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Nucleic acids

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Nucleic acids 2006-2007 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nucleic acids


1
Nucleic acids
2
  • Nucleic Acids

Informationstorage
3
Nucleic Acids
  • Function
  • genetic material
  • stores information
  • genes
  • blueprint for building proteins
  • DNA ? RNA ? proteins
  • transfers information
  • blueprint for new cells
  • blueprint for next generation

4
(No Transcript)
5
Nucleic Acids
  • Examples
  • RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  • single helix
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  • double helix
  • Structure
  • monomers nucleotides

RNA
DNA
6
Nucleotides
  • 3 parts
  • nitrogen base (C-N ring)
  • pentose sugar (5C)
  • ribose in RNA
  • deoxyribose in DNA
  • phosphate (PO4) group

Nitrogen baseIm the A,T,C,G or Upart!
Are nucleic acidscharged molecules?
7
Types of nucleotides
Purine AG Pure silver!
  • 2 types of nucleotides
  • different nitrogen bases
  • purines
  • double ring N base
  • adenine (A)
  • guanine (G)
  • pyrimidines
  • single ring N base
  • cytosine (C)
  • thymine (T)
  • uracil (U)

8
Nucleic polymer
  • Backbone
  • sugar to PO4 bond
  • phosphodiester bond
  • new base added to sugar of previous base
  • polymer grows in one direction
  • N bases hang off the sugar-phosphate backbone

Dangling bases?Why is this important?
9
Pairing of nucleotides
  • Nucleotides bond between DNA strands
  • H bonds
  • purine pyrimidine
  • A T
  • 2 H bonds
  • G C
  • 3 H bonds

Matching bases?Why is this important?
10
DNA molecule
  • Double helix
  • H bonds between bases join the 2 strands
  • A T
  • C G

H bonds?Why is this important?
11
Copying DNA
  • Replication
  • 2 strands of DNA helix are complementary
  • have one, can build other
  • have one, can rebuild the whole

Matching halves?Why is this a good system?
12
When does a cell copy DNA?
  • When in the life of a cell does DNA have to be
    copied?
  • cell reproduction
  • mitosis
  • gamete production
  • meiosis

13
DNA replication
  • It has not escaped our notice that the specific
    pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a
    possible copying mechanism for the genetic
    material.
  • James Watson
  • Francis Crick
  • 1953

14
Watson and Crick and others
1953 1962
15
Maurice Wilkins and
1953 1962
16
Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)
17
Interesting note
  • Ratio of A-TG-C affects stability of DNA
    molecule
  • 2 H bonds vs. 3 H bonds
  • biotech procedures
  • more G-C need higher T to separate strands
  • high T organisms
  • many G-C
  • parasites
  • many A-T (dont know why)

18
Another interesting note
  • ATPAdenosine triphosphate
  • modified nucleotide
  • adenine (AMP) Pi Pi



19
HELIXHELIX
20
  • Macromolecule Review

21
Carbohydrates
  • Structure / monomer
  • monosaccharide
  • Function
  • energy
  • raw materials
  • energy storage
  • structural compounds
  • Examples
  • glucose, starch, cellulose, glycogen

glycosidic bond
22
Lipids
  • Structure / building block
  • glycerol, fatty acid, cholesterol, H-C chains
  • Function
  • energy storage
  • membranes
  • hormones
  • Examples
  • fat, phospholipids, steroids

ester bond (in a fat)
23
Proteins
  • Structure / monomer
  • amino acids
  • levels of structure
  • Function
  • enzymes u defense
  • transport u structure
  • signals u receptors
  • Examples
  • digestive enzymes, membrane channels, insulin
    hormone, actin

peptide bond
24
Nucleic acids
  • Structure / monomer
  • nucleotide
  • Function
  • information storage transfer
  • Examples
  • DNA, RNA

phosphodiester bond
25
Lets buildsome DNA, baby!
26
Ghosts of Lectures Past(storage)
27
Building the polymer
28
RNA DNA
  • RNA
  • single nucleotide chain
  • DNA
  • double nucleotide chain
  • N bases bond in pairs across chains
  • spiraled in a double helix
  • double helix 1st proposed as structure of DNA in
    1953 by James Watson Francis Crick (just
    celebrated 50th anniversary in 2003!)

29
Information polymer
  • Function
  • series of bases encodes information
  • like the letters of a book
  • stored information is passed from parent to
    offspring
  • need to copy accurately
  • stored information genes
  • genetic information

Passing on information?Why is this important?
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