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Human Geography of Canada

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Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness Three major groups in Canada the native peoples, the French, and the English have melded into a diverse and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography of Canada


1
Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast
Wilderness
Three major groups in Canadathe native peoples,
the French, and the Englishhave melded into a
diverse and economically strong nation.
Canadian fur trapper.
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2
Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast
Wilderness
History and Government of Canada
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
Economy and Culture of Canada
Subregions of Canada
SECTION 3
Unit Atlas Political
Unit Atlas Physical
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3
French and British settlement greatly
influenced Canadas political development.
Canadas size and climate affected economic
growth and population distribution.
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4
SECTION
History and Government of Canada
1
The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry
Early Peoples After Ice Age, migrants cross
Arctic land bridge from Asia - ancestors of
Arctic Inuit (Eskimos) North American Indians
to south Vikings found Vinland (Newfoundland)
about A.D. 1000 later abandon
Continued . . .
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5
SECTION
1
continued The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry
Colonization by France and Britain French
explorers claim much of Canada in 15001600s as
New France British settlers colonize the
Atlantic Coast Coastal fisheries and inland fur
trade important to both countries Britain wins
French and Indian War (17541763) French
settlers stay
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6
SECTION
1
Steps Toward Unity
Establishing the Dominion of Canada In 1791
Britain creates two political units called
provinces - Upper Canada (later, Ontario)
English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada
(Quebec) French-speaking, Roman Catholic
Ruperts Land a northern area owned by
fur-trading company Immigrants arrive, cities
develop Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto
- railways, canals are built as explorers seek
better fur-trading areas
Continued . . .
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7
SECTION
1
continued Steps Toward Unity
Establishing the Dominion of Canada Political,
ethnic disputes lead to Britains 1867 North
America Act - creates Dominion of Canada as a
loose confederation (political
union) - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick - self-governed part of British
Empire Expansion includes - Ruperts Land,
Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward
Island - later Yukon Territory, Alberta,
Saskatchewan - Newfoundland in 1949
Map
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8
SECTION
1
Continental Expansion and Development
From the Atlantic to the Pacific In 1885 a
transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to
Vancouver European immigrants arrive and Yukon
gold brings fortune hunters - copper, zinc,
silver also found grow towns, railroads
Image
Urban and Industrial Growth Farming gives way
to urban industrialization, manufacturing
- within 100 miles of U.S. border due to
climate, land, transportation Canada
becomes major economic power in 20th century
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9
SECTION
1
Governing Canada
The Parliamentary System In 1931 Canada becomes
independent, British monarch is symbolic
head Parliamentary government - parliamentleg
islature combining legislative and executive
functions - consists of an appointed Senate,
elected House of Commons - prime minister,
head of government, is majority party leader
All ten provinces have own legislature and
premier (prime minister) - federal government
administers the territories
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10
Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized,
with one of the worlds most developed economies.
Canadians are a diverse people.
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11
SECTION
Economy and Culture of Canada
2
An Increasingly Diverse Economy
The Early Fur Trade Beginning in 1500s Native
Americans, now known as the First Nations
- begin trade with European fishermen
along Atlantic coast French and English
trappers and traders expand westward VoyageursF
rench-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading
posts
Continued . . .
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12
SECTION
2
continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy
Canadas Primary Industries Farming, logging,
mining, fishing 10 of gross domestic product
- Canada is the worlds leading exporter of
forest products Mining uranium, zinc,
gold, and silver are exported Fishing domestic
consumption is low, so most of catch is exported
Map
Chart
Continued . . .
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13
SECTION
2
continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy
The Manufacturing Sector 15 of Canadians work
in manufacturing, create 1/5 of GDP - make
cars, steel, appliances, equipment
(high-tech, mining) - centered in
heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to
Windsor, Ontario
Continued . . .
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14
SECTION
2
continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy
Service Industries Drive the Economy Most
Canadians work in service industries, which
create 60 of GDP - finance, utilities, trade,
transportation, communication, insurance
- lands natural beauty makes tourism the
fastest growing service Heavy trade with
U.S. same language, open border (worlds
longest) - 1994 North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico - 85 of
Canadian exports go to U.S. - 75 of Canadas
imports come from U.S.
Image
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15
SECTION
2
A Land of Many Cultures
Languages and Religions Mixing of French and
native peoples created métis culture Bilingual
English is most common, except in French-speaking
Quebec English Protestants and French Catholics
dominate, but often clash - increasing numbers
of Muslims, Jews, other groups
Continued . . .
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16
SECTION
2
continued A Land of Many Cultures
Canadas Population Densest in port cities
(Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and
farmlands Environment keeps 80 of people on
10 of land (near U.S. border) Urbanization in
1900 33 of people lived in cities, today its
80 Various ethnic groups cluster in certain
areas - 75 of French Canadians live in Quebec
- many native peoples live on
reservespublic land set aside for them
- most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north
- many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on
West Coast
Image
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17
SECTION
2
Life in Canada Today
Employment and Education Relatively high
standard of living, well-educated
population Labor force is 55 men, 45 women
- 75 in service industries, 15 in
manufacturing Oldest university, Laval,
established in Quebec by French English
universities founded in Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick in 1780s Today, Canada has a 97
literacy rate
Continued . . .
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18
SECTION
2
continued Life in Canada Today
Sports and Recreation Popular sports skating,
ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf,
hunting - Canada has own football league other
pro teams play in U.S. leagues - native
peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers
developed hockey Annual festivals include
Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede
Image
Continued . . .
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19
SECTION
2
continued Life in Canada Today
The Arts Earliest literature from oral
traditions of First Nations peoples Later
writings from settlers, missionaries, explorers
Early visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West
Coast totem poles Early 1900s painting unique
style of Torontos Group of Seven Shakespeare
honored at Ontarios world-famous Stratford
Festival
Image
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20
Canada is divided into four subregions the
Atlantic, Core, and Prairie Provinces, and the
Pacific Province and the Territories.
Each subregion possesses unique natural
resources, landforms, economic activities, and
cultural life.
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21
SECTION
Subregions of Canada
3
The Atlantic Provinces
Harsh Lands and Small Populations Eastern
Canadas Atlantic Provinces - Prince Edward
Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,
Newfoundland Only 8 of Canadas population,
due to rugged terrain, harsh weather Most
people live in coastal cities such
as - Halifax, Nova Scotia - St. John, New
Brunswick 85 of Nova Scotia is rocky hills,
poor soil 90 of New Brunswick is
forested Newfoundland has severe storms
Continued . . .
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22
SECTION
3
continued The Atlantic Provinces
Economic Activities New Brunswicks largest
industry logging (lumber, wood pulp,
paper) Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters
supply seafood for export Nova Scotia logging,
fishing, shipbuilding, trade through
Halifax Newfoundland fishing, mining, logging,
hydro-electric power - supplies power to Quebec,
parts of northeastern U.S.
Image
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23
SECTION
3
The Core ProvincesQuebec and Ontario
The Heartland of Canada Quebec City French
explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in
1608 60 Canadas population live in Core
Provinces Ontario and Quebec - Ontario has
largest population Quebec has largest land
area
Continued . . .
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24
SECTION
3
continued The Core ProvincesQuebec and Ontario
Canadas Political and Economic Center Ottawa,
Ontario is the national capital Quebec has
great political importance in French-Canadian
life Core 35 of Canadas crops, 45 of
minerals, 70 of manufacturing Toronto the
largest city, finance hub Montreal second
largest city
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25
SECTION
3
The Prairie Provinces
Canadas Breadbasket Great Plains Prairie
Provinces Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta 50
of Canadas agricultural production, 60 of
mineral output - Alberta has coal, oil deposits
produces 90 of Canadas natural gas
Continued . . .
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26
SECTION
3
continued The Prairie Provinces
A Cultural Mix Manitoba Scots-Irish, Germans,
Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles Saskatchewans
population includes Asian immigrants,
métis Albertas diversity includes Indian,
Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese
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27
SECTION
3
The Pacific Province and the Territories
British Columbia British Columbiawesternmost
province, mostly in Rocky Mountains - 1/2 is
forests 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glac
iers Most people live in southwest major
cities are Victoria, Vancouver Economy built on
logging, mining, hydroelectric power - Vancouver
is Canadas largest port, has prosperous
shipping trade
Continued . . .
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28
SECTION
3
continued The Pacific Province and the
Territories
The Territories The three northern territories
account for 41 of Canadas land Sparsely
populated due to rugged land and severe climate
- Yukon has population of 30,000
mostly wilderness - Northwest Territories
has population of 41,000 extends into Arctic
- Nunavut was created from Northwest
Territories in 1999 home to Inuit
Territories economies include mining,
fishing, some logging
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29
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