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Culture

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Chapter 2 Culture Chapter Outline Introducing Culture Defining Culture Cultural Knowledge Culture and Human Life Cultural Knowledge and Individual Behavior Biology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture


1
Chapter 2
  • Culture

2
Chapter Outline
  • Introducing Culture
  • Defining Culture
  • Cultural Knowledge
  • Culture and Human Life
  • Cultural Knowledge and Individual Behavior
  • Biology and Cultural Differences

3
Culture is
  • Learned from others while growing up in a society
    or group.
  • Widely shared by members of the group.

4
Culture is
  • Responsible for differences in thinking and
    behaving between societies and groups.
  • Essential for completing psychological and social
    development of individuals.

5
Cultural Knowledge
  • Attitudes, beliefs, ideas, conceptions, rules,
    standards, perceptions and other information
    stored in peoples heads.

6
Patterns of Behavior
  • What people do most of the time when they are in
    similar situations.

7
Culture
  • Shared, socially learned knowledge and patterns
    of behavior
  • Cultural Integration - The various parts of
    culture are mutually interdependent.

8
 Culture Is Shared
  • People are capable of communicating and
    interacting without explaining their behavior.
  • People share a common cultural identity.

9
 Cultural Identity
  • The cultural tradition a group of people
    recognize as their own.
  • The shared customs and beliefs that define how a
    group sees itself as distinctive.

10
Society
  • A territorially defined population most of whose
    members speak the same language and share a sense
    of common identity relative to other societies.

11
Culture Is Socially Learned
  • Individuals acquire it from others in the process
    of growing up in a group.
  • Culture is not transmitted to new generations
    genetically.
  • Culture is learned by observation, imitation,
    communication and inference.

12
  Enculturation/Socialization
  • The process by which infants and children learn
    the culture of those around them.  

13
Culture Is Knowledge
  • Members of a culture know how to behave in ways
    that are meaningful and acceptable to others.
  • Knowledge allows people to survive and reproduce
    themselves and transmit their culture.

14
Culture Is Patterns of Behavior
  • Individuals have a role in a group.
  • The group has expectations about what people with
    that role should do.
  • Expectations include rights and duties of the
    role.

15
  Role
  • A social position in a group with its associated
    and reciprocal rights and duties.

16
Components of Cultural Knowledge
  • Norms
  • Values
  • Symbols
  • Classifications of reality
  • Worldviews

17
 Norms
  • Agreement that people should adhere to standards
    of behavior.
  • People judge behavior according to how closely it
    adheres to these standards.
  • People who fail to follow the standards face
    negative reaction from the group.

18
 Norms and Values
  • Norms are hared ideas (or rules) about how people
    people ought to act in given situations or about
    how people should act toward other people.
  • Vales are peoples beliefs about the way of life
    that is desirable for themselves and their
    society.

19
Symbol
  • An objects or behavior that stands for,
    represents or calls to mind something else.

20
Classifications of Reality
  • Ways in which the members of a culture divide up
    the natural and social world into named
    categories.

21
Worldview
  • The way a people interpret reality and events,
    including how they see themselves as relating to
    the world around them.

22
Culture and Human Life
  • Culture provides the skills to adapt to
    surroundings.
  • Culture is the basis for human social life.
  • Culture affects our view of reality.

23
Cultural Knowledge and Individual Behavior
  • Affects the choices people make about how to act
    in situations.
  • Limits and influences behavior.
  • Cultural determinism is the belief that culture
    largely determines or dictates behavior.

24
Biological Determinism
  • The notion that cultural differences have a
    biological basis.
  • Groups of people differ in how they think, feel,
    and act because of their biological makeup.

25
Cultural Universals
  • Elements that exist in all known human societies
  • Tools
  • Shelter
  • Education
  • Religion

26
Biology and Cultural Differences
  • Individuals of any physical type are equally
    capable of learning any culture.
  • Cultural diversity is found on all continents and
    regions of the world.
  • Different cultural systems succeed one another
    within the same biological population and the
    same society.

27
Quick Quiz
28
1. Cultures vary in their
  1. biological/physical characteristics
  2. ways of thinking and behaving
  3. Instincts
  4. trial-and-error learning

29
Answer b
  • Cultures vary in their ways of thinking and
    behaving.

30
2. Culture
  1. depends on how much education you have
  2. depends on ones speech habits
  3. is socially transmitted
  4. is invented by very smart people

31
Answer c
  • Culture is socially transmitted.

32
3. The aspects of culture that anthropologists
are most interested in are
  1. genetic differences
  2. rewarded behaviors
  3. immoral behaviors
  4. patterns of behavior

33
Answer d
  • The aspects of culture that anthropologists are
    most interested in are patterns of behavior.
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