Stem Cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Stem Cells PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6fe8bf-ZmRhM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Stem Cells

Description:

Cloning ... Stem Cells – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:19
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 16
Provided by: Elias87
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Stem Cells


1
Stem Cells
2
What Are Stem Cells?
  • Cells able to develop into nearly any other type
    of cell.
  • Adult stem cells found in skin, gut, blood
  • Embryonic stem cells found in very early
    development of embryo (when it has about 100
    cells)
  • Embryonic germ cells originate in reproductive
    cells of fetus.

3
Sources for Stem Cells
  • From adults
  • Least controversial but perhaps least promising.
    Fetal germ cells following abortion
  • Embryos created by IVF (in excess) no longer
    needed by couple
  • Embryos created by IVF for purpose of research
  • Embryos created asexually by somatic cell nuclear
    transfer. Cloning-for-research.

4
Factual Issues
  • How much promise to prevent and cure disease does
    stem cell research have?
  • Would cells derived from adults work just as well
    as those from embryos?
  • Are there enough stem cell lines already created
    or do we need more for research?
  • Would using otherwise discarded fetuses provide
    an incentive for abortion?
  • Can adequate research proceed without federal
    funding?

5
Ethical Issues
  • What is the moral status of a human (pre-)
    embryo?
  • Does it make a moral difference whether created
    for purpose of research?
  • Does it make a moral difference if embryo would
    otherwise be discarded?
  • What should public policy be in an area full of
    moral and religious controversy?

6
Embryonic Stem Cell Research To Fund or Not to
Fund?
  • Do not fund (prohibit?) use of any stem cells
    even if already created (because implicated in
    killing embryo)
  • Fund use of embryonic stem cell lines that have
    already been created. (No funding for the
    creation in future.)
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines but only from
    embryos already in storage and otherwise
    discarded.
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines from future
    embryos/fetuses if they would otherwise be
    discarded.
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines from any embryo,
    including those created for this purpose (perhaps
    through cloning)

7
Pres. Bushs Decision
  • Do not fund (prohibit?) use of any stem cells
    even if already created (because implicated in
    killing embryo)
  • Fund use of embryonic stem cell lines that have
    already been created. (No funding for the
    creation in future.)
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines but only from
    embryos already in storage and otherwise
    discarded.
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines from future
    embryos/fetuses if they would otherwise be
    discarded.
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines from any embryo,
    including those created for this purpose (perhaps
    through cloning)

8
NBAC
  • Do not fund (prohibit?) use of any stem cells
    even if already created (because implicated in
    killing embryo)
  • Fund use of embryonic stem cell lines that have
    already been created. (No funding for the
    creation in future.)
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines but only from
    embryos already in storage and otherwise
    discarded.
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines from future
    embryos/fetuses if they would otherwise be
    discarded.
  • Fund creation of stem cell lines from any embryo,
    including those created for this purpose (perhaps
    through cloning)

9
NBAC
  • Adult cells should not be considered an adequate
    alternative to embryonic
  • Embryos deserve respect but scientific and
    clinical benefits of stem cell research should
    not be foregone.
  • Development of public policy in a morally
    contested area is not a novel challenge for a
    pluralistic democracy as in U.S.

10
Use of Aborted Fetuses
  • OK to fund derivation and use of stem cells from
    aborted fetuses.
  • Must separate the decision to abort from the
    decision to donate
  • Can this really be done if women know that
    aborted fetuses are used?
  • But would it really influence a decision whether
    or not to abort?

11
Use of Excess Embryos
  • OK to fund use of embryos remaining after
    fertility treatment
  • The ban on federal funding of embryo research
    should be lifted conflcits with several of the
    ethical goals of medicineespecially healing,
    prevention, and research.
  • Objection (accepted by Pres. Bush) OK to fund
    use of already created stem cell lines but not
    their creation.
  • Research interests dictate against this
    separation.

12
Use of Excess Embryos
  • Must separate couples decision to discard embryo
    (rather than use or donate to another couple)
    from decision to donate.
  • Couple cannot direct to whom stem cells will go
    (to deny an incentive)

13
Embryos Created for Research
  • No funding for embryos specifically created for
    research at this time
  • No funding for cloning-for-research, embryos
    made from somatic cell nuclear transfer into
    oocytes
  • If later approved, ban on designated recipient
    will have to be changed (since likely to be self)

14
Still Pending
  • NBAC mainly discussed federal funding
  • Congress during Bush years was considering a ban
    on all cloning, both for reproduction and for
    research.
  • Kass initially favored allowing cloning for
    research but changed his mind
  • Could the two be adequately separated? What if
    research embryo implanted?

15
New Obama Policy
  • March 2009 President Obama issued executive
    order lifting ban on federal funding for
    embryonic stem cell research
  • Congress still needs to act if it wishes to
    change Dickey-Wicker amendment in spending bill
    which seems to prohibit federal funding through
    Sept. 2009
About PowerShow.com