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Ch.4 Earth

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Ch.4 Earth s Structure and Motion Foucault pendulum Standard time zones Time meridian Prime meridian International date line Revolution Parallax Summer solstice – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch.4 Earth


1
Ch.4 Earths Structure and Motion
  • Foucault pendulum
  • Standard time zones
  • Time meridian
  • Prime meridian
  • International date line
  • Revolution
  • Parallax
  • Summer solstice
  • Winter solstice
  • Vernal equinox
  • Autumnal equinox
  • Vocabulary
  • Geology
  • Inner core
  • Outer core
  • Mantle
  • Crust
  • Lithosphere
  • Asthenosphere
  • Magnetic field
  • Rotation
  • Coriolis effect

2
4.1 Earths Formation
  • Geology is the study of planet Earth, its
    structure and composition, and how it has changed
    over time.
  • Origin
  • Widely accepted at 4.6 billion years ago
  • Big Bang theory
  • Gravity pulled matter together into stars
  • About 10 of the material surrounded the new Sun,
    formed planetesimals
  • See diagram p. 70-71

3
  • Earths Size and Shape
  • Earth is 3rd closest planet to the Sun, after
    Mercury and Venus
  • The Moon is approx. 1/6 the size (mass) of Earth.
  • Earth is NOT a perfect sphere it is slightly
    flattened at the poles
  • Total surface is about 510 km2
  • About 149 km2 or 30 is land (continents, islands)

4
  • Earths Interior
  • Densest in the middle (mostly iron)
  • Crust and upper-most mantle make up the
    lithosphere
  • See diagram p. 72 chart p. 73

5
Earths Heat text. p.46 -since Earths formation,
its slowly been losing heat -one heat source is
radioactive decay of Uranium -other heat sources
are the result of meteorite impacts, compression
due to gravity -Earths surface warms due to Sun
effects temperature increases once gt70 m below
surface -rate is approx. 1C for every 40 m depth
6
4.2 Earths Rotation
  • Evidence Foucaults pendulum in 1851 found
    evidence for Earths rotation
  • Once per day approx. 24 hours (
  • Earths rotation affects predominant wind
    patterns on Earth
  • This is a result of the Coriolis Effect

7
Axis and Rate of Rotation
  • Earth is tilted at 23to the plane of orbit
  • Constancy of tilt is called parallelism
  • Speed of rotation is 1690 km/hr at the equator,
    Squamish BC approx 1200 km/hr.
  • 0 km/hr at North and South poles
  • See p. 76 text

8
Effects of Rotation
  • Time zones 24 in total
  • Each approx. 15longitude (360/2415)
  • International Date line is at 180E or W (middle
    of the Pacific)
  • Coriolis effects on wind patterns also

9
4.3 Earths Revolution
  • Revolves once/year 365.24 days around Sun
  • Causes seasons
  • Summer solstice when you get the most heat
  • Winter solstice when you get the least
  • Equinoxes when Northern and Southern hemispheres
    get the same amount of heat energy

10
  • Do p. 86 1-10,15,16, 19-22
  • BONUS 18
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