Overcoming Attachment Problems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Overcoming Attachment Problems PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6fbeee-ODM4M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Overcoming Attachment Problems

Description:

Title: Insecure and Attachment Disordered Children Author: Chrisi Last modified by: User Created Date: 12/4/2007 3:13:47 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:20
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: Chri4205
Learn more at: http://securestart.com.au
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Overcoming Attachment Problems


1
Overcoming Attachment Problems
  • A workshop delivered by Secure Start Principal
    Psychologist
  • Colby Pearce
  • 21 June 2011, Adelaide Meridien
  • ? Secure Start 2011

2
Introduction
  • Colour My Life
  • (Hall et al., (2002). Fifteen Effective Play
    Therapies. Professional Psychology
  • Research and Practice,33 (6), 515-522)

3
Case Example John
John was a superficially charming
fourteen-year-old lad with bright red hair and a
ready smile. I met John soon after I began my
first appointment as a Clinical Psychologist in
1995. John was a Ward of the State. He was
referred to me because statutory social workers
who were responsible for his care were concerned
about his volatile and at-risk behaviours. John
had made a number of suicidal gestures, was often
AWOL from the facility at which he resided and
was known to abuse substances. John was also
suspected of being involved in child
prostitution. He once asserted that he was not
gay and that it (prostitution) was just
business.
4
Attachment Representations (Pearce, C.M. (2010).
An Integration of Theory, Science and Reflective
Clinical Practice in the Care and Management of
Attachment-Disordered Children A Triple A
Approach. Educational and Child Psychology
(Special Issue on Attachment), 27 (3), 73-86)
5
A Tale of Three Mice Source Pearce CM (2009), A
Short Introduction to Attachment and Attachment
Disorder. London Jessica Kingsley
  • Once upon a time there were three mice.
  • The first mouse lived in a house that contained,
    along with furniture and other household goods
    and possessions, a button and a hole in the wall
    from which food was delivered. Each time the
    mouse pressed the button he would receive a tasty
    morsel of his favourite food. The mouse
    understood that, when he was hungry, all he had
    to do was press the button and food would arrive
    via the hole. The mouse took great comfort in the
    predictability of his access to food and only
    pressed the button when he was hungry.
  • The second mouse lived in a similar house, also
    containing a button and a hole in the wall from
    which food was delivered. Unfortunately, the
    button in his house was faulty and delivered food
    on a inconsistent basis when he pressed it, such
    that he might only receive food via the hole on
    the first, fifth, seventh, or even the eleventh
    time he pressed the button. This mouse learnt
    that he could not always rely on the button and
    that he had to press the button many times, and
    even when he was not actually hungry, in order to
    ensure access to food. Even after his button was
    fixed he found it difficult to stop pressing it
    frequently and even displayed a habit of storing
    up food.
  • The third mouse also lived in a similar house,
    containing a button and a hole in the wall from
    which food was to be delivered. However, the
    button in his house did not work at all. He soon
    learnt that he could not rely on the button and
    would have to develop other ways of gaining
    access to food. This belief persisted, even when
    he moved to a new home with a fully-functioning
    button.

6
Patterns of Arousal and Overarousal (Pearce, C.M.
(2010). An Integration of Theory, Science and
Reflective Clinical Practice in the Care and
Management of Attachment-Disordered Children
A Triple A Approach. Educational and Child
Psychology (Special Issue on Attachment), 27
(3), 73-86)
7
What does attachment disorder look like? (Source
Pearce, C. (2009). A Short Introduction to
Attachment and Attachment Disorder. London
Jessica Kingsley)
Characteristic Manifestations
Maladaptive Perceptions of Self Poor Self-Concept Poor Self-Care Bodily Function Disturbances Low Expectations of Deservedness (e.g. wetting, soiling)
Maladaptive Perceptions of other Avoidance of Engagement/Intimacy Lack of Empathy Habitual Mistrust Superficial Charm
Maladaptive Perceptions of the Social World Preoccupation with Safety Preoccupation with Fairness Preoccupation with Rules Preoccupation with Consistency Preoccupation with Knowing
Hyperarousal (Anxiety) Aggression Hyperactivity Destructiveness Inattention Dissociation Emotional Lability (Instability) Watchfulness/Hypervigilance Developmental/Learning Problems/Delays
Preoccupation with Accessibility to Needs Provision Controlling Demanding Manipulative Charming Deceitful
8
What is Attachment?
  • Attachment is the term used for the special
    relationship children develop towards their
    primary caregivers during infancy. It is special
    because these are the people the infant learns to
    trust and depend upon to look after them. It is
    also special because infants expect other adults
    in a caregiving role to be like their primary
    caregivers. That is, attachment relationships
    formed in infancy directly influence the childs
    expectations about all other interactions and
    relationships with others.

9
Types of Attachment
  • Secure
  • Insecure-Avoidant
  • Insecure-Ambivalent
  • Disorganised/Disoriented

10
Aspects of parenting that influence
attachment Source Pearce CM (2009), A Short
Introduction to Attachment and Attachment
Disorder. London Jessica Kingsley
  • Accessibility
  • Understanding and Responsiveness
  • Affective Attunement and Affect/Arousal
    Regulation

11
Individual and lifestyle factors that impact on
caregiving and attachment
  • Parental mental health problems
  • Parental substance misuse
  • Domestic violence
  • Poor parenting ability/knowledge
  • Insecure attachment as a child

12
A Triple-A Approach
  • Addresses
  • Attachment Representations
  • Accessibility to Needs Provision
  • Arousal

13
A Triple-A Approach (Pearce, C.M. (2010). An
Integration of Theory, Science and Reflective
Clinical Practice in the Care and Management of
Attachment-Disordered Children A Triple A
Approach. Educational and Child Psychology
(Special Issue on Attachment), 27 (3), 73-86)
14
Changing Attachment Representations
  • Also involves
  • Enriching Understanding
  • Enriching Accessibility
  • Enriching Attunement and Affect/Arousal Regulation

15
Enriching Understanding Self-Fulfilling
Prophesies
16
Example of a self-fulfilling prophesy
17
Circumventing self-fulfilling prophesies (Pearce,
C.M. (2010). An Integration of Theory, Science
and Reflective Clinical Practice in the Care and
Management of Attachment-Disordered Children
A Triple A Approach. Educational and Child
Psychology (Special Issue on Attachment), 27
(3), 73-86)
18
Respond to the need as well as the
behaviour (Pearce, C.M. (2011). A Short
Introduction to Promoting Resilience in Children.
London Jessica Kingsley)
Behaviour Possible Explanation Need Helpful Responses Unhelpful Responses
Child refuses to stay in their bed Separation anxiety and/or insecurity Reassurance that the caregiver is aware of them, accessible and responsive Remain Calm. Engage in soothing bedtime rituals. Checking back in with the child before they get out of bed to achieve proximity to the caregiver Parental Anger and frustration. Disciplining the child. Ignoring the child.
Child becomes overly loud and boisterous at a family function. Child is overstimulated Soothing and/or opportunities to blow off steam Temporarily withdrawing the child from the stimulating environment in order to calm/soothe them or provide a release Yelling at the child to calm down
19
Verbalising Understanding (Pearce, C.M. (2011).
A Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in
Children. London Jessica Kingsley)
Behaviour Possible Reason Example of an unhelpful or ineffective response Example of an Understanding response Example of an effective management response
Child sneaks food from the cupboard Hungry Concerned others will eat first Admonishment and restriction of access to food I think you must have been hungry I think you were worries that others might eat them all before you did. Make it a rule that the child must ask for snacks Divide the available snacks equally into separate containers for each child of the household
Child hits another child Other child hit first Anger and disapproval They must have done something to make you feel really angry Next time someone does something that makes you feel really angry you should . . .
20
Enriching Accessibility Source Pearce CM (2009),
A Short Introduction to Attachment and Attachment
Disorder. London Jessica Kingsley
  • Verbalising Understanding
  • I think that you believe that I will forget about
    you if we are not always together.
  • I think that you believe I wont notice or
    understand when you really need me/something.
  • You believe that if I dont do it get it for
    you now I will forget.
  • You worry that I wont come back for you.
  • You worry that I dont like you anymore.
  • You know you have done something wrong and you
    worry that I wont like/love you anymore.

21
Enriching Accessibility Source Pearce CM (2009),
A Short Introduction to Attachment and Attachment
Disorder. London Jessica Kingsley
  • Emotional Refuelling (in reverse)

22
Enriching Attunement (Pearce, C.M. (2011). A
Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in
Children. London Jessica Kingsley)
  • Empathy (In order to be heard we first need to
    listen)

23
Addressing Accessibility Preoccupations
  • Managing Emotional Connectedness
  • Consistency and Predictability

24
Addressing Arousal (Pearce, C.M. (2011). A Short
Introduction to Promoting Resilience in Children.
London Jessica Kingsley)
  • The Mozart Effect and the role of Music

25
Attachment Therapy The Role of Play
  • Engagement
  • Therapy is more likely to be beneficial when
    children and adolescents are willing
    participants. Most children and adolescents are
    reluctant, at-least initially, to attend and be
    involved in therapy. Either they dont know what
    to expect, which causes anxiety, or they think
    that they have to attend because they have been
    bad. However, almost all children and
    adolescents enjoy playing and engaging in fun
    activities with a lively adult. So, incorporating
    fun activities into psychotherapy is a good way
    to help children and adolescents feel relaxed
    about attending therapy and, indeed, increases
    their motivation to attend.

26
Attachment Therapy The Role of Play
  • Making and maintaining a connection
  • Research has found that the heart rates of
    mothers and children parallel each other during
    play. Heart rate is a sign of the level of
    activity of the nervous system, which we call
    arousal. Arousal is one of the two components of
    emotion. So, during play, adults and children are
    emotionally-connected to each other.

27
Attachment Therapy The Role of Play
  • Encouraging self-regulation
  • Most children and adolescents who are referred
    for therapy because of attachment problems have
    trouble controlling their emotions, their
    behaviour, or both. The ability to self-regulate
    emotions and behaviour is thought to develop from
    adult caregivers providing a range of emotional
    experiences and intervening to ensure that
    children do not become overly excited or overly
    distressed during their early development. So, we
    utilise play and the emotional connection
    associated with play to develop the child or
    adolescents capacity for self-regulation by
    facilitating the experience of a range of
    emotions of varying intensity and returning them
    to a state of calm.

28
Attachment Therapy The Role of Play
  • Affirmative Experiences
  • Children and adolescents with attachment problems
    who are referred for therapy hold negative
    beliefs about themselves, about others and about
    the world in which they live. Simply telling
    children that they are good, that others are
    caring and understanding, and that the world is a
    safe place is rarely effective in changing
    childrens beliefs. Rather, they need to
    experience themselves, others and their social
    world differently. During therapeutic play,
    children and adolescents experience themselves as
    likeable and capable, experience others as fun
    and nice, and their world as safe and a source
    of happy experiences. This facilitates trust in
    others and the perception that therapy is a safe
    place for conversation about the reasons for
    their emotional distress and/or maladjusted
    behaviour.
About PowerShow.com