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Advances in Filtration Technology


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Title: Advances in Filtration Technology

Advances in Filtration Technology
Argonide Corporation
  • Argonide Corporation, Sanford, Florida

Introduction to Filtration The Basics
  • Filtration Comfort Zone
  • Distillation
  • Ion Exchange
  • Carbon Adsorption
  • Microporous Filtration (MF)
  • Ultraporous Filtration (UF)
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO)
  • Backwashable vs. Disposable
  • Cartridge Filters vs. Bag Filters
  • Cartridge Filters
  • Bag Filters

Filtration Comfort Zone
  • Most veteran filtration professionals are
    comfortable with filtration that works through
    mechanically sieving particles that are equal to
    or larger than the poresize of the filter media
  • A filter with a poresize of 2 µm will retain
    particles to 2 µm with great efficiency, but
    will pass particles that are finer in size.
  • A surface filter (i.e. membrane) will retain
    particulate on its surface that faces the
    influent stream
  • Standard fibrous depth filters have an advantage
    as they capture dirt throughout their
    filtration matrix, thereby increasing the dirt
    holding capacity
  • These standard fibrous depth filters are still
    limited in their efficiency at capturing smaller
    particulate by their poresize even with an
    increased efficiency through filter cake build-up

Distillation is probably the oldest method of
water purification. Water is first heated to
boiling. The water vapor rises to a condenser
where cooling water lowers the temperature so the
vapor is condensed, collected and stored. Most
contaminants remain behind in the liquid phase
vessel. However, there can sometimes be what is
called carry-overs in the water that is
distilled. Organics such as herbicides and
pesticides, with boiling points lower than 100C
cannot be removed efficiently and can actually
become concentrated in the product water. Another
disadvantage is cost. Distillation requires large
amounts of energy and water. Distilled water can
also be very acidic, having a low pH, thus should
be contained in glass. It lacks oxygen and
minerals and has a flat taste, which is why it is
mostly used in industrial processes.
Ion Exchange
The ion exchange process percolates water through
bead-like spherical resin materials (ion-exchange
resins). Ions in the water are exchanged for
other ions fixed to the beads. The two most
common ion-exchange methods are softening and
Softening is used primarily as a pretreatment
method to reduce water hardness prior to reverse
osmosis (RO) processing. The softeners contain
beads that exchange two sodium ions for every
calcium or magnesium ion removed from the
"softened" water.
Deionization can be an important component of a
total water purification system when used in
combination with other methods discussed in this
primer such as RO, filtration and carbon
adsorption. DI systems effectively remove ions,
but they do not effectively remove most organics
or microorganisms. Microorganisms can attach to
the resins, providing a culture media for rapid
bacterial growth and subsequent pyrogen
Carbon Adsorption
Activated carbon effectively removes many
chemicals and gases, and in some cases it can be
effective against microorganisms. However,
generally it will not affect total dissolved
solids, hardness, or heavy metals.
Activated carbon is created from a variety of
carbon-based materials in a high-temperature
process that creates a matrix of millions of
microscopic pores and crevices. The carbon
adsorption process is controlled by the diameter
of the pores in the carbon filter and by the
diffusion rate of organic molecules through the
The rate of adsorption is a function of the
molecular weight and size of the organics. Carbon
also removes free chlorine and protects other
purification media in the system that may be
sensitive to an oxidant such as chlorine. Carbon
is usually used in combination with other
treatment processes. The placement of carbon in
relation to other components is an important
consideration in the design of a water
purification system.
Microporous Basic Filtration
  • There are three types of microporous filtration
    depth, screen and surface.
  • Depth filters are matted fibers or materials
    compressed to form a matrix that retains
    particles by random adsorption or entrapment.
  • Screen filters are inherently uniform structures
    which, like a sieve, retain all particles larger
    than the precisely controlled pore size on their
  • Surface filters are made from multiple layers of
    media. When fluid passes through the filter,
    particles larger than the spaces within the
    filter matrix are retained, accumulating
    primarily on the surface of the filter. In many
    respects, surface filters can often be
    constructed from multiple layers of Screen

Microporous Basic Filtration (cont.)
The distinction between filters is important
because the three serve very different functions.
Depth filters are usually used as prefilters
because they are an economical way to remove 98
of suspended solids and protect elements
downstream from fouling or clogging.
Surface filters can remove 99.99 of suspended
solids and may be used as either prefilters or
clarifying filters. Microporous membrane (screen)
filters are placed at the
last possible point in a system to remove the
last remaining traces of resin fragments, carbon
fines, colloidal particles and microorganisms.
  • A microporous membrane filter removes particles
    according to pore size. Taking it a step further,
    an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane does much the
    same, but with smaller pore structure providing a
    finer filtration level.
  • Ultrafiltration membranes could be used to
    separate very fine suspended or un-dissolved
    contaminants from water. Over time, ultrafilters
    have also gained some acceptance relative to the
    separation of oil from water in oily emulsions.

It is important to note that selection of the
correct ultrafilter membrane is critical to the
successful removal of targeted contaminants from
water. Selection of the wrong membrane can result
in ineffective removal of contaminants or
irreversible fouling, which may result in an
expensive membrane replacement.
Reverse Osmosis (R.O.)
  • The pore structure of RO membranes is much
    tighter than UF membranes. RO membranes are
    capable of rejecting practically all particles,
    bacteria and organics gt300 daltons molecular
    weight (including pyrogens). In fact, reverse
    osmosis technology is used by most leading water
    bottling plants.
  • Because RO membranes are very restrictive, they
    yield slow flow rates. Storage tanks are required
    to produce an adequate volume in a reasonable
    amount of time. Reverse osmosis is highly
    effective in removing several impurities from
    water such as total dissolved solids (TDS),
    turbidity, asbestos, lead and other toxic heavy
    metals, radium, and many dissolved organics. The
    process will also remove chlorinated pesticides
    and most heavier-weight VOCs.

RO is the most economical and efficient method
for purifying tap water if the system is properly
designed for the feed water conditions and the
intended use of the product water. RO is also the
optimum pretreatment for reagent-grade water
polishing systems.
Backwashable vs. Disposable
Most applications will benefit from some form of
gradient filtration. Stepping from coarse to fine
to polishing modes extends the active life of
each level of filtration, often improving the
  • As an example
  • Multi-media beds
  • Sediment filters
  • Micro or Ultraporous Membrane
  • R.O. Membrane

At coarser levels of filtration, inexpensive
filter elements (sometimes backwashable) are
fairly common. When you move into the sub-micron
filtration range, membranes become the only real
viable alternative for backwashable filtration,
but at a high cost.
Cartridge Filters vs. Bag Filters
In many filtering applications, a choice between
the use of a cartridge filter or a bag filter has
to be made. Both are sediment filters, but there
are some differences between these two filter
In general, cartridge filters are preferable for
systems with contaminations lower than 100 ppm,
that is to say with contamination levels lower
than 0.01 in weight. Conversely, bag filters
are preferable for systems with higher
contamination loads. Conditions that can affect
this choice include flow rates and the nature of
the contaminants being filtered from the process
Cartridge Filters
  • Conventional cartridge filters can be surface or
    depth-type filters. The choice of which type of
    cartridge filter depends on the application
  • Surface filters (that are usually made of thin
    materials like papers, woven wire, cloths)
    function by blocking particles on the surface of
    the filter. Surface filters are best if you are
    filtering sediment of similar-sized particles. If
    all particles are i.e. five micron, a pleated
    5-micron filter works best because it has more
    surface area than other filters.
  • Depth-type filters capture particles and
    contaminants through the total thickness of the
    medium . Compared with pleated surface
    filters, depth filters have a limited surface
    area, but they have the advantage of depth.

It can be generally stated that if the size of
filter surface is increased, higher flows are
possible, the filter lasts longer, and the
dirt-holding capacity increases. Cartridge
filters are typically designed as disposable.
Bag Filters
In general, bag filters are frequently used for
dust removal in industrial applications. Bag
filters are mostly surface-type filters.   The
flow can be from the outside to the inside of the
filter (that means, the separation of particles
happens on the external surface of the filter) or
the other way around, depending on the
application. The particles are normally captured
on the internal surface of the bag filter. The
later is most common when filtering fluids. Bag
filters are generally designed for replacement
when they are clogged, but some bag filters for
gaseous applications like dust removal can be
cleaned, for example by mechanical shaking or by
backwashing with compressed air (so called
reverse-flow bag filters).    A rule of thumb is
that for concentrations higher than 5 mg/m3 a
surface filter is favored, while for
concentrations lower than 0.5 mg/m3 a depth-type
filter is preferred. In general, surface filters
can by backwashed and cleaned more easily, while
depth-type filters normally have to be disposed
when clogged.
NanoCeram Next Generation Filtration
  • General Background Nano Alumina (NanoCeram)
  • How Does It Work?
  • Nano Alumina Filter Characteristics
  • Electron Microscopic Image
  • Filtering Dirt Particles
  • Comparison of Flow Capacity
  • Adsorption Curves for Different Size of Latex
  • Prefilters for Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membranes
  • Metals Reduction
  • Iron Removal
  • Iron Regeneration Studies
  • The Value of Iron Removal

General Background - NanoCeram Filters
Nano alumina (NC for nano ceramic or NanoCeram)
fibers are combined into a non-woven filter, and
retain particles by electrostatic forces Data
are presented on dirt holding capacity, flowrate
and filtration efficiency, focusing on sub-micron
particles, showing
  • 1. Dirt holding capacity of NA filters exceeds
    typical UP membranes by 100 times
  • 2. Flowrates of NA filters are two orders of
    magnitude greater than UP membranes
  • 3. NA filters have higher particle retention
    efficiency than MP and UP membranes

How Does It Work?
Nano alumina fibers with an average diameter of
2nm are infused throughout the entire structure
of the filter medias matrix. Literally
trillions of highly electropositive nano alumina
fibers per ft2 of media provide a high degree of
freedom in designing filtration solutions
  • 1. Average poresize of 2µ yields an absolute
    rating of 0.2µ
  • 2. Flowrates of NA filters are many times
    greater than 0.2µ MP membranes with similar 0.2µ
    particle retention efficiency
  • 3. NA filters have higher particle retention
    efficiency than MP and UP membranes

This freedom in designing filtration solutions
can be extended into other arenas including air
filtration. By adjusting the porosity of the
filter media, reduced pressure drop can be
achieved, often with efficiencies far beyond
other existing technologies.
Nano Alumina Filter Characteristics
  • Nano alumina fibers are combined with microglass
    fibers to produce a non-woven filter media with a
    pore size of 2 microns
  • These nano alumina fibers are highly
    electropositive and retain particles by
  • The media is 0.8 mm thick
  • It can retain silica, activated carbon, natural
    organic matter, metals, cysts, bacteria, DNA/RNA
    and virus
  • The media can be pleated or rolled to form
    cartridges formed into a bag or used as flat
    stock in filter presses and other filtration

Electron Microscopic Image
NanoCeram Fibers
The active ingredient of the filter media is a
nano alumina (AlOOH) fiber, only 2 nanometers in
diameter. The nano fibers are highly
The filter media is manufactured through paper
making tech-nology. In a multi-step process, the
nano fibers (right) are dispersed and adhere to
glass fibers. The nano alumina is seen as a fuzz
on the microglass fiber (left).
Because the nano alumina is fully dispersed,
particles have easy access to the charged surface.
Capacity of NanoCeram media when tested with A2
fine test dust (1-4 µm) vs data presented by C.
Shields for other media.
Filtering Dirt Particles
Its dirt holding capacity of 574 mg/in2 is almost
twenty times greater than microglass filter media
when compared at a pore size rating of 1 µm and
far greater than that if compared at the smaller
pore size ratings.
Comparison of Flow Capacity
Pore size
The NanoCeram filters flow rate is superimposed
over Shields data 1 for clean water. Its flow
rate is about four times that of 1 µm microglass
media and even greater when compared to 0.2 or
0.5 µm pore size filters. The flow rate through
meltblown and membrane media are even much less.
1 - C. Shields, High Performance
Microfiltration Media, Presented at American
Filtration Meeting, Marriott, Baltimore/Washington
Airport, Nov. 16-17, 2004
Adsorption Curves for Different Size Latex
A single layer 25 mm diameter NanoCeram filter
disk was challenged _at_ 3 cm/min by a continuous
stream of latex beads. The filter eventually
clogs without exhibiting a breakthrough curve,
except for the smallest (0.03 µm) beads.
Bacteria size particles (0.2 to 4.5 µm) are
intercepted with high efficiency.
Prefilters for Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membranes
RO filters are expensive to replace and are
highly sensitive to fouling by sub-micron
particles. Ultraporous (UP) membranes are often
used as RO prefilters. They too are subject to
fouling, and are used in a cross-filtration mode
to minimize fouling. Cross flow results in a
waste stream, often 3-10 times greater than the
stream being purified. NanoCeram filters can
sustain high flow in a dead-end mode and generate
no waste stream. Results include significant
increase of flux through an RO membrane by
significantly reducing the quantity of sub-micron
particulate (silt) challenging the membrane
during operation.
Metals Reduction
  • Independent laboratory testing has shown that
    this electropositive filter media is effective in
    adsorbing a variety of metals in both ionic and
    particulate form. These include
  • Iron
  • Aluminum
  • Copper
  • Tin
  • Lead
  • Chromium III

Filtered Volume through 8.2 cm2 NanoCeram Filter
Iron Removal
  • Testing performed at TMMK for iron reduction in
    chill water determined that although quite
    effective at iron removal, a typical 4.5 x 20
    filter cartridge would plug after filtering only
    2,400 gallons of chill water with a 3 ppm iron
    concentration. Considering that the levels of
    iron would decline as filtration continued over
    time, this scenario would require a total of
    4,000 filter cartridges to bring the iron levels
    down to near zero.
  • The combination of iron and iron bacteria in that
    system leads to corrosive conditions requiring
    continuous maintenance and repair of chiller
    tubes and eventually the many linear miles of
    iron piping comprising this closed loop system.
  • These filter cartridges are not inexpensive and
    the project was not feasible considering that
    each cartridge is considered a dead end filter.
    Prior experience with these filters has shown
    that it is nearly impossible to remove adsorbed
    contaminants from the filters after they have
    been adsorbed. Recharging the filters has been an
    ongoing subject for several years.

Iron Regeneration Studies
  • In part, due to this testing performed at TMMK
    for iron reduction, Argonide embarked on a
    program that has shown that NanoCeram filters can
    be recharged when used in an iron reduction
  • Laboratory testing using a simple process has
    yielded a recovery rate of approximately 90 for
    a standard NanoCeram filter cartridge for iron.
    This testing has shown that the iron capacity of
    a standard NanoCeram filter is approximately 4
    times improved over the initial results achieved
    at TMMK.
  • This process can be utilized on-site with minimal
    interruption of service. In the scenario
    previously mentioned, total filter usage is much
    more reasonable and brings the project closer to
    an acceptable ROI.

The Value of Iron Reduction
  • In addition to chill water systems at TMMK and
    other plants, additional areas of interest
  • Steam Condensate Recovery a pilot project is
    underway at TMMI to recover approximately 40 gpm
    of steam condensate that is currently being sent
    to waste. This waste water is at 90C contains
    approximately 0.15 ppm of Iron. Recovery of this
    water will save Toyota both in terms of water
    waste and energy consumption.
  • Robotic Welders although not currently under
    study, reducing the iron fouling in the cooling
    lines may significantly extend the lifetime of
    those lines providing savings in materials and

The Future of Activated Carbon Filtration
  • Advancement in Organics Reduction
  • SEM of PAC in Nano Alumina / Microglass
  • Dynamic Iodine Adsorption by NanoCeram-PAC
  • Dynamic Chlorine Adsorption by NanoCeram-PAC
  • Filtration of Sub-Micron Organic Particles (TOC)

Advancement in Organics Reduction
  • NanoCeram technology excels as a particle
  • Use this attribute to capture and retain other
    functionalized adsorbent materials in particle
    form . . . in the smallest size particle
  • NanoCeram-PAC contains approximately 32 (by
    weight) of powder activated carbon with an
    average particle size of 25 microns.
  • This provides enormous activated carbon surface
    area which is not partially occluded by adhesives
    or glues, nor is the carbon capacity compromised
    by the organics in such adhesives.

Advancement in Organics Reduction (cont.)
  • Competitive media was sectioned from commercial
    cartridges and tested as 25 mm discs.
    Microscopic exam shows 2 of the 3 competitive
    medias tested use granular activated carbon.
  • There is a remarkable retention of I2 (iodine) by
    one layer of PAC-NC to a low cut-off (0.5 ppm,
    the level at which Iodine is detectable by taste
    and odor)
  • Approximately 180 times longer than competitive
    activated carbon media at comparable basis
  • The dynamic adsorption by immobilized ultra fine
    PAC is believed to be responsible.

SEM of PAC in Nano Alumina/Microglass
Note fine fraction of PAC particles incorporated
into structure.
Dynamic Iodine Adsorption by NanoCeram-PAC
Test Method 20 ppm Iodine thru single layer, 25
mm discs _at_ 50 ml/min. Two ml aliquots collected
into a cuvette and measured at 290 nm using
UV/VIS spectrophotometer.  The detection limit is
0.3 ppm.
Dynamic Chlorine Adsorption by NanoCeram-PAC
Modeling also indicates that a standard 2.5 x
10 filter cartridge manufactured with
NanoCeram-PAC media will reduce free chlorine
from 2ppm to lt 1ppm for over 2,000 gallons _at_ 2
gpm flow rates.
Filtration of Sub-Micron Organic Particles
The filter is excellent for adsorbing turbidity.
Filters (25 mm diameter) were challenged with
humic acid, an organic particle small enough to
pass through Absolute 0.2 µ filters.
Breakthrough was detected by both optical
turbidity and spectrophotometric methods. Note
the high filtration efficiency until the filter
is exhausted at about 0.4 L of fluid/cm2 of
filter area.
Other Applications
  • Reduction of chlorine and other organics through
    the use of NanoCeram-PAC technology
  • Recycling industrial water thereby increasing
    water re-use rates
  • Polishing filtration downstream of UP, MP and
    even RO systems.
  • Prefiltration prior to ultraviolet or ozone
    treatment to minimize the burden on such
    sterilization devices
  • Prefiltration prior to ion exchange beds
    extending their useful life and reducing the
    frequency of cleaning cycles
  • Develop adsorption data for endocrine disruptors,
    antibiotics and dioxin from industrial waste
    streams using PAC (Initial data are promising)

Specialty Filters
  • PACB PB Series Hybrid Cartridges
  • DP Series Dual Layer NC PAC Cartridges
  • LR-19 Series Lenticular Replacement Cartridges
  • Gravity Flow Water Purifier

PACB PB Series Hybrid Cartridges
Hybrid designs which incorporate a carbon block
as the centercore with a pleated layer wrapped
around the block. 2.5 and 4.5 diameter
cartridges fit in standard housings.
DP Series Dual Layer NC PAC Cartridges
Dual pleated layer 2.5 and 5 diameter cartridges
fit in standard housings.
LR Series Lenticular Filter Replacement Filter
The dual pleated layer NC (or NC-PAC) cartridge
on the left is a drop in replacement for the
lenticular filter (right). Lenticular filters are
also known as Disc Filters.
Gravity Flow Water Purifier
This purifier operates where there is no source
of running water nor electricity. Eureka Forbes
designed the device using NanoCeram-PAC filter
technology and, with Argonides help,
manufactures the filter cartridges.
NanoCeram - Worldwide
  • Active Distribution
  • Direct Sales
  • Latin American Territories and Costs

Active Distribution
  • United States
  • Canada
  • South Korea (Exclusive)
  • Japan
  • Italy
  • Sweden
  • Poland
  • France
  • Greece
  • South Africa
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom
  • Ireland
  • Kuwait
  • Azerbaijan

NanoCeram Distributors
Direct Sales
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Italy
  • Norway
  • France
  • United Kingdom
  • Ireland
  • United Arab Emirates (UAE)
  • Slovenia
  • Brazil
  • Thailand
  • Japan
  • Russia
  • Norway

NanoCeram Sales
Latin America Exclusive Territories Costs
  • Colombia 46,000 USD
  • Venezuela 46,000 USD
  • Peru 44,000 USD
  • Argentina 66,000 USD
  • Ecuador 35,000 USD
  • Mexico 80,000 USD

NanoCeram Sales
  • Henry Frank
  • (407-322-2500 x103)