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Title: Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking
  • The Ultimate Key Success Factor

  • What is critical thinking?
  • How does the brain work?
  • What are some of the critical thinking techniques
    that I can easily learn and use?

Why is critical thinking important?
  • It is a means of improving your ability to learn
  • It can help you better understand what you read
  • It can help you to make more convincing arguments
  • It facilitates communication
  • It can help you to address the three basic

Critical Thinking Socrates
  • From Socrates, we get great emphasis on argument
    and critical thinking. Socrates chose to make
    argument the main thinking tool. Within argument,
    there was to be critical thinking
  • Why do you say that?
  • What do you mean by that?

"To find yourself, think for yourself."   --
Critical Thinking Aristotle
  • From Aristotle we get a type of logic, based on
    identity and non-identity, as well as on
    inclusion and exclusion.

"It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to
entertain a thought without accepting it."   --
Critical Thinking Plato
  • From Plato we get the notion that there is the
    "truth" somewhere but that we have to search for
    it to find it.
  • The way to search for the truth is to use
    critical thinking to attack what is untrue.

Knowledge is true opinion. -- Plato
Critical Thinking Belardo
  • Critical Thinking is purposeful goal directed
  • It is an art of thinking about
  • what one is thinking about
  • in order to make it more
  • accurate, clear and defensible

How Does the Mind Work?
Your Brain
  • The brain is the organ of destiny. It holds
    within its humming mechanism secrets that will
    determine the future of the human race.
  • -- Wilder Penfield
  • (from The Second Career, 1963)

How do you Think? ? The Brain

The human brain, then, is the most complicated
organization of matter that we know. Isaac
Asimov (from the foreword to The Three-Pound
Universe by J. Hooper and D. Teresi, 1986)
Brain Intelligence - Historical
  • Aristotle believed that brain size was related to
  • Broca believed that cranial volume reflected
    intelligence, hence
  • Women were inferior to men (smaller brain sizes)
  • Non-Europeans were inferior to Europeans
  • Brocas work was superceded by the neuronal
    doctrine (Waldayer)
  • Neurons are the processing units of the brain.

The Brain Complexity

Jack Rabbit
The human brain is generally regarded as a
complex web of adaptations built into the nervous
system, even though no one knows how. Michael
S. Gazzaniga (from The Minds Past, 1998)
The Brain A Computer?
  • The human brain is an amazing piece of
    engineering that allows us to process billions of
    bits of information within a compact, powerful,
    continuously changing computer that we carry on
    our shoulders our entire lives
  • -- Nancy C. Andreasen

The Brain A Network of Cells
  • The adult human brain weights about 3 pounds
    and consists of about 100 billion nerve cells or
    neurons. These neurons are responsible for the
    transmission of information throughout the brain.
    The outer wrinkled mantle of the brain called the
    cerebral cortex contains about 30 billion of
    these neurons connected to each other by means of
    a million billion neuronal connections called
    synapses. The neurons communicate with each other
    via these connections.


The brain evolves further than any other organ.
Beginning as the simplest sort of connecting
center for the nerves, it elaborates into a
surpassingly complex structure, with many levels
of activity, and untold trillions of possible
circuits Wendell J.S. Krieg (from Functional
Neuroanatomy, 1942)
Brain Intelligence - Neurons
  • Current models postulate that intelligence and
    complexity are the result of the properties of
    neurons and how they are connected.
  • Not only the number of neurons but physiological
    properties of neurons are also relevant
    channels, cable properties, and the type of

There are billions of neurons in our brains, but
what are neurons? Just cells. The brain has no
knowledge until connections are made between
neurons. All that we know, all that we are, comes
from the way our neurons are connected. Tim
Berners-Lee (from Weaving The Web the original
design and ultimate destiny of the world wide web
by its inventor, 1999)
The human brain is estimated to have about a
hundred billion nerve cells, two million miles of
axons, and a million billion synapses, making it
the most complex structure, natural or artificial
on earth -- Tim Green, Stephen F. Heinemann and
Jim F. Gusella (from a paper in Neuron, vol.
420, page 427, 1998)
Functional Area of Brain
Brain Principles
  • Contralaterality
  • The brain is divided into two mirror-image halves
    (hemispheres) when viewed from above.
  • The receptive and control centers for one side of
    the body are located in the opposite hemisphere
    of the brain.
  • Hemispheric Specification
  • Each hemisphere specializes in different manners
    of processing information and maintains different
  • The percentage of each hemisphere used varies by

Left Right Brain
Left Right
Visual, focusing on images, patterns Verbal, focusing on words, symbols, numbers
Intuitive, led by feelings Analytical, led by logic
Process ideas simultaneously Process ideas sequentially, step by step
'Mind photos' used to remember things, writing things down or illustrating them helps you remember Words used to remember things, remember names rather than faces
Make lateral connections from information Make logical deductions from information
See the whole first, then the details Work up to the whole step by step, focusing on details, information organized
Organization ends to be lacking Highly organized
Free association Like making lists and planning
Like to know why you're doing something or why rules exist (reasons) Likely to follow rules without questioning them
Source http//
Left Right Brain Contd
Left Right
No sense of time Good at keeping track of time
May have trouble with spelling and finding words to express yourself Spelling and mathematical formula easily memorized
Enjoy touching and feeling actual objects (sensory input) Enjoy observing
Trouble prioritizing, so often late, impulsive Plan ahead
Unlikely to read instruction manual before trying Likely read an instruction manual before trying
Listen to how something is being said Listen to what is being said
Talk with your hands Rarely use gestures when talking
Likely to think you're naturally creative, but need to apply yourself to develop your potential Likely to believe you're not creative, need to be willing to try and take risks to develop your potential
Source http//
  • Intelligence is the ability to learn from
    experience and adapt to the surrounding
    environment. Some well-known intelligence
    theories are
  • Spearmans Monarchic Theory of Intelligence
  • General factor (g) present in all intelligences
  • g is the ability to see relationships between
    things and manipulate these relationships (this
    is required for problem solving)
  • Different problems require different abilities to
    solve them
  • Based on correlations
  • Cattells Fluid Intelligence/Crystalized
  • Thought g was made up of two intelligences
  • Fluid Intelligence (the ability to reason and use
    intelligence it declines at age 20)
  • Crystalized Intelligence (acquired skills and
    knowledge from past problem solving and
    application in specific domains it increases
    with age)
  • Gardiners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • Eight different types of intelligences
  • People have varying levels of skills/intelligences

Source http//
Gardiners Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence Strengths Likes to Learns by
Verbal-Linguistic reading, writing, telling stories, memorizing dates, thinking in words read, write, talk, memorize, work at puzzles reading, hearing and seeing words, speaking, writing, discussing and debating
Math-Logic math, reasoning, logic, problem-solving, patterns solve problems, question, work with numbers, experiment working with patterns and relationships, classifying, categorizing, working with the abstract
Spatial reading, maps, charts, drawing, mazes, puzzles, imaging things, visualization design, draw, build, create, daydream, look at pictures working with pictures and colors, visualizing, drawing
Bodily-Kinesthetic athletics, dancing, acting, crafts, using tools move around, touch and talk, body language touching, moving, processing knowledge through bodily sensations
Musical singing, picking up sounds, remembering melodies, rhythms sing, hum, play an instrument, listen to music rhythm, melody, singing, listening to music and melodies
Interpersonal understanding people, leading, organizing, communicating, resolving conflicts, selling have friends, talk to people, join groups sharing, comparing, relating, interviewing, cooperating
Intrapersonal understanding self, recognizing strengths and weaknesses, setting goals work alone, reflect, pursue interests working alone, doing self-paced projects, having space, reflecting
Naturalist understanding nature, making distinctions, identifying flora and fauna be involved with nature, make distinctions working in nature, exploring things, learning about plants and natural events
Source http//
  • Knowledge is a gigantic and ever-growing sphere
    in space and time, made up of millions of
    interconnecting, crisscrossing pathways
  • -- James Burke

  • Learning is a process by which we acquire new
  • Learning occurs by creation of neurons and
    associations between existing neurons.
  • If you stop learning your overall mental capacity
    and performance will decline. This is because of
    the weakening and eventual loss of brain networks
  • Over varying periods of time youll notice a
    gradual but steady decrease in your mental
    agility if you do not nourish and enhance these

Whenever you read a book or have a conversation,
the experience causes physical changes in your
brain. Its a little frightening to think that
every time you walk away from an encounter, your
brain has been altered, sometimes
permanently. -- E. Roy John (from Mechanisms of
Memory, 1967)
Attention is the spotlight that our brains use
to identify stimuli within the context of time
and space to select what is relevant and to
ignore what is irrelevant
  • Attention is a Limited Mental Resource
  • Neurons fatigue in 3-5 min. of sustained activity
  • Recover, but become inefficient in a few cycles
  • Brain tunes off when only factual information is
    provided to it
  • Key to stay focused is to stimulate different
    parts of the brain
  • Critical thinking spreads neuronal load across
    the brain

The Cocktail Party Effect
  • In a classroom or any public situation (i.e. a
    cocktail party), it is important to filter out
    the important and non-important information.
  • Filtering or Selecting
  • Mental process of eliminating distractions or
    unwanted messages
  • Differences between sight and hearing
  • Sight selection can be focused with eye movement
  • Hearing selection is more cognitive

Information Processing Model
Long-Term Memory
Stimulus Information
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Working Memory
Revised information processing model adapted from
Neisser (1976). Source Mark H. Ashcraft, (2002)
  • We are our memories
  • It is the process by which we retain knowledge
    over time
  • Episodic Memory
  • Semantic Memory
  • Memory is established in multiple stages
  • Short Term
  • Long Term
  • Memory is not perfect

Memory is the most important function of the
brain without it life would be a blank. Our
knowledge is all based on memory. Every thought,
every action, our very conception of personal
identity, is based on memory Without memory, all
experience would be useless. -- Edridge-Green,
The Magical Number 7
  • Problem
  • Large amounts of sensory information can be
  • Large amounts of information can be stored long
  • Transfer of information between sensor to long
    term memory imposes severe limitations on the
    amount of information that we are able to
    receive, process and remember
  • Basically, the limit of information that can be
    processed easily into short term memory is 7 plus
    or minus 2.

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two
Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing
Information -- George Miller. (1956)
Improving Memory
  • What do you do when
  • You are introduced to someone new?
  • Recycle the name for a few seconds, or
  • Use it in conversation and try to find a
    mnemonic connection
  • You are reading text?
  • Process words at a simple level of understanding,
  • Search for connections and relationships that
    will make the material more manageable

Brain Exercise
You know youve got to exercise your brain just
like your muscles -- Will Rogers
The more you use your brain, the more brain you
will have to use -- George A. Dorsey
Sleep and Learning
  • Research has shown that
  • Learning a new skill and then sleeping will lead
    to better performance3
  • What is learned when awake is replayed and
    rehearsed when asleep2
  • Quality of sleep matters2
  • At least 6 hours of sleep improves performance2
  • It is better to study and get a good nights
    sleep before an exam than to cram the whole night!

Sleep affords the opportunity, within certain
limits, for the brain to act of itself, and
dreams are the result -- Edward Clarke (from
Vision A Study of False Sight, 1878)
1 http//
2 http//
Can Learning be Enhanced?
  • Key to increasing your mental abilities is to
    increase your cognitive skills.
  • Cognition refers to your ability to attend,
    identify and act.
  • It also refers to thoughts, moods, inclination,
    decisions, and actions
  • It includes alertness, concentration, speed,
    learning, memory, problem solving, creativity and
    mental endurance.

Thinking Styles
  • Every thinking style has its strengths and its
    weaknesses. The first step in using your
    strengths is understanding and accepting them.
    Stop thinking that you are different or think
    differently. You are what you are and you think
    in your own style.

Thinking Style Attributes
Synthesist Enjoys conflict. Can come up with solutions to unsolvable problems. Look at problems from different perspectives. Come up with creative solutions
Idealist Coaching style of leadership and a nurturer. Work in supportive collaborative way instead of a highly structured, hierarchical manner.
Pragmatist Resourceful and creative. Problem solver and creator of solution. Take more risks than synthesists which are more innovative and with more potential gain.
Analyst Great troubleshooters and detail oriented. Deal best with factual information. Do things in a step-by-step manner and by thinking through problems.
Realist Provide practical solutions to problems quickly. Blunt. Good understanding of situations and how to react.
Source http//
Cognition Critical Thinking?
  • One demonstrated way to increase cognitive skills
    is to use a collection of tools and techniques
    that can be classified under the rubric critical
  • These tools were developed by philosophers and
    thinkers over the last three thousand years
  • Business leaders do not relate well to these

Critical Thinking
  • We propose to introduce a Rosetta Stone for
    Critical Thinking which will be more orthogonal
    to the managerial mindset

Classical Critical Thinking
Blooms Taxonomy
Applied Critical Thinking
  • Syllogisms
  • Truth Table
  • Chain Arguments
  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Experimentation
  • Reasoning
  • Communication
  • Cognitive
  • Affective
  • Psychomotor

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Blooms Taxonomy?
Critical Thinking
  • Why is critical thinking so important?

Asking the Right Questions
It can help you become a visionary
Critical Intellectual Traits
It can help you succeed in important relationships
Basic Learning Skills
It can help you in your business
studies Marketing, Finance, Information Systems,
Critical Thinking Basic Learning Skills
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Cognitive Domain deals with the development of
    ascending levels of intellectual abilities and
  • Affective Domain describes levels of the
    internalization process of the learners
    interests, attitudes, values, appreciations and
  • Motor Skills Domain Deals with physical activity
    requiring coordination.

Critical Thinking Basic Learning Skills
  • Blooms Taxonomy The Cognitive Domain
  • Knowledge I can define it
  • Comprehension I understand it
  • Application I have used it
  • Analysis I know how each part works
  • Synthesis I can adapt it to other uses
  • Evaluation I know when to use it

Critical ThinkingBasic Learning Skills Blooms
TaxonomyThe Cognitive Domain
  • Knowledge
  • It is rote learning ranging from the recall of
    specific facts to knowledge of conventions and
    theoriesa rich vocabulary
  • Comprehension
  • Encompasses meaningful integrated learning. At
    this level, the learner has made the material
    part of his/her own frame of referenceones own
  • Application
  • Application means that the person can employ the
    idea, theory, practice, etc.
  • Analysis
  • Analytical skills enable the individual to
    discern unstated assumptions
  • Synthesis
  • At this level the individual is able to adapt
    his/her knowledge to other uses
  • Evaluation
  • Making judgments about the value or worth of

Critical Thinking Basic Learning Skills
Blooms TaxonomyThe Cognitive Domain
  • In Finance Net Present Value
  • Knowledge I have heard the term before. Isnt
    that a method for ranking investment proposals.
  • Comprehension The Net Present Value is equal to
    the present value of future returns, discounted
    at the marginal cost of capital, minus the
    present value of the cost of the investment.
  • Application I used it recently to help make a
    decision concerning two investment proposals.
  • Analysis The equation consists of several
    factors the net cash flows, the marginal cost of
    capital, the initial cost of the project, and the
    projects expected life.
  • Synthesis I believe that this method can also be
    used as part of a method to determine the value
    of a firms intangible assets.
  • Evaluation I know when to use NPV and when to
    use the IRR method

Critical ThinkingBlooms Taxonomy Action Verbs
Action Verbs for Active Learning
Judge Appraise Rate Value Revise Estimate Assess S
elect Critique
Compose Plan Design Propose Arrange Assemble Prepa
re Collect Create Set up Organize
Analyze Compare Diagram Experiment Differentiate T
est Inspect Debate Question Relate Examine Disting
uish Between Calculate
Translate Interpret Apply Employ Use Demonstrate D
ramatize Practice Illustrate Operate Sketch

Restate Discuss Describe Recognize Explain Tell Ex
press Identify Report
Know Define Memorize Repeat List Recall
Critical Thinking Basic Learning Skills
  • Activities for Using Blooms Taxonomy in TQM
  • Knowledge Level
  • List or record terms related to TQM
  • List three functions of your job that relate to
    other departments in the organization
  • Define the various acronyms associated with TQM
    (e.g., SPC, CQI)
  • Comprehension Level
  • Discuss the advantages of TQM with coworkers
  • Identify three departments that are customers of
    your department
  • Review the major objective achieved in each
    training session
  • In a role-play, tell what you have learned in
    this session to your immediate supervisor
  • Application Level
  • Demonstrate how four of the analysis
    tools could be used to locate quality problems in
  • activity of your work
  • Dramatize how you would facilitate a
    meeting to introduce concepts of TQM to your
  • department

Critical Thinking Basic Learning Skills
  • Activities for Using Blooms Taxonomy in TQM
  • Analysis Level
  • Diagram a process flow chart of the activities
    for a task in your work
  • Differentiate those processes in your
    task environment that can be improved with TQM
  • those where TQM cannot be applied
  • Examine the present departmental activities and
    determine which one currently use TQM
  • Synthesis Level
  • Prepare an article for the company newsletter
    describing TQM training
  • Design a proposal for policy changes reflecting
    TQM to be presented to top executives
  • Collect and compile data from department
    activities that support implementation of TQM
  • Evaluation
  • Critique a present training program and revise
    it to suit the needs of your organization
  • Estimate a budget that would be necessary to
    implement TQM changes for your department.
  • Rate the leadership in your department as to its
    readiness to implement TQM 

Critical Thinking Can Help You Succeed in
Important Relationships
  • Critical Intellectual Traits and the Affective
  • Receiving Getting to 50
  • Responding Seeing the Value
  • Valuing Understanding the Value
  • Organization Comparing Values Making Sense
  • Characterization Practice Consistency

Critical Thinking Can Help You Succeed in
Important Relationships
  • Critical Intellectual Traits
  • Humility Having a consciousness of the limits of
    ones knowledge. We should not claim to know more
    than we know. It implies the lack of
    pretentiousness or conceit.
  • Courage This requires that individuals challenge
    what they learn rather than accept it at face
    value. This implies the need to look more deeply
    into various viewpoints that run counter to those
    that we hold. Willing to learn, to change, to
    unlearn, but to have the courage of right founded
  • Empathy Recognizing the need to put oneself in
    the place of others. It requires a consciousness
    of our egocentric tendencies to identify truth
    with our perception of previous experience and
  • Integrity One must apply the same standards when
    looking at opposing points of view as when
    looking at their own arguments. Honestly
    admitting errors in ones thought and actions.
  • Perseverance Recognizing the need to employ
    intellectual standards in spite of the
    difficulties and obstacles this may present.The
    recognition that it may take time to make sense
    of confusing situations and to develop a
    necessary deeper understanding or insight.

Critical Thinking Can Help You Succeed in
Important Relationships
  • To be effective in business it is essential that
    individuals and organizations focus on two
    primary objectives.
  • Improve Organizational Effectiveness
  • What business should we be in?
  • Improve Organizational Efficiency
  • Who are we in business with, and what must
    we do in order to gain a competitive advantage?

Critical Thinking Can Help You Succeed in
Important Relationships The Importance of Trust
in Ensuring Efficiency Effectiveness
  • Efficiency
  • Trust should be viewed as an important component
    of social capital because
  • low trust cultures incur a higher cost of doing
    business than do high trust
  • cultures. Low trust cultures are simply less
  • Francis Fukuyama TrustThe Social Virtues and
    the Creation of Prosperity
  • Effectiveness
  • If everyone cheated, trust would not exist.
    Every party to every transaction
  • would be suspicious of everyone else and in such
    a system, people would
  • spend valuable time energy and resources on
    protection and retaliation. In
  • such a system, there would be no incentive to
    take risks and innovate.
  • Magda RatajskiVital Speeches

Critical ThinkingThe Importance of Trust
  • All ethical systems are designed to ensure trust,
    and with trust, the
  • cooperation and collaboration necessary to ensure
    prosperity and survival.
  • The Ten Commandments
  • The Bill of Rights
  • The Hippocratic Oath, etc.

Critical ThinkingThe Importance of Trust
  • An ethical system is a set of rules that helps
    guide behavior. Ethical systems
  • exist along a continuum ranging from those that
    focus on the ends
  • (teleological), and those that focus on the
    means (deontological). They differ
  • on the basis of
  • The extent to which they focus on the individual
    or on the broader society
  • The extent to which complete and accurate
    information is shared
  • The extent to which rules that guide behavior are
    universally practiced
  • The extent to which duty determines behavior
  • These four elements can be described as
    inclusiveness, truthtelling,
  • consistency and discipline. These are then the
    values that help ensure that
  • people share knowledge with their colleagues and
    build upon one anothers
  • ideas.

The Importance of TrustInclusivenessWe must
all hang together or assuredly, we will all hang
separatelyBenjamin Franklin July 4, 1776
  • Why is inclusiveness important?
  • Cross Functional Teams
  • How do you know whether your organization
    practices inclusiveness?
  • How many of the following stakeholders are
    identified in your company credo?
  • Policy Holders, Managers, Suppliers, Customers,
    Employees, etc.
  • In how many broad areas are employees allowed to
  • Setting goals, Making decisions, Solving
    problems, Making changes, etc.
  • How can you ensure inclusiveness?
  • Empower, Distribute responsibility

The Importance of TrustInclusiveness
  • In matters of morality we are not judges about
    others, but nature
  • has given us the right to form judgements about
    others. She has
  • ordained that we should judge ourselves in
    accordance with
  • judgements that others form about us. The man who
    turns a deaf ear
  • to other peoples opinions of him is base and
  • From The Lectures of Immanuel Kant

The Importance of TrustInclusiveness
  • Johnson and Johnson Company Credo
  • We believe our first responsibility is to
    doctors, nurses and patients,
  • to mothers, and all others who use our products
    and services.
  • We are responsible to our employees, the men and
    women who work
  • with us throughout the world.
  • We are responsible to the communities in which we
    live and work,
  • and to the world community as well. Our final
    responsibility is to our
  • stockholders. Bowie, 1987

The Importance of TrustInclusiveness
  • Examples
  • Jethros Advice to Moses
  • Johnson and Johnson Company Credo
  • Wayne Huizenga and Waste Management
  • Bob Gebo at ATT
  • Steven Coveys 7 Habits of Highly Effective

The Importance of TrustInclusiveness
  • Practices
  • Distribute responsibility
  • Process ownership at Chaparal steel has paid of
    handsomely. Workers at Chaparal require 1.6 hours
    to produce one ton of steel whereas the industry
    average is 4.4 hours per ton.
  • Seek first to understand
  • Dells Direct Model means that they spend more
    time with the customer before they actually make
    the product. This way hey know exactly what the
    customer wants.
  • Encourage collaboration
  • Honda and Rover benefited from their
    collaboration. Rover learned how to improve
    quality and productivity, and Honda learned how
    to develop and market a luxury car, the Acura

The Importance of TrustTruthtelling
  • Truth is the secret of eloquence and virtue, the
    basis of moral authority it is the highest
    summit of art and life.
  • Henri Frederic Amiel, 1883
  • Why is truthtelling important?
  • Individual and Team Learning
  • How do you know whether your organization
    practices truthtelling?
  • A falsehood ceases to be a falsehood when it is
    understood on all sides
  • that the truth is not expected to be spoken.
  • How can you ensure truthtelling
  • Admit your mistakes quickly and publicly.

The Importance of TrustTruthtelling
  • If a man spreads false news though he does no
    wrong to anyone in
  • particular, he offends against mankind because if
    such practices were
  • universal, mans desire for knowledge would be
    frustrated. For apart
  • from speculation there are only two ways I can
    increase my fund of
  • knowledge, by experience, and by what other
    people tell me.
  • From the Lectures of Immanuel Kant

The Importance of TrustTruthtelling
  • Examples
  • Nixon and Clinton
  • Donald Douglas of McDonald Douglas
  • Scott Cook of Intuit
  • Edmund Schweitzer of SEL, etc.

The Importance of TrustTruthtelling
  • Practices
  • Admit your mistakes quickly and publicly
  • Toms of Main produced a deodorant that actually
    made body odor worse. Toms recalled their
    product and issued an apology. It cost 400,000
    or 30 of their projected profits for the year.
    No loss of market share, in fact it went up.
  • Humility is the best guarantor of truth and
  • Self disclosure is important to open
    communication and learning. When students
    approached strangers at an airport and tried to
    communicate with them, the more personal the
    messages they communicated, the more revealing
    the comments.
  • Do not give the impression of stealth or
  • Gerber baby Foods and the blue ceramic chip.

The Importance of TrustConsistency
  • The secret of success is constancy of purpose
  • Benjamin Disraeli, 1872
  • Why is consistency so important?
  • Behavior characterizes individuals as well as
  • How do you know whether your organization
    practices consistency?
  • Measure the number of complaints or law suits
    brought against the firm.
  • How can you ensure consistency?
  • Set incredibly high standards.

The Importance of TrustConsistency
  • The first rule was never to accept anything as
    true unless I recognized it to
  • be evidently such that is carefully avoid all
    precipitation and pre-judgement
  • and to include nothing in my calculations unless
    it presented itself so clearly
  • and distinctly in my mind that there was no
    reason to doubt it.
  • The second was to divide each of the difficulties
    which I encountered into as
  • many parts as possible, and as might be required
    for easier solution.
  • The third part was to think in an orderly fashion
    when concerned with the
  • search for truth, beginning with the things that
    were simplest and easiest to
  • understand and gradually by degrees reaching
    toward more complex
  • knowledge even treating as though ordered
    materials which were not so.
  • The last was both in the process of searching and
    in reviewing when in
  • difficulties, always to make enumerations so
    complete and reviews so general
  • that I would be certain that nothing was
  • Rene DesCartes

The Importance of TrustConsistency
  • Examples
  • Wal-Mart
  • Hubble Telescope
  • MacDonalds, etc.

The Importance of TrustConsistency
  • Practices
  • Choose a task worthy of your efforts
  • The one thing successful companies have in common
    is a worthy purpose. This is the companys
    reason for being. For SONY it is To have people
    experience the joy of advancing and applying
    technology for the benefit of the public.
  • Believe in yourself
  • Drucker states that knowledge workers must
    believe in themselves. This way they take
    serious, the need to keep learning, to constantly
    seek out new knowledge.
  • Set your standards high
  • General Electric, Monsanto Intel, etc. employ
    stretch goals. One company set a goal of reducing
    hazardous wastes by 5. Once achieved everyone
    slacked off. Monsanto set a goal of zero
    emissions. While scientifically impossible this
    stretch goal helped Monsanto striving for the

The Importance of TrustDiscipline
  • Discipline is the soul of an army, it makes
    small numbers
  • formidable, procures success to the weak and
    esteem to all
  • George Washington, 1759
  • Why is discipline important?
  • It ensures the other three values
  • How do you know whether your organization
    practices discipline?
  • Does your organization make public their
    performance toward their goals?
  • How can you ensure discipline?
  • Establish goals and make them explicit

The Importance of TrustDiscipline
  • Men are qualified for civil liberty in exact
    proportion to their disposition to
  • put moral chains upon their own appetites in
    proportion as their love of
  • justice is above rapacity in proportion as their
    soundness and sobriety of
  • understanding is above their vanity and
    presumption as they are disposed
  • to listen to the counsels of the wise and good in
    preference to the flattery of
  • knaves. Society cannot exist unless a controlling
    power upon will and appetite
  • be placed somewhere and the less there is within,
    the more there must be
  • without. It is ordained in the eternal
    constitution of things that men of
  • intemperate minds cannot be free, their passions
    forge their fetters.
  • Edmond Burke

The Importance of TrustDiscipline
  • Examples
  • Harvard Graduates
  • Jack Welch
  • The United States Marines, etc.

The Importance of TrustDiscipline
  • Practices
  • Know your limits
  • Young companies must learn not to promise the
    market place too much. Brian Farrell, CEO of THQ,
    a video game seller complained that if you grow
    at 15, the first thing Wall street asks, is if
    you can grow at 25.
  • Establish goals and make them explicit
  • Accountability should be seen as a tool that
    inspires a company and its employees to to learn
    and work harder rather than a form of
    organizational policing.
  • Make your goals and performance public
  • In 1989, Dupont Chairman Edward Woolard publicly
    stated that they would reduce toxic air emissions
    by 60, carcinogens by 90 and hazardous wastes
    by 35. They then announced that they cut these
    emissions and wastes by 605, 75 and 46
    respectively. The moralMeasure what you do and
    report the results publicly.

Critical Thinking
  • Asking the Right Questions
  • Who
  • What
  • Where
  • When
  • Why
  • How

Critical Thinking
  • Asking the Right Questions
  • Managing Conflict
  • Who has conflict?
  • What kind of conflict?
  • Where is the conflict
  • When is the conflict?
  • Why is there conflict?
  • How can conflict be resolved?

Critical Thinking
  • Asking the Right Questions
  • Managing Conflict
  • Who has conflict?
  • Workers, husbands and wives
  • What kind of conflict?
  • Emotional, substantive
  • Where is the conflict?
  • On the job, at home
  • When is there conflict?
  • Working together, making a major purpose
  • Why is there conflict?
  • Differences in values
  • How can conflict be resolved?
  • Or in what ways can persons who interact with one
    another better achieve their mutual objectives

Critical Thinking
  • Asking The Right Questions
  • Cutting Grass
  • Who has grass?
  • What kind of grass?
  • Where is the grass?
  • When does it need cutting?
  • Why cut the grass?
  • How can the grass be cut?

Critical Thinking
  • Asking The Right Questions
  • Cutting Grass
  • Who has grass?
  • Homeowners, municipalities
  • What kind of grass?
  • All kinds
  • Where is the grass?
  • In yards, parks, golf courses
  • When does it need cutting?
  • When its over three inches high
  • Why cut the grass?
  • To control weeds, for a nicer looking yard
  • How can the grass be cut?
  • Or, in what ways can grass be made to stop
    growing after it reaches a height of three inches?

Critical Thinking Asking the Right Questions
What Firm Must Do
What Firm Must Know
Strategy Gap
Knowledge Gap
What Firm Knows
What Firm Can Do
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