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Romanticism continues into the 19th Century

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Title: Romanticism continues into the 19th Century


1
Romanticism continues into the 19th Century
  • Artistic and intellectual movement that
    originated in the late 18th century and stressed
    strong emotion, imagination, freedom from
    classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion
    against social conventions.

2
The 19th Century Pluralism of Style
  • Napoleonic Wars 1804-1815
  • The Machine age is in full swing with the
    development of the steam engine (1769) for use on
    ship and train.
  • Camera takes its first picture,1827
  • Western expansion in the United States.
  • Karl Marx Menifesto,1848
  • Revolution in Europe, 1848-1852
  • Darwins origin of Species 1859
  • American Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • Transcontinental Railroad, 1869
  • First Movie camera patented,1891
  • Queen Victoria (1819-1901) Reigns as Queen of
    England for 64 years, a period now known and the
    Victorian Era.

Paintings by Tom Lovell, (top Professor Lowes
Balloon. Middle The Hand Warmer. Bottom The
Union fleet Passing Vicksburg.)
3
Continuation of the Neoclassical Style
  • Pierre Vignon 1763-1828
  • Napoléon decided that a Temple of Glory to his
    Grande Armée should be built, and
    Pierre-Alexandre Vignon was commissioned to draw
    up the plans. After razing the previous efforts
    from 1790, building started on what was to be a
    Greek temple. The commemorative role of the
    edifice was lost when the Arc de Triomphe was
    completed in 1808, and again the focus of the
    structure became ambiguous.
  • In 1814, Louis XVIII confirmed that the Madeleine
    should be a church, but in 1837 it was nearly
    selected to be the first railway station of
    Paris. Finally in 1842 it was consecrated as a
    church.

Pierre Vignon, La madeleine, Paris,1807-1842
4
Antonio Canova, 1757 - 1822
  • Italian Sculptor.
  • Napoleon Bonapartes favorite sculptor, Canova
    moved from Rome to Paris and became a great
    admirer of his, doing several Neoclassical style
    portraits of the French Emperor.

Amore Psyche Marble, cm 155x168, 1792.
Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus, Marble,
length cm 185. 1801
Amore Psyche was a pre Napoleonic piece for
which he is also very famous.
5
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson
  • This painting is a good example of Romanticism.
  • Atala, Sworn to virginity, falls passionately in
    love with a wild Carolina savage. Rather than
    betray her vow, she commits suicide and in this
    scene is buried by her lover and a priest
    (representing the church) in the shadow of a
    cross. Girodet dares to place church and sexual
    passion side by side, binding them with the theme
    of death and burial.
  • Hopeless love, perished beauty, the grave, the
    purity of primitive life, and the consolation of
    religion are some of the Romantic themes Girodet
    successfully showed in this work.

The Burial of Atala. 1808. Oil on canvas. 207 x
267 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.
6
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)
  • French painter who was a leading figure in the
    neoclassical movement.
  • Grande Odalisque (Odalisque member of a Turkish
    harem.) drew acid criticism when first shown in
    1814 (She has three vertebrae too many! No
    bone, no muscle, no life.),
  • Mannerist in style, (small head, elongated torso
    and limbs, cool colors scheme.) but very
    Romantic in the taste for Exotic themes.

Grande Odalisque, 1814, oil, Musée du Louvre at
Paris.
7
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
The Apotheosis of Homer, 1827, Oil on canvas,
128x1611, Louvre, Paris
8
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828)
  • The Third of May, 1808 The people of Madrid
    attacked a group of the mounted Egyptian soldiers
    (Mamelukes) of the French army. The participants
    and probably the witnesses of the attack were
    savagely punished by arrests and executions
    continuing throughout the night and the following
    morning of 3, May.

Francisco de Goya. The Third of May, 1808, 1814.
Oil on canvas, 266 x 345 cm. Museo del Prado,
Madrid, Spain.
9
Francisco de Goya
  • Charles IV (1748-1819) king of Spain 1788-1808,
    son and successor of Charles III.
  • He was a weak monarch dominated by his wife Maria
    Luisa of Parma and her lover, Manuel de Godoy,
    whom he appointed Prime Minister in 1792. Charles
    died on Jan. 20, 1819 in Rome.

Francisco de Goya. Charles IV and His Family. c.
1800. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid,
Spain.
10
Francisco de Goya
Saturn Devouring One of His Chidren. c. 1820-23.
Oil on canvas, 146 x 83 cm. Museo del Prado,
Madrid, Spain.
  • Cronus was the youngest son of Uranus (Heaven)
    and Gaia (Mother Earth), thus he belonged to the
    first divine generation. He, with the help of
    his mother, overthrew Uranus, to take his place
    in Heaven. As soon as he became ruler of the
    world Cronus married his own sister Rhea. Since
    it was foretold to him that he would be dethroned
    by one his children, he devoured them all in turn
    as soon as they were born Hestia (Vesta),
    Demeter (Ceres), Hera (Juno), Hades (Pluto), and
    Poseidon (Neptune). Only Zeus (Jupiter) was saved
    by his mother, Rhea, to later fulfill the
    prophecy. In Ancient Rome Cronus was identified
    with Saturn.

11
Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771 - 1835)
  • Pupil of David.
  • Influenced the French narrative Painting style.
  • Utilized Baroque techniques of dramatic lighting
    and perspective.
  • Napoleon is here depicted visiting a pest house,
    (where those inflicted with the plague are
    treated.) during his retreat from Egypt. He is
    seen as a Christ-like figure curing his men by
    the Kings touch.

Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken at Jaffa
on 11 March 1799. Oil on canvas. 523 x 715 cm.
Louvre, Paris, France.
12
Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault (1791-1824)
The Raft of the "Medusa". 1818-1819. Oil on
canvas. 490  x 720 cm. Louvre, Paris, France.
13
Théodore Géricault
  • The Raft of the "Medusa" caused a political
    scandal because of its subject matter at the 1819
    Salon in Paris.
  • The shipwreck of the frigate Medusa took place in
    June 1816 near the West African coast. The crew
    left 150 passengers to their fate on a raft.
    When, two weeks later, the raft was found, there
    were only 15 survivors, 5 of them died after
    rescue. The case was silenced by the government,
    and when, a year later, it became public
    knowledge, it caused rage and criticism of
    governmental negligence and corruption. To
    achieve accuracy, the painter used a model of the
    raft and carefully studied real corpses. In this
    huge canvas, about 5 x 7 meters, Géricault mixed
    Realism and Romanticism. The combination of
    idealized figures and realistically depicted
    agony, absence of classical or heroic,
    gigantic size and graphic detail, aroused violent
    debates between Neoclassical and Romantic
    artists. The painting had a seminal influence on
    the further development of Romanticism.

14
Théodore Géricault
  • In 1820 Géricault traveled to England, where he
    painted his Race for the Derby at Epsom (Louvre).
    At the time of his death, Géricault was engaged
    in painting a series of portraits of mental
    patients that demonstrate the preoccupation of
    the romantic artists with derangement and
    neurosis. Among his other works are a number of
    bronze statuettes, a superb series of
    lithographs, and hundreds of drawings and color
    sketches.

The Madwoman. c. 1822-23. Oil on canvas. 72 x 58
cm. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons, France.
15
Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863)
  • The Death of Sardanapalus, A full-fledged work
    of Delacroix mature style, is a lavish, violent,
    colorful canvas in which women, slaves, animals,
    jewels, and fabrics are combined in a swirling,
    almost delirious composition. The painting
    portrays the decision made by an ancient king to
    have his possessions (including his women)
    destroyed before he kills himself.

The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827-28, oil on
canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
16
Eugène Delacroix
  • Delacroix's most overtly romantic and perhaps
    most influential work is Liberty Leading the
    People, a semi-allegorical glorification of the
    idea of liberty.
  • This painting confirmed the clear division
    between the romantic style of painting, which
    emphasized color and spirit, and the concurrent
    neoclassical style (headed by the French painter
    J. A. D. Ingres), which emphasized line and cool
    detachment.

Liberty Leading the People, 1830, oil on canvas,
Musée du Louvre, Paris.
17
Eugène Delacroix
  • Delacroix remained the dominant French romantic
    painter throughout his life. A trip to North
    Africa in 1832 provided subjects for more than
    100 sensuous canvases. In addition, he received
    many government commissions for murals and
    ceiling paintings. Many of his late works,
    especially animal pictures, hunt scenes, and
    marine subjects, are superb, but others exhibit a
    certain dryness of execution and lack of
    inspiration. He also illustrated various works of
    William Shakespeare, the Scottish writer Sir
    Walter Scott, and the German writer Johann
    Wolfgang von Goethe. Delacroix's technique, in
    which he applied contrasting colors with small
    strokes of the brush, creating a particularly
    vibrant effect, was an important influence on the
    impressionists. He is also well known for his
    Journals, which display considerable literary
    talent and express his views on art, politics,
    and life. Delacroix died in Paris on August 13,
    1863.

The Massacre at Chios, detail, 1824, oil on
canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
18
Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
  • Caspar David Friedrich was an outstanding
    19th-century German romantic painter whose
    awesome landscapes and seascapes are not only
    meticulous observations of nature but are also
    allegories.

Abbey in an Oak Forest, 1809-10, oil on canvas,
Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin.
19
Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851)
  • Joseph Mallord William Turner was an English
    landscape painter who is renowned especially for
    his dynamic treatment of natural light effects in
    land and marine subjects. His work is of direct
    importance in the development of impressionism.

The Slave Ship, 1840 Oil on canvas, 90.8 x 122.6
cm Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
20
Oil Painting From the studio to the Great
outdoors.
  • During the early 19th century, better uniformity
    of paints were developed as well as a more
    convenient way to carry them, in tin/lead tubes,
    (developed for food in the Napoleonic Wars.)
    These paints were mass produced and artists did
    not need to mix their own upon demand. This
    meant that the artist could take his studio in a
    relatively small box anywhere, and paint in
    Plein Air or on site with natural light. The
    disadvantage was the changing time and weather.
    So artists began to paint quickly and more
    spontaneously.

21
Thomas Cole (1801-1848)
  • Cole is an American painter, one of the founders
    of Romantic landscape painting in the New World.
    He was born into an Anglo-American family in
    England in 1801. The family returned to the
    United States in 1818 until then young. In the
    USA, he entered the Philadelphia Academy of Art
    in 1823.
  • Later he settled in the Catskills on the Hudson
    and became a co-founder of the so-called Hudson
    River School, which established Romantic
    landscape painting in America. Direct,
    spontaneous landscapes painted in the wilderness
    of the Catskill Mountains brought rapid
    recognition and attracted New York buyers.
  • In 1829 and 1841-1842 Cole traveled to Europe, he
    visited England, Switzerland and Italy, studying
    in particular the landscapes of European masters.
    On his return, having also absorbed philosophical
    and literary ideas, Cole introduced a new type of
    painting to America the symbolic, moral
    landscape, as represented by the series on the
    themes of The Course of Empire.
  • These are fantastic, symbolic scenes full of
    unusual effects of grandiose space and theatrical
    contrasts of light. Not satisfied with great
    American nature any longer, Cole increases
    fantastic and mystical character by introducing
    Biblical and antique subjects. His late pictures
    do not attain the fine quality of his earlier
    atmospheric landscapes, they are rough and
    primitive, but are supposed to stun spectators
    with extremely pretentious surrealism.

View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton,
Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (the Oxbow).
1836. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York, USA.
22
John Constable (1776 - 1837)
  • John Constable was one of the major European
    landscape artists of the XIX century, whose art
    was admired by Delacroix and Gericault and
    influenced the masters of Barbizon and even the
    Impressionists, although he did not achieved much
    fame during his lifetime in England, his own
    country.

Constable believed the actual study of nature was
more important than any artistic model. He
refused to "learn the truth second-hand". To a
greater degree than any other artist before him,
Constable based his paintings on precisely drawn
sketches made directly from nature.
Landscape Noon (The Hay-Wain). 1821. Oil on
canvas. National Gallery, London, UK
23
Camille Corot (1796-1875)
  • Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a renowned French
    painter- especially of landscapes, who worked in
    romantic and realistic styles and was a
    forerunner of impressionistic style.
  • From 1828 until his death, Corot lived in Paris.
    During the warm months he traveled throughout
    Europe, painting small oil sketches that, like
    those of his friends in the Barbizon School of
    artists, are among the first French landscapes to
    be painted outdoors. The sketches are marked by
    careful structure and the sense of natural light.
    He worked during winter months in his studio,
    producing large salon pieces with biblical or
    historical subjects. By 1845, after receiving
    critical acclaim, Corot began to sell his work.
    His landscapes thereafter became imaginary
    creations bathed in a filmy romantic atmosphere
    achieved by silvery tones and soft brushstrokes.
  • He also painted a number of portraits and figure
    studies. He was generous to his friends and
    pupils with both time and money, earning the
    title père (father) Corot. He died in Paris on
    February 22, 1875.

The Bridge at Nantes, Musée du Louvre at Paris
24
Couture, Thomas (French, 1815-1879)
Romans of the Decadence, 1847, Musée d'Orsay at
Paris.
25
Photography Nicéphore Niépce
  • In 1827,Niepce developed the process of taking a
    Photo Obscura ( right) and using what is
    essentially polished silver and letting it
    interact with iodine vapors on the bitumen image
    he obtained genuine photographs in black and
    white on a pewter plate.
  • First image seen at right took 8 hours of
    exposure in direct sunlight.
  • By 1837, the process had been perfected and
    utilized by Victorian photographers working in
    studios.

26
Photography began a system for recording
immediate visual images which was either accepted
by artists and used to aid them in their craft or
blatantly rejected. Even today, some people feel
that photography is a recorder and not an
artistic medium.
Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Still life in
Studio, 1837
Eugène Durieu (with Eugène Delacriox) Draped
Model (back view), 1854
Josiah J. Hawes (with Alabert S. Southworth.
Early Operation Under Ether, Massachusetts
Hospital. 1847
Mathew B. Brady, Dead in the Hole, 1861-1865
27
Paul Delaroche, (French Painter, 1797-1856)
  • This painting was completed a year before
    Delaroche's death in 1856. It depicts the death
    of a young Christian martyr in the 3rd century AD
    during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian.

The Young Martyr, 1855, Oil on canvas. 68 x
Louvre, Paris
28
Jean-Léon Gérôme, (1824-1904)
  • Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904). Gerome was a French
    painter and sculptor. He was a pupil of Paul
    Delaroche and inherited his highly finished
    academic style. Gerome traveled widely in Turkey,
    Egypt and North Africa. A sculptor as well as a
    painter, his female figures have the same
    classical precision of Ingres, but are in much
    more realistic poses.

Thumbs Down! (Gladiator), 1872, Oil on canvas, 39
1/2 X 58 1/2, Phoenix Art Museum.
Pygmalian and Galatea,
29
Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)
  • Transnonain Street portrays a dramatic event of
    one of the insurrections of April 1834, in which
    a civil guard was shot by a sniper. The shot
    came from a workers housing block, the remaining
    guards immediately stormed the building and
    massacred all of the inhabitants.
  • This lithography has become very rare because
    hundreds of its copies were destroyed.

Transnonain Street. 1834. Lithography.
Association of the Lovers of Honoré Daumier.
30
Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)
  • Daumiers paintings are closer to the art of the
    20th century than to his own they are
    sketch-like and very expressive.

The Third-Class Carriage. 1860-63. Oil on canvas.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.
31
Gustave Courbet, (1819-1877)
  • (Jean Désiré) Gustave Courbet was an influential
    and prolific French painter, who, with his
    compatriots Honore Daumier and Jean Francois
    Millet, founded the mid-19th-century art movement
    called realism.

A Burial at Ornans, 1849-50, Oil on canvas, Musée
d'Orsay, Paris.
32
Gustave Courbet
  • As radical in politics as he was in painting,
    Courbet was placed in charge of all art museums
    under the revolutionary 1871 Commune of Paris and
    saved the city's collections from looting mobs.
    Following the fall of the Commune, however,
    Courbet was accused of allowing the destruction
    of Napoleon's triumphal column in the Place
    Vendôme he was imprisoned and condemned to pay
    for its reconstruction. He fled to Vevey,
    Switzerland, in 1873, where he continued to paint
    until his death on December 31, 1877.

Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, 1854, Musée Fabre,
Montpellier.
33
Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)
Self-Portrait, 1902, oil on canvas, National
Academy of Design, New York.
  • Thomas Eakins was an American realist painter-
    one of the foremost of the 19th century. Working
    independently of contemporary European styles, he
    was the first major artist after the American
    Civil War (1861-1865) to produce a profound and
    powerful body of work drawn directly from the
    experience of American life.

The Gross Clinic, 1875, Oil on canvas, 8 x
66. Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson
University, Philadelphia.
34
John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
  • John Singer Sargent was an American painter who
    is known for his glamorous portraits of eminent
    or socially prominent people of the period.

The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Oil on
canvas, 73 x 73. Courtesy Museum of Fine
Arts, Boston
35
John Singer Sargent
  • Virginie was painted by different artists. John
    Sargent started work on his portrait of her when
    she was twenty three years old. The portrait was
    exhibited at the Spring Paris Salon in 1884 and
    aroused severe criticism.
  • One commentator noted The storm that swirled
    around the picture gathered force from a basic
    confusion. The fierce reaction was caused
    primarily by the subject, and the painting was
    used as evidence. People were jeering at Madame
    Gautreau herself.

Self-Portrait, 1907, oil on canvas, Galleria
degli Uffizi, Florence
Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau). 1884. Oil on
canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
USA.
36
Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
  • Winslow Homer was an American naturalist painter
    who is often considered, along with Thomas
    Eakins, one of the greatest American 19th-century
    artists.
  • Homer was almost entirely self-taught as a
    painter. A stay in England from 1881 to 1882,
    during which Homer lived in a fishing village,
    led to a permanent change in his subject matter.
    Thereafter he concentrated on large-scale scenes
    of nature, particularly scenes of the sea, of its
    fishermen, and of their families.
  • A stay in England from 1881 to 1882, during which
    Homer lived in a fishing village, led to a
    permanent change in his subject matter.
    Thereafter he concentrated on large-scale scenes
    of nature, particularly scenes of the sea, of its
    fishermen, and of their families.

Breezing Up, 1876, oil on canvas, National
Gallery of Art at Washington D.C.
37
Sir John Everett Millais (1829-1896)
  • Sir John Everett Millais was an English painter
    born in Southampton and educated in art at the
    Royal Academy of Arts in London.
  • Beginning in the early 1870s, he created many
    portraits of British personalities, famous in his
    time. He was a careful artist who paid strict
    attention to detail, unusual composition, and
    clarity. In much of his later work he succumbed
    to the Victorian taste for sentiment and
    anecdotal art.

Ophelia, 1851-52, Tate Gallery, London.
38
Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902)
  • Bierstadt joined a surveying expedition to the
    western United States in 1858 after studying
    painting in Germany. The impressions and sketches
    made on this trip were the basis of many of his
    paintings.

Looking Down the Yosemite Valley, California,
1865, oil on canvas, Birmingham Museum of Art.
39
Pre-Raphaelite movement
  • The term Pre-Raphaelite, which refers to both art
    and literature, is confusing because there were
    essentially two different and almost opposed
    movements, the second of which grew out of the
    first. The term itself originated in relation to
    the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, an influential
    group of mid-nineteenth-century avante garde
    painters associated with Ruskin who had great
    effect upon British, American, and European art.
    Those poets who had some connection with these
    artists and whose work presumably shares the
    characteristics of their art include Dante
    Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti, George
    Meredith, William Morris, and Algernon Charles
    Swinburne.
  • The second form of Pre-Raphaelitism, which grows
    out of the first under the direction of D.G.
    Rossetti, is Aesthetic Pre-Raphaelitism, and it
    in turn produced the Arts and Crafts Movement,
    modern functional design, and the Aesthetes and
    Decadents. Rossetti and his follower Edward
    Burne-Jones (1833-1898) emphasized themes of
    eroticized medievalism (or medievalized
    eroticism) and pictorial techniques that produced
    moody atmosphere. This form of Pre-Raphaelitism
    has most relevance to poetry for although the
    earlier combination of a realistic style with
    elaborate symbolism appears in a few poems,
    particularly those of the Rossettis, this second
    stage finally had the most influence upon
    literature. All the poets associated with
    Pre-Raphaelitism draw upon the poetic continuum
    that descends from Spenser through Keats and
    Tennyson -- one that emphasizes lush vowel
    sounds, sensuous description, and subjective
    psychological states.

40
Sir Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898)
  • Edward Burne-Jones was one of the most important
    members of the second phase of Pre-Raphaelitism
    in the 19th century. He was a firm supporter of
    Pre-Raphaelite ideals and a close friend of
    Rossetti, whom he had first met in 1857 when he
    had helped him to decorate the walls of the
    Oxford Union Debating Society with frescos. Under
    Rossetti's influence he painted a number of
    highly romantic subjects taken from the Arthurian
    legends, as well as myths and scenes from the
    Bible.

King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid 1884, Oil on
canvas.290 x 136 cm Tate Britain, London, England
41
William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905)
  • Adolphe William Bouguereau, had a long,
    successful career as an academic painter,
    exhibiting in the annual Paris Salons for more
    than 50 years. His paintings of religious,
    mythological, and genre subjects were carefully
    composed and painstakingly finished. Thus he
    opposed the admission of works by the
    impressionists to the Salon, because he believed
    that their paintings were no more than unfinished
    sketches. After a period of neglect following his
    death, Bouguereau's paintings were returned to
    view as part of a renewed interest in and
    reappraisal of academic painting and of Ecole des
    Beaux-Arts works in general. A major
    retrospective exhibition opened in Paris and was
    seen in Montreal and Hartford, Conn., in 1984.

Nymphs Satyr, 1873, oil on canvas, Sterling
Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown,
Massachusetts.
42
Jules Bastien-Lepage (1848-1884)
  • After the province of Lorraine was lost to
    Germany following the Franco-Prussian War in
    1871, Frenchmen saw in Joan of Arc a new and
    powerful symbol. In 1875 Bastien-Lepage, a native
    of Lorraine, began to make studies for a picture
    of her. In the present painting, exhibited in the
    Salon of 1880, Joan is shown receiving her
    revelation in her parents' garden. Behind her are
    Saints Michael, Margaret, and Catherine.

Joan of Arc, 1880. Oil on canvas, 84 x 92.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
43
Édouard Manet (1832-1883)
Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (The Picnic), 1863. Oil
on canvas, 7 x 810. Musée dOrcay, Paris.
  • Manet's canvas, portraying a woodland picnic that
    included a seated female nude attended by two
    fully dressed young men, attracted immediate and
    wide attention, but was bitterly attacked by the
    critics. Hailed by young painters as their
    leader, Manet became the central figure in the
    dispute between the academic and rebellious art
    factions of his time.

Olympia, 1863, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay,
Paris.
In 1865 he exhibited his Olympia (1863, Musée
d'Orsay), a nude based on a Venus by Titian,
which aroused storms of protest in academic
circles because of its unorthodox realism.
44
Édouard Manet, (1832-1883)
  • In 1882 one of his finest pictures, The Bar at
    the Folies-Bergère (Courtauld Institute and
    Galleries, London), was exhibited at the Salon,
    and an old friend, who was then minister of fine
    arts, obtained the Legion of Honor for the
    artist. Manet died in Paris on April 30, 1883. He
    left, besides many watercolors and pastels, 420
    oil paintings.

A Bar at the Folies-Bergère. 1882. Oil on canvas.
Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
45
Edouard Manet (1832-1883)
  • Boating, 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
    York.

The Railway. 1873. Oil on canvas. The National
Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.
The Fifer, 1866, oil on canvas, Musée d'Orsay,
Paris.
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