviously, location on earth
    can be important but humans can modify the
    environment with innovations like irrigation,
    greenhouses, etc.
  • Soil evaluated by depth, texture, nutrient
    composition and acidity
  • Relief shape of potential field including slope
    and altitude, exposure to sun and access to water
  • Climate temperature and rainfall
  • Political-cultural factors certain factors can
    influence like Hindus holding cows sacred or
    Muslims not eating pig
  • In less-developed countries government usually
    encourage farmers to adopt more advanced
    technology
  • More-developed countries may pay farmers NOT to
    grow food
  • Economic factors farmers will try to grow crops
    that produce the most money
  • Example coffee in South America
  • Oft times land rent (price farmer pays for each
    acre of land) is important with cheaper land
    usually located further away from city center

17
(No Transcript)
18
U.S. Agricultural Regions
19
Global land use patterns
20
Commercial Farming
  • Defined farming that produces crops to sell at
    the market place
  • Mixed crop and livestock involved growing crops
    and raising animals
  • Farmers use crops to feed animals, animal manure
    to fertilize crops with the animal products (like
    eggs or milk) as the primary money producer
  • Popular in Europe and North America, usually near
    large, urban areas
  • Ranching commercial grazing or raising of
    animals on a plot of land on which they graze
  • Usually requires large amounts of land
  • Common in North and South America
  • Dairying growth of milk-based products for the
    market place
  • Farms closer to market place usually produce milk
    while ones further from the market typically
    produce cheese and butter
  • Most are capital-intensive farms (use machinery)
    unlike labor-intensive farms (use human labor)

21
Global agricultural regions
22
More Commercial Farming
  • Large-scale grain production where grains are
    grown to be exported to other places for
    consumption
  • Most common in Canada, U.S., Argentina,
    Australia, France, England and Ukraine
  • Many farms actually produce grains for animals,
    not humans
  • Plantation farming uses large-scale areas
    (called plantations or agricultural estates) that
    specialize in farming of one or two high-demand
    crops for export
  • Introduced by Europeans in tropical zones during
    colonial periods
  • Today, most commonly found in low-latitude areas
    of Africa, Asia and Latin America where companies
    own plantations that are close to coastal areas
    for easy export
  • Coffee, cocoa, sugar common goods produced

23
Globalization of Farming
  • Started with colonization and plantation system
  • In modern system, a neocolonial or postcolonial
    relationships has developed between former
    colonies and colonizers with colonies still
    producing raw products and colonizers
    manufacturing them
  • Truck farms when agricultural goods (example,
    flowers) are flown in from tropical zones for
    sell in core countries
  • Humans in developed world have been forced into
    agribusiness
  • Humans in less-developed countries have been
    forced to sell their lands to MNC and grow food
    primarily for export

24
(No Transcript)
25
World Food Production per Capita
26
Graph of agricultural exports
27
Global Food Availability
28
Biotechnology
  • Defined using living organisms to produce or
    change plant or animal products
  • Often used with genetic modification-a form of
    biotechnology that uses scientific, genetic
    manipulation of crop and animal products to
    improve agricultural productivity and products
  • Creation of modern superplants that grow faster
    and have higher yield
  • Has moved into animals in recent years to produce
    more meat

29
(No Transcript)
30
(No Transcript)
31
Hunger
  • Hunger around world is not usually caused by
    humans ability to grow food but by distribution
    of food supply and peoples ability to access
    those food supplies
  • Under nutrition lack of sufficient calories or
    nutrients
  • Famine mass starvation resulting from prolonged
    under nutrition
  • Historically, women have higher rates of under
    nutrition
  • Nearly 25,000 people in world die each day
    because of under nutrition
  • Currently, biotechnology is looking for more
    sustainable yield crops

32
(No Transcript)
33
Desertification and Soil Erosion
  • Soil erosion is caused when soil is not allowed
    enough time to recuperate between harvests
  • It takes 100 to 500 years to naturally regenerate
    half an inch of nutrient topsoil with some
    estimates saying soil erosion destroys 55 billion
    tons of topsoil each year
  • Desertification loss of habitable land to the
    expansion of deserts
  • Usually caused by cutting down rainforests like
    in Africa and the Sahara because cutting down the
    trees yields more immediate income than
    preservation of land
  • To fight this, some countries are using
    debt-for-nature swaps where international debt is
    forgiven in exchange for preservation of
    rainforests

34
(No Transcript)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com