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Introduction to Waste Management

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Introduction to Waste ... Traditional Methods (dumping and burning ... recycling We recycle only 32% Bauxite mining destroys habitat Steel 35% recycling rate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Waste Management


1
Introduction to Waste Management
  • Solid Waste is generally made of objects or
    particles that accumulate on the site where they
    are produced.
  • Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) amounts to 230
    million tons annually.

2
Disposable Decades
  • In mid-1950s, a disposable lifestyle was marketed
    as the wave of the future, and as a way to reduce
    household duties.
  • Consumerism began in earnest following WWII.
  • Convenience was sold to prosperous post-war
    consumers.
  • Convenience quickly changed to necessity.
  • TV dinners first marketed in 1953.

3
Nature of the Problem
  • U.S. MSW volume has increased more than 50 since
    1960.
  • Developed countries have a higher standard of
    living, and thus produce more waste. (Affluence)
  • Traditional Methods (dumping and burning) are no
    longer accepted.

4
Waste Generation and Lifestyle
5
Where does it come from?
6
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7
Paper
  • 37-40 of all waste
  • We recycle only 20, Japan and Mexico, 50
  • Recycling a ton of paper also saves
  • Water - 60,000 gallons
  • Electricity - 225 KWH, enough to run your
    refrigerator for a year
  • 275 of sulfur and 350 of limestone

8
Yard Waste
  • Over 50 of waste stream at some times
  • Compost instead
  • Many cities are actively encouraging composting

9
Aluminum
  • We use 270 cans/person/year
  • A 95 energy savings for recycling
  • We recycle only 32
  • Bauxite mining destroys habitat

10
Steel
  • 35 recycling rate
  • Electric Arc Furnaces can use 100 recycled steel
  • Easy to separate from the waste stream - its
    magnetic

11
Glass
  • Returnable bottles are the MOST efficient
    beverage container (Alum. Can is a close second)
  • Glass for recycling is called cullet
  • Saves energy also

12
Plastic
  • Plastic doesn't degrade
  • Harder but not impossible to recycle
  • Threat to Wildlife
  • Plastics come from oil - our most rapidly
    disappearing resource

13
Where does it go?
  • Landfills
  • Composting
  • Incineration
  • Source reduction
  • recycling

14
Landfilling
  • Municipal landfill typically a depression in
    impermeable clay layer, lined with impermeable
    membrane.
  • Traditionally been primary method of waste
    disposal cheap and convenient.
  • Large landfills often employ methane gas and
    leachate detection systems.
  • In some cases, methane collected and used to
    generate electricity.

15
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16
Landfilling
  • Currently, vast majority of North American
    municipal solid waste is deposited in landfills.
  • Number of landfills is declining.
  • New landfills often resisted due to public
    concerns over groundwater contamination, odors,
    and truck traffic.

17
Landfills
  • Our most primitive method of disposal
  • Filling up in a hurry
  • Danger of leaching (runoff)

18
The NIMBY Syndrome
  • Not
  • In
  • My
  • Back
  • Yard

19
Reducing the Number of Landfills
20
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21
Incineration
  • Prior to 1940, incineration was common in North
    America and western Europe.
  • Many incinerators were eliminated because of
    aesthetic concerns.
  • Currently, about 15 of U.S. municipal solid
    waste is incinerated.
  • Derived heat often used for electrical
    generation.

22
Incineration
  • Incinerators drastically reduce the amount of
    municipal solid waste.
  • Up to 90 by volume and 75 by weight.
  • Even with modern pollution controls, small
    amounts of pollutants still released into env.
  • Cost and siting of new incinerators major
    problems facing communities.

23
Incineration
  • Recovers energy from waste (good)
  • Reduces landfill space (good)
  • Air pollution (bad)
  • Toxic ash (bad)

24
Composting
  • Harnessing natural decomposition to transform
    organic material into compost (humus-like
    product).
  • By properly managing air and water, composting
    can transform large quantities over a short
    period of time.

25
Composting
  • Just pile it up and let nature do its thing!
  • Yard waste is 20 of the waste stream
  • Many cities no longer take yard waste.

26
Source Reduction
  • Most fundamental method of reducing waste is to
    prevent it from being produced (Waste
    Prevention).
  • Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in
    1977, weight has been reduced by 25.
  • Saves natural resources.
  • Reduces waste toxicity.
  • Reduces costs.

27
Recycling
  • Recycling initiatives have grown rapidly in North
    America during the past several years.
  • Programs
  • By 2000, 9,000 U.S. cities had implemented
    curbside recycling programs.
  • Some states and local governments have enacted
    container laws to force increased recycling.

28
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29
Recycling Benefits
  • Resource Conservation
  • Pollution Reduction
  • Crushed glass reduces energy required to
    manufacture new glass by 50.
  • One Sunday edition of N.Y. times consumes 62,000
    trees.
  • Only 40 of North American paper is recycled.
  • Over 60 of aluminum cans recycled.

30
Recycling Concerns
  • Plastics are recyclable, but technology differs
    from plastic to plastic.
  • Industry is researching new technologies.
  • Economics are of concern.
  • Unless demand for products keeps pace with
    growing supply, recycling programs will face an
    uncertain future.

31
Recycling Concerns
  • Long-term success of recycling programs is also
    tied to other economic incentives such as taxing
    issues and the development of and demand for
    products manufactured from recycled materials.
  • Currently in the U.S., it is still cheaper to use
    virgin material than transport recycled materials.

32
The Three Rs
  • Reduce
  • Stay away from over-packaged items buy durable
    goods
  • Reuse
  • Paper sacks, newspaper, clothes,etc.
  • Recycle
  • Paper, Plastic, Aluminum, Steel and Glass

33
Hazardous Waste
  • Reuse and Recycle
  • Process Manipulation
  • Detoxification
  • Secured Landfills
  • Deep Injection Wells
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