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States of Matter

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The amount of motion dictates matters state The Three States of Matter Solid Particles are fixed in position ... more proof Diffusion The movement of particles form ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: States of Matter


1
States of Matter
  • Not to be confused with States that Matter.Like
    Florida for example

2
What is Matter
  • Matter has many definitions, but the most common
    is that it is any substance which has mass and
    occupies space.
  • Matter is any substance which has mass and
    occupies space.

3
Matter
  • What are substances made of?
  • Atoms
  • Comes from the Greek word atomos meaning
    indivisible
  • The smallest component of an element having the
    chemical properties of the element.

4
Matter
  • Groups of atoms form molecules.
  • The simplest unit of a chemical substance.
  • A group of two or more atoms

5
Matter
  • An atom consists of a negatively charged
    electron(e-) cloud that surrounds a dense
    nucleus.
  • The nucleus contains positively charged
    protons(P) and electrically neutral neutrons.
    (N)

6
An Atom
http//www.sciencewithmrmilstid.com/media/atom.jpg
7
Matter
  • The Kinetic Theory
  • Atoms are always in motion.
  • The amount of motion dictates matters state

8
The Three States of Matter
  • Solid
  • Particles are fixed in position but still vibrate
  • A solid is poorly compressed and changes volume
    only slightly.
  • Particles can not move past each other.

9
The Three States of Matter
  • Liquid
  • Particles will flow and take the shape of any
    container.
  • A liquid is poorly compressed and changes volume
    only slightly.
  • Particles are free to move around each other.

10
The Three States of Matter
  • Gas
  • Particles will flow and take the shape of any
    container.
  • Volume of a gas is dependent of the size of the
    contained and is easily compressed.
  • Particles are free to move around each other.

11
The Kinetic Theory more proof
  • Diffusion
  • The movement of particles form high concentration
    to low concentration.

12
More Kinetic Theory
  • Kinetic energy -the energy of motion
  • Heating a solid causes its particles to vibrate
    faster, thus kinetic energy increases.
  • As kinetic energy increases, particles break away
    from each other and move more freely. Eventually
    if the particles of a solid have enough kinetic
    energy, the solid melts.

13
More Kinetic Theory
  • If you continue to heat, kinetic energy increases
    even more and the particles move away from each
    other and the substance turns to gas.

14
More Kinetic Theory
Kinetic Energy
Solid
Liquid
Gas
15
Cheaters
  • Sublimation Changing directly from solid to gas.

16
More Kinetic Theory
Boiling or Condensing
The Temperature does not change during
Gas
Temperature
Freezing or Melting
Liquid
Solid
17
Energy required to change phase for water.
These can go on forever
100 oC
0 oC
100 oC
0 oC
These can go on forever
18
Energy required to change phase for water.
This requires 0.48 cal/g-degC
This requires 1.00 cal/g-degC
This requires 540.0 cal/g
This requires 80.0 cal/g
This requires 0.50 cal/g-degC
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