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Earth Features and Changes!

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Title: Earth Features and Changes!


1
Earth Features and Changes!
Mostly under the category of Earth Science
2
Earth Science
  • Earth science is a catch all term for the
    sciences related to the study of the Earth.

3
Earth Science
  • There are four subjects in earth sciences
  • Geography
  • The study of the Earth and its lands and features

4
Earth Science
  • Geology
  • The study of the structure, composition, and
    history of Earth.

5
Earth Science
  • Geophysics
  • The study of the Earth by quantitative physical
    methods.

6
Earth Science
  • Geodetics.
  • The science that works with the measurements of
    the Earth.

7
Earth Science
  • The basic four branches of earth science are
  • Geology - study of the earth
  • Meteorology - study of the atmosphere, weather
    and climate
  • Oceanography - study of the oceans
  • Astronomy - study of the universe

8
Earth Science
  • We are not going to study astronomy in this unit.
  • We will mostly be looking at Geology

9
The Main Parts of the Earth
  • The Lithosphere
  • The solid part of the Earth.
  • Sphere - round 3d object
  • litho - means stone
  • All the Continents and the land under the seas.

10
The Main Parts of the Earth
  • The Hydrosphere
  • All the liquid water and ice on the Earth.
  • hydro - means water
  • About 70 of the planet is covered in ocean
  • 326,000,000,000,000,000,000 gallons, or about (
    1,260,000,000,000,000,000,000 liters)
  • Salt water makes up about 97 of the Earths water

11
The Main Parts of the Earth
  • About 2 percent of the planet's water is fresh,
    but 1.6 percent of the planet's water is frozen
    in the polar ice caps and glaciers. Another 0.35
    percent is found underground in aquifers and
    wells. Only about 0.036 percent of the planet's
    total water supply is found in lakes and rivers.

12
The Main Parts of the Earth
  • The rest of the water on the planet is in the air
    as clouds and water vapor.

13
The Main Parts of the Earth
14
The Main Parts of the Earth
  • The Atmosphere
  • The envelope of gases surrounding the Earth.
  • Nitrogen and oxygen make up most of our
    atmosphere.
  • Candle Demo
  • Balloon Balance
  • Crushing Bottle

15
The Main Parts of the Earth
  • The Biosphere
  • The biosphere includes any place that life (of
    any kind) can exist on Earth.

16
The Structure of the Earth
  • The Earth is not quite round. It is slightly
    squashed from pole to pole.
  • The Earth is about 12756 km in diameter.

17
The Structure of the Earth
  • The Earth has three basic layers.
  • The Crust
  • Outer layer (where we live) it is around 5-70 km
    thick.
  • The Mantle
  • Hot, slow flowing rock! It is about 2900km thick.
  • The Core
  • Innermost region
  • Divided into a inner core (solid) and a outer
    core (molten nickel-iron)
  • Made of mostly iron, solid in the center, liquid
    all around. It is about 3550km thick

18
The Structure of the Earth
19
Components of the Lithosphere
  • Elements
  • Collection of atoms of the same type.
  • Simplest form of matter that
  • cannot be formed from simpler substances.
  • cannot decompose into simpler substances.
  • Organized on the Periodic Table of the Elements
  • Periodic Table contains more than 115 elements
  • 92 elements found naturally.

20
Components of the Lithosphere
  • Minerals
  • Naturally occurring, inorganic, solid substances.
  • Formed when groups of atoms bond together.
  • Characterized by composition and arrangement of
    atoms.
  • Classified by physical properties (composition)
  • crystal habit, hardness, color, cleavage, luster
  • Classified by composition and crystal structure
    (arrangement of atoms)
  • native elements, silicates, carbonates, halides,
    oxides, sulfides, sulfates

21
Components of the Lithosphere
  • Rocks
  • Collections of minerals.
  • Classified into three natural types
  • igneous
  • metamorphic
  • sedimentary
  • distinguished by rock structure and mineral
    composition.

22
The Main Parts of the Earth
Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe,
North America, South America, the equator, the
North Pole, and the South Pole
23
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North
America, South America, the equator, the North
Pole, and the South Pole
Africa
24
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North
America, South America, the equator, the North
Pole, and the South Pole
?
Africa
25
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North
America, the equator, the North Pole, and the
South Pole
South America
Africa
26
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North
America, the equator, the North Pole, and the
South Pole
?
South America
Africa
27
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North
America, the North Pole, and the South Pole
Equator
South America
Africa
28
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North
America, the North Pole, and the South Pole
?
Equator
South America
Africa
29
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, the North
Pole, and the South Pole
North America
Equator
South America
Africa
30
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, the North
Pole, and the South Pole
North America
?
Equator
South America
Africa
31
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, and the
South Pole
North America
North Pole
Equator
South America
Africa
32
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, and the
South Pole
North America
North Pole
?
Equator
South America
Africa
33
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Equator
South America
Africa
34
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Asia, Australia, and the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
?
Equator
South America
Africa
35
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Australia, and the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
South America
Africa
36
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, Australia, and the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
?
South America
Africa
37
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, and the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
Australia
South America
Africa
38
The Main Parts of the Earth
Antarctica, and the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
Australia
South America
?
Africa
39
The Main Parts of the Earth
the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
Australia
South America
Antarctica
Africa
40
The Main Parts of the Earth
the South Pole
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
Australia
South America
Antarctica
?
Africa
41
The Main Parts of the Earth
North America
North Pole
Europe
Asia
Equator
Australia
South America
Antarctica
South Pole
Africa
42
The Main Parts of the Earth
W Longitudes
E Longitudes
N Latitudes
N Latitudes
S Latitudes
S Latitudes
E Longitudes
W Longitudes
43
The Main Parts of the Earth
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