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Title: Topic: Homeostasis Digestive System (NUTRITION)


1
Topic Homeostasis Digestive System (NUTRITION)
2
Aim How do organisms get the nutrients needed
to maintain homeostasis?
  • Do Now How do your cells get the organic
    material needed to fuel cellular respiration?
  • Provide an example (What did you eat for lunch?)
  • Homework Castle learning
  • assignment

3
What is Nutrition?
  • When an organism takes in processes materials
    needed for energy, growth, repair and regulation

4
2 TYPES OF NUTRITION
  • AUTOTROPH
  • HETEROTROPH

5
AUTOTROPHS
  • Self-feeders
  • Organisms that make their own food from inorganic
    molecules taken in from the environment.
  • Examples plants algae

6
Types of autotrophic nutrition
  • Photosynthesis
  • use light energy to make organic substances
  • Ex.) plants and algae
  • Chemosynthesis use inorganic compounds
    containing sulfur and nitrogen to make food
  • Ex.) deep sea plants
  • and organisms

7
HETEROTROPHS
  • Organisms that must ingest organic materials
    already made in the environment.
  • Ex.) Humans, fungi grasshopper, animals

8
Processes involved in heterotrophic nutrition
  • Ingestion take IN food
  • Digestion breakdown of food
  • Absorption uptake of matter
  • Egestion removal of undigested food

9
2 FORMS OF DIGESTION
  • INTRACELLULAR DIGESTION digestion occurs inside
    cells of organisms
  • Ex. Animals
  • EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION
  • digestion 1st occurs outside cells then brought
    inside cells
  • Ex. Fungi, Hydra

10
How do we eat as Americans?
11
What about the Pittsburgh Steelers?
12
Summary
  • 1. Which organism is classified as a
    heterotroph?
  • a.) mushroom
  • b.) maple tree
  • c.) geranium
  • d.) moss

13
  • 2. Which life process is classified as
    autotrophic in some organisms and heterotrophic
    in other organisms?
  • hormonal regulation
  • nutrition
  • anaerobic respiration
  • transport

14
  • 3. A word equation is shown below.
  • This reaction is most directly involved in the
    process of
  • reproduction
  • protein synthesis
  • replication
  • heterotrophic nutrition

15
A student has a hamburger, french fries, and soda
for lunch. Which sequence represents the correct
order of events in the nutritional processing of
this food?
  • ingestion ? digestion ? absorption ? egestion
  • digestion ? absorption ? ingestion ? egestion
  • digestion ? egestion ? ingestion ? absorption
  • ingestion ? absorption ? digestion ? egestion

16
Aim How do our organs work to help us to digest
large molecules?
  • Do Now Regent question
  • Homework Castle learning

17
DO NOW
18
Human Digestive System
  • Breaks down the food you eat into small molecules
    in order for nutrients to diffuse into cells. It
    can then be used to create a usable form of
    energy.

19
Human Digestive system
  • Tract (passage) through the body with 2 openings
  • Approx. 6 to 9 meters long tube
  • One way tube from mouth ? to anus

20
Path of food through the digestive tract
  1. Mouth
  2. Esophagus
  3. Stomach
  4. Small intestine
  5. Large intestine
  6. Anus

21
MECHANICAL vs. CHEMICAL DIGESTION
  • MECHANICAL DIGESTION
  • breaking down food physically.
  • Teeth cutting, grinding tearing increases
    surface area of food before chemical digestion.

22
Chemical Digestion large organic molecules are
changed to smaller molecules by enzymes
LARGE MOLECULES END PRODUCTS



Simple sugars
CARBOHYDRATES
LIPIDS
3 fatty acids glycerol
Proteins
Amino Acids
23
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24
  • 1. What occurs during the digestion of protein?
  • Specific enzymes break down proteins into amino
    acids.
  • Specific hormones break down proteins into simple
    sugars.
  • Specific hormones break down proteins into
    complex starches.
  • Specific enzymes break down proteins into simple
    sugars.

25
  • 2. Which statement best describes animals that
    are heterotrophs?
  • They are able to convert light energy into useful
    chemical bond energy.
  • They are able to synthesize organic nutrients
    from inorganic raw materials.
  • They are unable to consume preformed organic
    compounds.
  • They are unable to synthesize organic nutrients
    from inorganic raw materials.

26
  • 3. Which process is not included in heterotrophic
    nutrition?
  • ingestion
  • photosynthesis
  • egestion
  • digestion

27
Which order of metabolic processes converts
nutrients consumed by an organism into cell
parts?
  • digestion ? absorption ? circulation ? diffusion
    ? synthesis
  • absorption ? circulation ? digestion ? diffusion
    ? synthesis
  • digestion ? synthesis ? diffusion ? circulation ?
    absorption
  • synthesis ? absorption ? digestion ? diffusion ?
    circulation

28
Aim How do our organs work to help us to digest
large molecules?
  • Do Now
  • Homework
  • Castle learning Nutrition II
  • Projects due Tomorrow!!!!

29
Human Digestive System
  • Gastrointestinal tract aka
  • alimentary canal
  • One way tube
  • Extracellular digestion occurs

30
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31
  • Food enters Oral cavity
  • Mechanical digestion (teeth)
  • Saliva from salivary glands
  • to moisten food
  • Chemical digestion
  • Amylase ? enzyme in saliva that digests starch

(BEGINNING OF CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION)
32
Esophagus
esophagus
33
  • Connects mouth to the stomach
  • Peristalsis muscular movement that pushes food
    through digestive tract
  • NO DIGESTION OCCURS

DEMO
34
Stomach
35
  • Gastric glands in lining ? secrete gastric juice
    which contains
  • Hydrochloric acid ? makes the stomach acidic
  • Pepsin ? enzyme to digest protein
  • Mucus lining to coat stomach wall
  • Chyme ? moves to small intestine

VIDEO 209
36
Summary
37
Small intestine
SPHINCTOR
38
  • Where digestion is completed
  • Duodenum ? first part of the SI
  • Where most chemical digestion occurs
  • Where absorption of nutrients into the blood
    occurs with the help of VILLI

39
VILLI
40
  • Tiny fingerlike projections
  • on lining of small intestine
  • Where digested nutrients (glucose, amino acids,
    glycerol, fatty acids) diffuse into the
    bloodstream
  • Inside villi
  • Capillaries (glucose and amino acids)
  • Lacteal (fatty acids and glycerol)

41
Large intestine
42
  • NO DIGESTION
  • Reabsorbs water
  • Forms feces (undigested food)

43
AIM How are accessory organs important to the
maintenance of homeostasis?
  • Do Now State the function of 3 organs in the
    digestive system.
  • Homework Castle learning Digestive System II

44
Rectum
  • Last part of large intestine
  • Stores feces
  • Where feces is
  • egested out of the body

45
Summary
  • The main function of the human digestive system
    is to
  • rid the body of cellular waste materials
  • process organic molecules so they can enter cells
  • break down glucose in order to release energy
  • change amino acids into proteins and
    carbohydrates

46
The end products of digestion enter the cells of
a vertebrate by the process of
  • absorption
  • osmosis
  • emulsification
  • egestion

47
In a human, the movement of glucose from the
digestive tract to muscle cells is most directly
a result of
  • ingestion and digestion
  • absorption and circulation
  • anaerobic respiration
  • protein synthesis

48
Identify the following organs
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Pancreas
  • Large intestine
  • Gall bladder
  • Small intestine

49
Accessory organs
  • Organs that help in digestion
  • Food DOES NOT pass through these organs
  • Examples
  • - Salivary glands
  • - Liver
  • - Gall bladder
  • - Pancreas

50
Liver
51
  • Produces bile
  • Bile travels to small intestine
  • Emulsification of lipids ? mechanically breaks
    down fats into smaller droplets to increase
    surface area for chemical digestion

Big fat droplet
52
Gall Bladder
53
  • Stores bile until
  • needed in the small intestine
  • Travels through
  • the bile duct

54
Pancreas
55
  • Secretes pancreatic juice into the small
    intestine
  • Pancreatic juice contains many enzymes
  • Trypsin ? digest proteins
  • Lipase ? digests lipids
  • Amylase ? digests starch
  • Travels through pancreatic duct

56
Summary
  • In humans, structures that release digestive
    secretions directly into the small intestine
    include both the
  • salivary glands and the pancreas
  • gall bladder and the lacteals
  • villi and the salivary glands
  • pancreas and the gall bladder

57
TEETH
Incisors
Canine
Premolars
Molars
Wisdomtooth
Tongue
Salivaryglands
Opening of asalivary gland duct
Figure 21.5
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