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Disaster Risk Reduction: The global paradigm shift

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Title: Disaster Risk Reduction: The global paradigm shift


1
Disaster Risk ReductionThe global paradigm shift
  • Mark Keim, MD
  • Associate Director for Science
  • National Center for Environmental Health
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

2
An Evolution in Approaches

3
What is Disaster Risk Management?
  • Definition
  • The systematic process of using administrative
    directives, organizations, and operational skills
    and capacities to implement strategies, policies
    and improved coping capacities in order to lessen
    the adverse impacts of hazards and the
    possibility of disaster.
  • Components
  • Risk assessment
  • Risk avoidance
  • Risk reduction
  • Risk transfer
  • Risk retention

UNISDR 2009, http//www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology
/terminology-2009-eng.html
4
Disaster risk management and the emergency
management cycle
  • Risk reduction measures are
  • Delivered pre-impact
  • Most cost-effective
  • Community based
  • Sustainable

Pre-impact
Post -impact
  • Risk retention measures are
  • Delivered post-impact
  • Least cost-effective
  • Nationally and internationally based
  • Non-sustainable

From Keim M. Building human resilience. Am J
Prev Med 200835(5)508-516
5
Prevention and disaster risk management
From Keim M. Disaster Risk Management for
Health. In Ed., David S. Textbook of Emergency
Medicine. Lippincott) New Dehli 2012
6
How Do We Estimate Disaster Risk?
  • D H x V, where V E x S
  • R

D Risk of disaster H Hazard V Vulnerability
of population E Exposure to the hazard S
Susceptibility to the hazard R Resilience
7
What is a hazard?
  • Definition of a hazard
  • A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human
    activity or condition that may cause loss of
    life, injury or other health impacts, property
    damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social
    and economic disruption, or environmental damage

UNISDR 2009, http//www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology
/terminology-2009-eng.html
8
Examples of hazards
Earthquakes
Floods
Radiation
Typhoons
Outbreaks
Tornadoes
9
What is vulnerability?
  • The characteristics and circumstances of a
    community, system or asset that make it
    susceptible to the damaging effect of a hazard
    UNISDR 2009
  • Or simply put
  • Likely to incur physical or emotional illness or
    injury

UNISDR 2009, http//www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology
/terminology-2009-eng.html
10
Public health vulnerability
  • Certain populations are more vulnerable to
    disaster-related morbidity and mortality

11
Vulnerability (E x S) / R
  • Factors affecting vulnerability
  • Exposure
  • Susceptibility
  • Resilience

12
What is exposure?
  • Exposure
  • People, property, systems, or other elements
    present in hazard zones that are thereby subject
    to potential losses
  • Example of exposure
  • Living in an area that floods

UNISDR 2009, http//www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology
/terminology-2009-eng.html
13
What is susceptibility?
  • Susceptibility
  • The state of being at risk, if exposed to a
    hazard
  • Example of susceptibility
  • Not being able to swim

UNISDR 2009, http//www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology
/terminology-2009-eng.html
14
What is resilience?
  • Resilience
  • The ability of a system, community or society
    exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate
    to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a
    timely and efficient manner, including through
    the preservation and restoration of its essential
    basic structures and functions.
  • Example of resilience
  • Living among people that can help you

UNISDR 2009, http//www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology
/terminology-2009-eng.html
15
Mapping human vulnerability
16
How can we reduce our vulnerability to disasters?
  • Disaster reduction occurs at the community level
  • Community health sectors can play an active role
    in reducing human vulnerability
  • Reducing susceptibility
  • Health people
  • Reducing exposure
  • Healthy homes
  • Increasing resilience
  • Healthy communities

Schipper L, Pelling M 2006, Disaster risk,
climate change and international development.
Disasters, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 19-38.
Srinivasan S, Creating healthy communities,
healthy homes and healthy people. Am J Public
Health 2003931446-50.
17
Vulnerability reductionreducing exposures
  • Floodplain management
  • Dams, levees, weirs
  • Population protection measures
  • Evacuation
  • Mass care
  • Land use planning and regulation
  • PPE, sanitation/hygiene

18
Vulnerability reductionreducing susceptibility
  • Health promotion
  • Health care
  • Poverty reduction
  • Healthy lifestyles
  • Immunization

19
Human resilience as a means for vulnerability
reduction
  • Resilience
  • The ability to cope with and recover from
    disasters
  • Resilience is comprised of
  • Adaptive capability
  • Response capacity
  • Recovery capacity
  • Human behaviors that increase disaster
    resilience
  • Preparedness
  • Response
  • Recovery

20
Our milestones for international DRR
  • August 2011
  • NCEH inducted as a member of the Asia-Pacific
    Disaster Risk and Resilience consortium
  • November 2012
  • TA to WHO/HQ for development of a Global DRR
    Framework for Health
  • Feb 2013
  • Hosting regional workshop for proposal-writing,
    Reducing Disaster Risk for a Healthy Pacific

21
  • To learn more about international DRR
  • http//www.unisdr.org/
  • http//www.preventionweb.net/english/

22
Thank Youmjk9_at_cdc.gov
  • National Center for Environmental Health
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
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