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The American Civil War


Title: The American Civil War Author: jmerrill Last modified by: jmerrill Created Date: 1/28/2008 9:03:14 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Civil War

The American Civil War
  • Part Two
  • Soldiers, Battles, and a Divided Nations

  • We will state the importance of key events of the
    Civil War to include Antietam, Emancipation
    Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union
    blockade of Georgia's coast, Shermans Atlanta
    Campaign, Shermans March to the Sea, and

How did the Union and the Confederacy Compare
with each other?
Strengths of each side
  • Superior number of population, factories,
    manufacturing weapons, railroads, etc.
  • Out produce in food crops
  • Controlled 80 of bank money
  • Organized military and technology
  • Best Generals (Lee and Jackson)
  • Soldiers more experienced with outdoors, guns,
    and horses
  • Fighting to protect their homes
  • Patriotic spirit and confidence

Georgia in 1861
  • a. Agriculture By 1860 there were 68,000 farms
    in GA.
  • Produced 700,000 bales of cotton in 1860.
  • Only 3,500 farms (5) were of 500 acres or
  • b. Slavery 460,000 slaves (4 million in South
  • Only 236 Georgians owned more than 100
    slaves and 60 percent had no slaves at all.
  • Over half of the wealth of Georgia (400
    million) was in the value of slaves as property
  • c. Railroads 1,226 miles of railroads
  • Main lines were Savannah to Macon to
    Atlanta Montgomery, AL to Atlanta to Augusta
    Chattanooga to Atlanta
  • 1840s Atlanta first called Terminus (end of
    line Chattanooga to Chattahoochee River)

Confederate Railroads
Map Search
  • 1-Battle of Antietam 2-Battle of Gettysburg
    3-Battle of Chickamauga 4-Atlanta Campaign
    5-Andersonville 6-Shermans March to the Sea
    7-Battle of Shiloh
  • 8-Seige of Vicksburg 9-Battle of
  • 10-Richmond (Capital of Confederacy)
  • 11-Washington D.C. (Capital of Union)
  • 12-Milledgville (Capital of Georgia)
  • ------Union Blockade of the South
  • Major Railroads of Georgia

(No Transcript)
Military Objectives in 1861
  • Preserve the Union
  • Anaconda Plan
  • a. Divide the Confederacy in two via the
    Mississippi River
  • b. Capture Richmond
  • c. Capture important transportation centers
    (Atlanta) and ports
  • d. Union Blockade
  • (nothing coming in or out)
  • 1. Maintain Independence!!!
  • 2. Offensive Defense
  • 3. Cotton Diplomacy
  • Hope European powers will
  • a. Break the Northern blockade
  • b. Join the side of the South against the
  • 4. Test Northern public opinions will to fight

Daily Lives of Civilians and Soldiers during the
Civil War (SS8H6b) 1. How were the daily lives
of Southerners affected by the Union Blockade?
They couldnt import sugar and coffee. Cotton and
tobacco couldnt be shipped out. Limited amount
of meat. Do to limited supply of food prices
rose dramatically ex. Salt used to be one cent a
pound before war now it is fifty cents, flour 200
dollars a barrel also shoes were a hundred
dollars a pair. People resorted to using curtains
and carpets to make clothes used animal skins for
shoes Limited med supply confederate soldiers had
to do without guns and uniforms people had very
little wood or coal to heat their homes 2.
Nickname for a Union soldier was Billy Yank, and
the nickname for a Confederate soldier was Johnny
Rebel. 3. What were the average daily rations
for a Union soldier? 20 oz. of beef, 18 of flour,
2.5 of dried beans, 1.6 of coffee, 2.4 of
sugar,.64 of salt What rations for a Confederate
soldier? And why who they have very little?
1.4lbs of bacon 18oz. of flour 10lbs of rice
small amount of dried beans and fruit 4. The
color of the Union uniforms was blue and the
typical Confederate soldier wore grey colored
uniforms. 5. What items would a Civil War carry
in their knapsacks and belts? Paper to write
letters home, pictures, book, utensils and a cup,
sewing kit Cap box, rolled up blanket 6. What
types of activities would Civil War soldiers
engage in when not in battle? Play jokes on each
other, write letters, read letters, play games
such as chess, checkers, gambling, wood carving,
prayer and camp meetings
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862
  • Battle of Antietam was the victory Lincoln needed
    to make the proclamation public
  • Changed the focus of the war from just
    preserving the Union to
  • Freeing men from slavery!!!
  • Freed slaves only in areas that were in
    rebellion against United States

Lincolns reasons for the Emancipation
  • Military
  • Incentive to stop rebellion
  • Use freedmen as soldiers
  • Demoralize Confederate leaders and soldiers
  • Diplomatically
  • Convince Great Britain and France from joining on
    side of Confederacy (or)
  • Recognizing southern independence

Lincolns reasons for the Emancipation
  • Morally
  • 1. Bring the nation in line with the
    principle in the Declaration of Independence that
    all men are created equal
  • 2. Raised the perception of war from
    political to moral not just preserving the
    Union BUT making men free!!
  • 3. Speed up the inevitableslavery will end
    someday, so why not NOW!!
  • 4. Lincolns own personal convictions

What did it say?
  • That on the 1st day of January, A.D. 1863, all
    persons held as slaves within any State or
    designated part of a State the people whereof
    shall then be in rebellion against the United
    States shall then, thenceforward, and forever
    free. . .
  • Or in todays language if you are still fighting
    against the United Sates, you lose your slaves!!!!

1. Slaves would be freed in the
states of Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi,
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and
North Carolina 2. Slaves will only be freed in
certain part of the states of Louisiana (southern
part and New Orleans) and Virginia (western
Virginia and by Norfolk) 3. Slavery will remain
in the border states of Missouri, Kentucky,
Maryland, Delaware, and Tennessee
African-American Soldiers 1. How many
African-Americans fought in the Civil War? 2.
What did the 54th Massachusetts felt they had to
prove during the war? 3. What famous battle did
they prove themselves as soldiers? 4. Which black
soldier won the Congressional Medal of Honor? 5.
What was the most honored position within an army
unit during the Civil War? (Information was from
Georgia Stories Video Series)
Animated maps of the Battle of Chickamauga
Civil War in Georgia 1863
  • Battle of Chickamauga (September 19-20)
  • Union western forces planned to secure important
    railroad center of Chattanooga, TN. To do so,
    move to defeat Confederates at Chickamauga Creek
    in northern Georgia.
  • Confederates, lead by General Braxton Bragg,
    defeats Union army.
  • Retreat back to Chattanooga and Confederates trap
  • Bragg, however, fails to follow up and attack.
    Another victory would have turned the war in the
    favor of the South (lost at Gettysburg and
    Vicksburg two months before)
  • General U.S. Grant takes over for Union, and
    defeats Braggs army in November 1863.
  • Chickamauga seen as The Last hurrah of the

Civil War In Georgia 1864
Atlanta Campaign (May to September 1864)
Three Contest in 1864 which will decide the
War 1 Battles in Virginia
  • Robert E. Lee (General of the Army of Northern
  • U.S. Grant (Lt. General of the Army of the

Three Contests in 1864 which will decide the
War 2 Battles in Georgia
  • General William T. Sherman
  • (112, 000 soldiers)
  • General Joseph E. Johnston
  • (60,000 soldiers)

Three Contest in 1864 which will decide the
War 3 Election of 1864
  • General George B. McClellan
  • (Northern Democrats or
  • Copperheads who opposed the won)
  • Fired by Lincoln twice
  • Abraham Lincoln (Republican Party)
  • Running for re-election
  • Emancipation Proclamation

In Spring of 1864, Grants and Shermans armies
move to defeat the southern armies. Grants
objective was to defeat Robert E. Lee and capture
Richmond Shermans objective was to defeat
Johnstons army in Georgia and capture the
industrial and railroad center of Atlanta.
Abraham Lincoln was running for re-election and
needed one of the two southern armies defeated,
and Richmond or Atlanta captured. Why? Ex-Genera
l George McClellan and Copperheads were feeding
off the Northern citizens who were becoming tried
of the war!! (Too many killed Is the Union worth
By July 1864 the fate of the Union looked bad!!
  • WHY??
  • Lee and Grant fought to a tie, and both armies
    entrenched around St. Petersburg and Richmond, VA
  • Northern public perceived Grant as a butcher by
    sacrificing too many soldiers
  • Robert E. Lee is unstoppable and cannot be

  • In Georgia, Shermans and Johnstons armies fight
    to a stalemate outside of Atlanta.
  • Although outnumbered and out gunned,
  • a. Johnston plays a defensive campaign and
    refuses to attack
  • b. Forces Sherman to attack and lose men
    (such as, Kennesaw Mountain where 3,000 died or
  • c. Burns bridges and blocks roads to slow
    Shermans advance towards Atlanta

  • As a result, the Northern public perceives
    Lincolns war strategies as a failure
  • The cities of Atlanta and Richmond can never be
  • The war is going NO WHERE!!
  • Copperheads and Democrats promise an end to the
    war, allow the Confederacy their independence,
    and void the Emancipation Proclamation if
    McClellan is elected as President to replace

  • So all the Confederacy has to do is to hold onto
    their positions and maintain the stalemates
    outside of Atlanta and Richmond until Novembers
    1864 Presidential election.
  • BUTdid that happen?
  • NO!! Someone changed all that!!

  • Ironically, the Confederacys own President,
    Jefferson Davis fires Johnston as commander of
    the southern troops in Georgia
  • Why?
  • Wanted a General who attacked
  • Personality conflict with Johnston

Now What?
  • John Bell Hood, new commander of southern army in
    GA, leads series of foolish and overconfident
    attack on Shermans in July and August 1864.
  • Over 12,000 irreplaceable troops are lost, and
    eventually had to leave Atlanta on September
  • The Consequences
  • Lincoln gets his victory and is re-elected (The
    war will go on.)
  • South loses an important transportation and
    industrial center (Cannot supply Lees troops in
  • Opens the door for Sherman to wage Total War in

Georgia Stories Battle of Jonesboro
Shermans March to the Sea A Tragic Example of
Total War
  • In November 15, 1864, General Sherman started out
    to capture Savannah, GA.
  • He also wanted to wage total war on the South
    (military and civilians). Why?
  • a. Break down what economic and
    transportation resources the South still had.
  • b. Punish the South for leaving the Union
  • c. Break the spirit of its people and bring
    war to a quick end.
  • Breaking off all communication with Washington,
    Sherman lead 65,000 Union troops on a path of
    destruction on innocent citizens
  • For five weeks, Shermans army burnt farms,
    plantation homes, and confiscated most food

Describe this picture. Who is involved? And
what are they doing?
(No Transcript)
His troops left Sherman sentinels which were
burnt homes with only the chimneys standing
They also left Sherman neckties which were
rails torn up, heated and then wrapped around
  • Oh God, the time of trial has come!
  • Personal Account of Shermans March
  • Dolly Sumner Lunt was born in Maine in 1817. She
    moved to Georgia as a young woman to join her
    married sister. She became a school teacher in
    Covington, Ga. where she met and married Thomas
    Burge, a plantation owner. When her husband died
    in 1858, Dolly was left alone to manage the
    plantation and its slaves. Dolly kept a diary of
    her experiences and we join her story as
    Sherman's army approaches her home
  • November 19, 1864
  • Slept in my clothes last night, as I heard that
    the Yankees went to neighbor Montgomery's on
    Thursday night at one o'clock, searched his
    house, drank his wine, and took his money and
    valuables. As we were not disturbed, I walked
    after breakfast, with Sadai the narrator's
    9-year-old daughter, up to Mr. Joe Perry's, my
    nearest neighbor, where the Yankees were

Saw Mrs. Laura Perry in the road surrounded by
her children, seeming to be looking for some one.
She said she was looking for her husband, that
old Mrs. Perry had just sent her word that the
Yankees went to James Perry's the night before,
plundered his house, and drove off all his stock,
and that she must drive hers into the old fields.
Before we were done talking, up came Joe and Jim
Perry from their hiding-place. Jim was very much
excited. Happening to turn and look behind, as we
stood there, I saw some blue-coats coming down
the hill. Jim immediately raised his gun,
swearing he would kill them anyhow. 'No, don't!'
said I, and ran home as fast as I could, with
Sadai. I could hear them cry, 'Halt! Halt!' and
their guns went off in quick succession. Oh God,
the time of trial has come! A man passed on his
way to Covington. I halloed to him, asking him if
he did not know the Yankees were coming. 'No -
are they?' 'Yes,' said I 'they are not three
hundred yards from here.' 'Sure enough,' said
he. 'Well, I'll not go. I don't want them to get
my horse.' And although within hearing of their
guns, he would stop and look for them. Blissful
ignorance! Not knowing, not hearing, he has not
suffered the suspense, the fear, that I have for
the past forty-eight hours. I walked to the gate.
There they came filing up. I hastened back to my
frightened servants and told them that they had
better hide, and then went back to the gate to
claim protection and a guard. But like demons
they rush in! My yards are full.
To my smoke-house, my dairy, pantry, kitchen, and
cellar, like famished wolves they come, breaking
locks and whatever is in their way. The thousand
pounds of meat in my smoke-house is gone in a
twinkling, my flour, my meat, my lard, butter,
eggs, pickles of various kinds - both in vinegar
and brine - wine, jars, and jugs are all gone. My
eighteen fat turkeys, my hens, chickens, and
fowls, my young pigs, are shot down in my yard
and hunted as if they were rebels themselves.
Utterly powerless I ran out and appealed to the
guard. 'I cannot help you, Madam it is
orders.' ...Alas! little did I think while trying
to save my house from plunder and fire that they
were forcing my boys slaves from home at the
point of the bayonet. One, Newton, jumped into
bed in his cabin, and declared himself sick.
Another crawled under the floor, - a lame boy he
was, - but they pulled him out, placed him on a
horse, and drove him off. Mid, poor Mid! The last
I saw of him, a man had him going around the
garden, looking, as I thought, for my sheep, as
he was my shepherd. Jack came crying to me, the
big tears coursing down his cheeks, saying they
were making him go. I said 'Stay in my room.'
But a man followed in, cursing him and
threatening to shoot him if he did not go so
poor Jack had to yield. ...
Sherman himself and a greater portion of his army
passed my house that day. All day, as the sad
moments rolled on, were they passing not only in
front of my house, but from behind they tore
down my garden palings, made a road through my
back-yard and lot field, driving their stock and
riding through, tearing down my fences and
desolating my home - wantonly doing it when there
was no necessity for it. ...As night drew its
sable curtains around us, the heavens from every
point were lit up with flames from burning
buildings. Dinnerless and supperless as we were,
it was nothing in comparison with the fear of
being driven out homeless to the dreary woods.
Nothing to eat! I could give my guard no supper,
so he left us. My Heavenly Father alone saved me
from the destructive fire. My carriage-house had
in it eight bales of cotton, with my carriage,
buggy, and harness. On top of the cotton were
some carded cotton rolls, a hundred pounds or
more. These were thrown out of the blanket in
which they were, and a large twist of the rolls
taken and set on fire, and thrown into the boat
of my carriage, which was close up to the cotton
bales. Thanks to my God, the cotton only burned
over, and then went out. Shall I ever forget the
deliverance? November 20, 1864. About ten o'clock
they had all passed save one, who came in and
wanted coffee made, which was done, and he, too,
went on. A few minutes elapsed, and two couriers
riding rapidly passed back. Then, presently, more
soldiers came by, and this ended the passing of
Sherman's army by my place, leaving me poorer by
thirty thousand dollars than I was yesterday
morning. And a much stronger Rebel!"
Andersonville How many soldiers were imprisoned
at Andersonville prison? What did prisoners used
for shelters? What were the men called who stole
from other prisoners? What did the small stream
in the middle of Andersonville prison double
as? 5. How many men died at Andersonville? (Info
rmation from Georgia Stories Video Series)