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BASIC GEOGRAPHY

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BASIC GEOGRAPHY Geography is the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment The name geography comes from GEO meaning earth and GRAPHICA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BASIC GEOGRAPHY


1
BASIC GEOGRAPHY
  • Geography is the study of the relationship
    between people and their physical environment
  • The name geography comes from GEO meaning earth
    and GRAPHICA meaning description.

2
2 Branches of Geography
  • Physical Geography
  • Study of earths physical processes
  • Geology rocks and earth formations
  • Environmental science human interaction with
    the environment
  • Topography earths features
  • Cartography map making.
  • Human (Cultural) Geography
  • Characteristics of human activities
  • Politics governments
  • History significant events
  • Economics how use resources
  • Sociology human societies
  • Urban cities
  • Demographics human population statistics

3
  • 7 continents Africa, Asia, Antarctica, South
    America, North America, Europe Australia
  • 5 Oceans Southern, Arctic, Pacific, Indian,
    Atlantic

4
Latitude
AKA Parallels
Numbers get higher the further North or South you
move away from the Equator
Latitude lines measure North or South of the
Equator
Zero Degrees Latitude is the Equator
90 Degree North (North Pole) 90 Degrees South
(South Pole)
5
Zero Degrees longitude is the Prime Meridian.
180 degrees East or West is the International
Date Line By international agreement - 0 degrees
longitude runs through the Royal Observatory in
Greenwich, England
Numbers get higher the farther you move either
East of West
Longitude lines measure East or West of the Prime
Meridian
Longitude
AKA- Meridians
6
MEMORIZE THESE LINES!! KNOW Equator, 2
Tropics, 2 Circles, 2 Poles and their
latitudes!!!!
7
Where lines of latitude and longitude cross they
form a pattern known as a GRID SYSTEM.
A Grid System
(a global address)
Absolute Location- a place found at a precise
point
Ex.) Toyko, Japan is at 36 N Latitude and 140 E
Longitude
Relative Location- is the location of one place
in relation to another
Ex.) Sonic is across the street from Kroger
8
Hemisheres
If you cut the Earth through the Equator you
would get two halves, the Northern and Southern
Hemisphere
If you cut the Earth through the Prime Meridian
you would get two halves, the Western and Eastern
Hemisphere
The US is in the Western Hemisphere and the
Northern Hemisphere
Each degree of the earth is equal to 1/360 of the
earth. Each degree is divided into 60 minutes
(). Each minute 60 seconds ()
9
  • Globe - Scale model of the earth.

YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL OF THE VOCABULARY ON
PAGES 14 15!
10
Parts of the Map
  • T Title (top of map where, what type of map,
    and when it is showing)
  • O Orientation (compass rose n,s,w,e)
  • D Date created (bottom right corner)
  • A Author (who made it bottom right corner)
  • L Legend (key) explains symbols, shapes,
    numbers, abbreviations used on the map
  • S Source (where did you get your information)
  • I - Index of all the places on the map
  • G Grid is the pattern on the map to make
    location easier (latitude longitude usually).
  • S Scale (how big is the map compared to real
    life)

TODALS - Must be on every map !!!
11
Map Scale
Small Scale Maps- Show large area with little
detail
Large Scale Maps- Show small area with a lot of
detail
12
Large Scale Map
13
Small Scale Map
14
Types of Maps
Reading a Map see Pg 8-9
General Purpose Maps
Show a wide variety of information
Physical Maps- Show topography (shape) of earths
physical features
Political Maps- Show boundaries between
countries. Also may show cities, capitals,
roads, railroads. Think man made!
Special Purpose Maps
Emphasize a single idea or a particular kind of
information
Economic Activity Map- Shows the distribution of
land use and natural resources.
15
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18
Globes to Maps
All maps have distortion because you are trying
to take a 3-D sphere and make it into a flat map.
Distance, direction, shape, and size of land
masses can be distorted.
  • How do you make a sphere flat?

Cartographer- Mapmakers
(Go-cartographer)
Three basic categories are Planar, Cylindrical,
Conic
Goodes Interrupted Equal-Area Projection Map
19
Pros- 1) Accurate at center 2)
Every line is a line of true direction
and represent the shortest distance Cons-
1) Distorts shape
Planar Projection (Azimuthal)
20
Pros- 1) Accurate near the equator
2) Shows direction and true shape Cons- 1)
Distorted near poles
Cylindrical
21
Pros- 1) Limited east-west areas not too far
from the Equator 2) Indicates
distances and directions fairly accurately Cons-
1) Distorts toward poles 2) Only
shows one hemisphere at a time
Conic
22
Common Map Projections
  • Winkle-Tripel Projection- good balance of size
    and shape of land areas. The poles have little
    distortion. National Geographic Society adopted
    this map type as the standard in 1998. Computer
    generated
  • Robinson Projection- Little distortion, most
    distortion appear at poles. More oval than
    Winkle-Tripel. Computer generated.

23
Goodes Interrupted Equal-Area Projection- True
size and shape of land, but distances are
distorted Mercator Projection- Accurate at
equator, but distorts size and distance as you
move away from equator. Accurately shows true
direction, good for sea travel and navigation.
24
0
30 04' 18.82" N 95 12' 59.89" W
0
Absolute Location
25
Relative Location
Pizza Hut is near the pyramids in Egypt
26
Places and Regions
Place- a particular space with physical and human
meaning.
Region- areas united by specific factors Formal
(uniform)- common characteristic such as a
product Ex.- The Cornbelt Functional- is an
urban central point (core) and surrounding area
(periphery) that are connected to it. Ex- New
Caney is in Houstons functional
region Perceptual- is defined by popular
feelings and images Ex.- Heartland
27
Great Circle Routes
  • Shortest distance between two points on a map!
  • Maps distort distance, for example it may look
    shorter to travel between two areas on a map than
    it really is.
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